Jump up ^ Vonk P (December 1993). “Elsberg syndrome: acute urinary retention following a viral infection”. Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde (in Dutch and Flemish). 137 (50): 2603–5. PMID 8277988.
Pharmacists also recommend regular intake of vitamin C (citrus fruit and broccoli, for example) to help to boost your immune system, as well as tablets called L-Lysine, an amino acid essential to good health.
Following active infection, herpes viruses establish a latent infection in sensory and autonomic ganglia of the nervous system. The double-stranded DNA of the virus is incorporated into the cell by infection of the nucleus of a nerve’s cell body. HSV latency is static; no virus is produced; and is controlled by a number of viral genes, including latency-associated transcript.
Not an STD itself, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious complication of untreated STDs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea. It happens when bacteria spread to infect the uterus and other female reproductive organs. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent damage to a woman’s fertility.
At best, drugs can shorten the outbreaks and make them less severe. Left untreated, genital herpes can be passed on during birth, leading to blindness in the newborn (it is one of the leading causes of blindness in newborns). As a result it’s preferable to have a C-section if you’re infected.
Before an actual outbreak, a day or so before, you may feel tingling, itching, burning, pain, or flu-like symptoms, This is called the prodromal stage. This is a very contagious period even without any obvious sores. At this time, you are contagious and can shed the herpes virus, so do not have skin to skin contact with anyone. This means no kissing or oral sex if you have cold sores or if you have genital herpes, no intercourse or oral sex. Check out Dr. Amy’s guidance on dental damns.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e Stankus SJ, Dlugopolski M, Packer D (2000). “Management of herpes zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia”. Am. Fam. Physician. 61 (8): 2437–44, 2447–48. PMID 10794584. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29.
The causative agent for shingles is the varicella zoster virus (VZV) – a double-stranded DNA virus related to the Herpes simplex virus. Most individuals are infected with this virus as children which causes an episode of chickenpox. The immune system eventually eliminates the virus from most locations, but it remains dormant (or latent) in the ganglia adjacent to the spinal cord (called the dorsal root ganglion) or the trigeminal ganglion in the base of the skull.
Herpes is a viral infection that is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Herpes infections may be categorized in accordance with the part of the body that is affected. Oral herpes occurs in the facial region—most commonly by HSV type 1, while genital herpes involves the penis or vulva—most commonly by HSV type 2. Less common manifestations affect the hands, eyes, or esophagus.
The incubation period for HSV-2 infection is usually four to five days but may be as short as 24 hours or as long as two weeks. The first symptoms may be pain or itching at the site of infection. This is followed within a day or two by the appearance of blisterlike lesions that may occur singly or in groups. In males the common sites of infection include the foreskin, the glans, and the shaft of the penis. In females the blister may occur on the labia, the clitoris, the opening of the vagina, or, occasionally, the uterine cervix. Within a few days the blisters rupture and merge to form large areas of denuded tissue surrounded by swollen, inflamed skin. At this stage the lesions may become acutely painful with intense burning and irritation. In females especially, urination may cause great discomfort. Generalized symptoms such as fever and malaise may develop, and lymph nodes in the groin may enlarge. Lesions may persist in this stage for a week or more, and complete healing may take four to six weeks. Genital herpes is generally more severe in females and may become so uncomfortable and disabling as to require hospitalization. Recurrences are not uncommon and may be associated with emotional stress, trauma, sexual intercourse, other infections, or menstruation. Symptoms may not be as severe in recurrent infections as in the initial one.
Genital ulcerative disease caused by herpes makes it easier to transmit and acquire HIV infection sexually. There is an estimated 2- to 4-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV, if individuals with genital herpes infection are genitally exposed to HIV. 13-15 Ulcers or breaks in the skin or mucous membranes (lining of the mouth, vagina, and rectum) from a herpes infection may compromise the protection normally provided by the skin and mucous membranes against infections, including HIV. 14 In addition, having genital herpes increases the number of CD4 cells (the target cell for HIV entry) in the genital mucosa. In persons with both HIV and genital herpes, local activation of HIV replication at the site of genital herpes infection can increase the risk that HIV will be transmitted during contact with the mouth, vagina, or rectum of an HIV-uninfected sex partner. 14
In some cases a false negative culture result can lead people to incorrectly believe that there is no infection. If there is doubt about the result, a blood test can be performed that will detect antibodies to the virus. This will indicate whether someone has been infected with the virus at any time in the past and is therefore a herpes carrier. Some laboratories offer tests that can show antibodies specifically for HSV type 1 or HSV type 2, but be aware that these tests are not perfect yet, often are not specific enough and may give a false diagnosis of the illness. There is also a test that can be used to diagnose primary or recurrent infection know as the HSV IgM test. This test can be used to confirm the diagnosis in individuals that are clinically ill when they present to their doctor or people that suspect that they may be infected with HSV.
The blisters or ulcers can be absent for several months or years during inactive states. The reactivation of herpes is called “recurrent herpes”. Recurrences can be unpredictable or may be linked to certain conditions such as an impaired immune system, pregnancy, menstruation, skin irritation or stress.
Infections are transmitted through contact with HSV in herpes lesions, mucosal surfaces, genital secretions, or oral secretions. 5 HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be shed from normal-appearing oral or genital mucosa or skin. 7,8 Generally, a person can only get HSV-2 infection during genital contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection. However, receiving oral sex from a person with an oral HSV-1 infection can result in getting a genital HSV-1 infection. 2 Transmission commonly occurs from contact with an infected partner who does not have visible lesions and who may not know that he or she is infected. 7 In persons with asymptomatic HSV-2 infections, genital HSV shedding occurs on 10.2% of days, compared to 20.1% of days among those with symptomatic infections. 8
Herpesviral encephalitis and herpesviral meningitis A herpetic infection of the brain thought to be caused by the transmission of virus from a peripheral site on the face following HSV-1 reactivation, along the trigeminal nerve axon, to the brain. HSV is the most common cause of viral encephalitis. When infecting the brain, the virus shows a preference for the temporal lobe. HSV-2 is the most common cause of Mollaret’s meningitis, a type of recurrent viral meningitis.
Patients with genital herpes have reported that outbreaks or episodes typically diminish through the years. Early prodromal symptoms, or warning signals, that are followed by outbreaks. These prodromal symptoms often include mild tingling or shooting pains in the legs, hips and buttocks, and can last from 2 hours to 2 days. After the prodromal symptoms occur the blisters develop into painful red spots, which then evolve into yellowish, clear fluid-filled blisters after a day or two. These blisters burst or break and leave ulcers that usually heal in about 10 days. In women, blisters can develop inside the vagina and cause painful urination.