Eapen, R. S., & Radomski, S. B. (2016, June 6). Review of the epidemiology of overactive bladder. Research and Reports in Urology, 8, 71–76. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4902138/
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) – Contrast medium is injected into a vein and excreted by the kidneys. Serial X- rays are taken while the contrast passes through the urinary tract, demonstrating both the function and the anatomy of the system.
3. Anger JT, Saigal CS, Litwin MS; Urologic Diseases of America Project. The prevalence of urinary incontinence among community dwelling adult women: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Urol. 2006;175:601-604.
Bladder control problems have been found to be associated with higher incidence of many other health problems such as obesity and diabetes. Difficulty with bladder control results in higher rates of depression and limited activity levels.
Stress incontinence is the most common type of bladder control problem in younger and middle-aged women. In some cases, it is related to pregnancy and childbirth. It may also begin around the time of menopause. Stress incontinence affects 15% to 60% of women and can affect young and older people. It is especially common in young female athletes who have never given birth, and it occurs while they are participating in sports.
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Absorption – The Per-Fit Frontal Tape Briefs are for heavy incontinence. They have the advanced zoning system and breathable zones for maximum leakage protection and skin dryness. There is a wetness indicator that changes in color from light blue to dark blue to indicate the need for a change of product. This product is also rated for bowel incontinence.
For treatment of stress incontinence, beginners should perform the squeezing exercise five times, holding each squeeze for a count of five (a person may have to start with a count of two or three). This should be done one time every hour while awake. These exercises can be performed while driving, reading, or watching television. After practice, a person may be able to hold each contraction for at least 10 seconds, and then relax for 10 seconds. The pelvic floor exercises must be performed every day for at least three to four months to be effective. If an individual does not notice an improvement after four to six months, he or she may need additional help, such as electrical stimulation.
Several risk factors are associated with OAB. White people, persons with insulin-dependent diabetes, and individuals with depression are 3 times as likely to develop OAB. Other risk factors include the following  :
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Electrical stimulation therapy requires similar types of tampon-like probes and equipment as those used for biofeedback. This form of muscle rehabilitation is similar to the biofeedback therapy, except small electric currents are used to directly stimulate the pelvic floor muscles.
Overflow Incontinence — happens when the bladder becomes too full and overcomes urethral resistance because the bladder can’t be completely emptied, and there is a frequent leakage of urine without the urge to urinate.
Pollakiuria mostly affects children in the age group of three to eight years. This condition causes frequent daytime urination. Your kid may go to the toilet at least 10 to 30 times a day, but discharge just small amounts of urine. There are no other symptoms of Pollakiuria. So, don’t expect your child to complain of a tummy pain or burning sensation.
Overflow incontinence is characterized by the involuntary release of urine from an overfull urinary bladder, often in the absence of any urge to urinate. This condition is not associated with OAB. It typically occurs in people who have a blockage of the bladder outlet, which can occur with benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer or a narrowing of the urethra. Overflow incontinence can also occur when the muscle responsible for removing urine from the bladder is too weak to empty the bladder in a normal way. (31)
Activities may also increase the risk of OAB if they weaken or damage the pelvic floor, urinary, or sphincter muscles. Conditions that limit the use of pelvic and abdominal muscles may have the same effect.
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Doctors first ask questions about the person’s symptoms and medical history and then do a physical examination. What they find during the history and physical examination often suggests a cause of excessive urination and the tests that may need to be done (see Table: Some Causes and Features of Excessive Urination).
All but the minor degrees of incontinence tend to be extremely inconvenient for the patient. Although incontinence per se is not detrimental to the physical well being of the patient, it impacts negatively on the social, sexual, recreational and working lives of people. The majority of incontinent patients can either be cured or markedly improved.
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A complete medical history, which includes a voiding diary and incontinence questionnaire, physical examination, and one or more diagnostic procedures, helps the physician determine the type of urinary incontinence and an appropriate treatment plan.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition that affects millions of Americans. Overactive bladder isn’t a disease. It’s the name of a group of urinary symptoms. The most common symptom of OAB is a sudden urge to urinate that you can’t control. Some people will leak urine when they feel the urge. Leaking urine is called “incontinence.” Having to go to the bathroom many times during the day and night is another symptom of OAB.
OAB usually caused by abnormal contractions of the muscles of the urinary bladder (mainly detrusor muscle), resulting in a sudden, uncontrollable urge to urinate (called urinary urgency) with or without actual leakage of urine, even thought only small amounts of urine may be in the bladder.
A relative cholinergic denervation may explain some of these findings. This proposed mechanism is most plausible in cases of de novo detrusor overactivity, which follow hysterectomy or other pelvic surgery. The mechanism of denervation in idiopathic detrusor overactivity is less certain. Subtle obstruction and the effects of aging on smooth muscle and the autonomic nervous system are 2 possible contributors.
Chapple CR, Kaplan SA, Mitcheson D, Klecka J, Cummings J, Drogendijk T, et al. Randomized Double-blind, Active-controlled Phase 3 Study to Assess 12-Month Safety and Efficacy of Mirabegron, a ß(3)-Adrenoceptor Agonist, in Overactive Bladder. Eur Urol. 2013 Feb. 63(2):296-305. [Medline].
In healthy humans, voiding occurs at intervals several times a day, even though the kidneys produce urine continuously. This means that the bladder must store urine for several hours, a feature that requires the musculature of the bladder-outflow tract to contract to generate resistance. Disturbances of this storage function of the bladder lead to urinary incontinence. A number of factors may be responsible, including disease and adverse effects of medical treatment.1
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Urinary incontinence is not a disease. It is a symptom of many conditions. Causes may differ for men and women. But it is not hereditary. And it is not just a normal part of aging. These are the four types of urinary incontinence:
Absorbent pads. Wearing absorbent pads or undergarments can protect your clothing and help you avoid embarrassing incidents, which means that you won’t have to limit your activities. Absorbent garments come in a variety of sizes and absorbency levels.
By asking questions, a physician can better understand a patient’s particular situation and type of incontinence. Questions focus on bowel habits, patterns of urination and leakage (for example, when, how often, and how severe), and whether there is pain, discomfort, or straining when voiding. The doctor will also want to know whether or not the patient has had any illnesses, pelvic surgeries, and pregnancies, as well as what medications he or she is currently taking. In certain situations (such as an elderly person with dementia), a mental status evaluation and assessment of social and environmental factors may be performed.