While there is no cure for HIV, there are medications that can suppress the amount of virus multiplying inside the body. People take a combination of antiviral drugs in hopes of preventing the infection from advancing to AIDS. Additional treatments can help prevent or fight off serious infections, if the immune system has weakened.
Jump up ^ Colebunders R, Mann JM, Francis H, et al. (1988). “Herpes zoster in African patients: a clinical predictor of human immunodeficiency virus infection”. J. Infect. Dis. 157 (2): 314–18. doi:10.1093/infdis/157.2.314. PMID 3335810.
The herpes viruses enter the skin or mucous membrane through tiny, even microscopic, breaks in the tissue when there is contact with an infected person. Because an infected person may spread the disease even when he or she does not have signs or symptoms of herpes, avoiding sexual contact with someone with active blisters does not guarantee protection against the infection. Even normal appearing skin can spread the infection. Clothing that touches genital skin ulcers may transmit herpes simplex virus to others that wear the clothing.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that pregnant women with recurrent genital herpes be offered oral antiviral medication at or beyond 36 weeks until delivery in order to increase the chances of being able to deliver vaginally.
The first indications that chickenpox and shingles were caused by the same virus were noticed at the beginning of the 20th century. Physicians began to report that cases of shingles were often followed by chickenpox in the younger people who lived with the person with shingles. The idea of an association between the two diseases gained strength when it was shown that lymph from a person with shingles could induce chickenpox in young volunteers. This was finally proved by the first isolation of the virus in cell cultures, by the Nobel laureate Thomas Huckle Weller, in 1953.
WHO and partners are working to accelerate research to develop new strategies for prevention and control of genital and neonatal HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. Such research includes the development of HSV vaccines and topical microbicides. Several candidate vaccines and microbicides are currently being studied.
There is no cure for herpes. But medicines can help. Medicines such as acyclovir and valacyclovir fight the herpes virus. They can speed up healing and lessen the pain of herpes for many people. They can be used to treat a primary outbreak or a recurrent one.
Jump up ^ Kaminester LH, Pariser RJ, Pariser DM, et al. (December 1999). “A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of topical tetracaine in the treatment of herpes labialis”. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 41 (6): 996–1001. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(99)70260-4. PMID 10570387.
An eye infection (herpes keratitis). Sometimes the herpes simplex virus can spread to one or both eyes. If this happens, you can have pain, light sensitivity, discharge, and a gritty feeling in the eye. Without prompt treatment, scarring of the eye may result. Scarring can lead to cloudy vision and even loss of vision.
Clinical manifestations of genital herpes differ between the first and recurrent (i.e., subsequent) outbreaks. The first outbreak of herpes is often associated with a longer duration of herpetic lesions, increased viral shedding (making HSV transmission more likely) and systemic symptoms including fever, body aches, swollen lymph nodes, or headache. 5,10 Recurrent outbreaks of genital herpes are common, and many patients who recognize recurrences have prodromal symptoms, either localized genital pain, or tingling or shooting pains in the legs, hips or buttocks, which occur hours to days before the eruption of herpetic lesions. 5 Symptoms of recurrent outbreaks are typically shorter in duration and less severe than the first outbreak of genital herpes. 5 Long-term studies have indicated that the number of symptomatic recurrent outbreaks may decrease over time. 5 Recurrences and subclinical shedding are much less frequent for genital HSV-1 infection than for genital HSV-2 infection. 5
HSV-1 usually causes oral herpes, and HSV-2 usually causes genital herpes — each strain prefers to live on its favorite area. But it’s totally possible for both types of herpes simplex to infect either area. For example, you can get HSV-1 on your genitals if someone with a cold sore on their lips gives you oral sex. And you can get HSV-2 in your mouth if you give oral sex to someone with HSV-2 on their genitals.
Correct and consistent use of latex condoms can reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of transmitting or acquiring genital herpes because herpes virus shedding can occur in areas that are not covered by a condom. 28,29
Genital herpes is passed on via sex (vaginal, anal and oral), close genital contact and through sharing sex toys. The virus is most infectious when there are visible sores, but it can also be passed on through cuts in the skin (e.g. fingers, hands, knees) or moist skin (around the genitals, mouth and anus) even when there are no symptoms.2
During an outbreak, a dermatologist often can diagnose herpes simplex by looking at the sores. To confirm that a patient has herpes simplex, a dermatologist may take a swab from a sore and send this swab to a laboratory.
Protective measures such as cesarean section for delivery improve the chances of avoiding infection in the newborn. During the last trimester it is best if the woman abstains from sexual intercourse if there is any history of either partner having herpes. When there is such a history, it is recommended that frequent cervical viral cultures be done to determine whether vaginal delivery is safe.
Jump up ^ Thompson, Richard L.; Preston, Chris M.; Sawtell, Nancy M. (2009-03-01). “De novo synthesis of VP16 coordinates the exit from HSV latency in vivo”. PLOS Pathogens. 5 (3): e1000352. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000352. ISSN 1553-7374. PMC 2654966 . PMID 19325890.
With early diagnosis and cesarean section many infants can be protected from infection, but only if the membranes are intact or have been ruptured no more than 4 to 6 hours before the operation. After that length of time it is assumed that an ascending infection has reached the fetus. Mothers who have no active lesions at the time of birth and two negative cervical smears for the virus within a week of delivery can safely deliver their newborns vaginally.
The herpes simplex virus is a contagious virus that can be passed from person to person through direct contact. Children will often contract HSV-1 from early contact with an infected adult. They then carry the virus with them for the rest of their lives.
“We don’t know why HSV reactivates at particular times,” says Elna Macintosh, sexologist and director of the DISA clinic. “You may recognise trigger factors that contribute to an outbreak. These may include friction due to sexual intercourse, ill health, stress, fatigue, depression, lack of sleep, direct sunlight and menstruation. The triggers differ from person to person.”
Genital ulcerative disease caused by herpes makes it easier to transmit and acquire HIV infection sexually. There is an estimated 2- to 4-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV, if individuals with genital herpes infection are genitally exposed to HIV. 13-15 Ulcers or breaks in the skin or mucous membranes (lining of the mouth, vagina, and rectum) from a herpes infection may compromise the protection normally provided by the skin and mucous membranes against infections, including HIV. 14 In addition, having genital herpes increases the number of CD4 cells (the target cell for HIV entry) in the genital mucosa. In persons with both HIV and genital herpes, local activation of HIV replication at the site of genital herpes infection can increase the risk that HIV will be transmitted during contact with the mouth, vagina, or rectum of an HIV-uninfected sex partner. 14
Infection caused by the herpes simplex virus; affects the skin and nervous system; produces small temporary (but sometimes painful) blisters on the skin and mucous membranes. – (Source – Diseases Database)
Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that any sexually active person can get. Most people with the virus don’t have symptoms. Even without signs of the disease, herpes can still be spread to sex partners.
Some people do not experience a severe first herpes episode and just notice occasionally recurring herpes sores or blisters on the genitals that come and go at irregular intervals lasting 3 to 5 days.
In either case, the active virus is easily passed one partner to another through sexual contact. Even wearing a condom may not protect the uninfected partner. The virus can be present on skin that remains uncovered.