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When a certain volume of urine is in the bladder, you become aware that the bladder is getting full. When you go to the toilet to pass urine, the bladder muscle squeezes (contracts) and the urethra and pelvic floor muscles relax to allow the urine to flow out.

Diagnosis of urinary incontinence in women may involve a physical exam, an ultrasound, urodynamic testing, and tests including cystoscopy, urinalysis, and a bladder stress test. The doctor will also take a medical history and may recommend keeping a bladder diary.

Frequent urination means needing to urinate more often than usual. Urgent urination is a sudden, strong urge to urinate. This causes a discomfort in your bladder. Urgent urination makes it difficult to delay using the toilet.

Surgery may be used to help stress or overflow incontinence.[6] Common surgical techniques for stress incontinence include slings, tension-free vaginal tape, and bladder suspension among others.[6] Urodynamic testing seems to confirm that surgical restoration of vault prolapse can cure motor urge incontinence. In those with problems following prostate surgery there is little evidence regarding the use of surgery.[33]

Patients whose urinary incontinence is treated with catheterization also face risks. Both indwelling catheters and intermittent catheterization have a range of potential complications (see Treatment).

Sandip P Vasavada, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Urogynecologic Society, American Urological Association, Engineering and Urology Society, International Continence Society, Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction

Functional incontinence is the name given to urinary incontinence where there is nothing obviously wrong with the nervous system controlling the bladder or the lower urinary tract (bladder/urethra) itself. An example would be incontinence because you were unable to reach the toilet, due to poor mobility.

The first step is to find the right muscles. One way to find them is to imagine that you are sitting on a marble and want to pick up the marble with your vagina. Imagine sucking or drawing the marble into your vagina.

Note: botulinum toxin A has now been approved (licensed) for the treatment of OAB syndrome in the UK. Make sure that you discuss this procedure fully with your doctor and understand all its risks and benefits before you go ahead with it.

In males, early obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may result in urge incontinence. [22] The pathophysiology of BPH is poorly understood. Relative obstruction develops because of mechanical factors, dynamic factors, and detrusor alterations.

“Caffeine is implicated in directly causing irritation of the bladder lining. People who do have bladder problems, on average, do better if they reduce their caffeine consumption, so it’s the first thing we look at,” says Dr. Phillips.

Absorbency – This is one of the most important factors in an adult diaper that sets one apart from another. The whole purpose of a person wearing them is to prevent leaks and accidents from occurring where the user ends up with wet clothing. A good quality adult diaper needs to be as absorbent as possible and needs to be able to handle as much liquid as the user expels. Since most adult diapers have different degrees of absorbency, from light to heavy to overnight it should be fairly easy to get the amount of absorbency you need. You want to be certain that the adult diaper remains comfortable even where there is liquid present. You also want to ensure that it absorbs the liquid well and pulls the dampness away from the skin.

Although many people will improve their continence through medications, pelvic-muscle exercises, and bladder training, some will never achieve complete dryness. Sometimes treatment failures are due to concurrent use of other necessary medications, such as diuretics (water pills that increase urination), that actually can cause incontinence. Others may have dementia or other physical impairments that keep them from being able to perform pelvic-muscle exercises or retrain their bladders. Many will be cared for in long-term care facilities or at home. The following recommendations can help keep the chronically incontinent drier and reduce their cost of care:

Management of overactive bladder often begins with behavioral strategies, such as fluid schedules, timed voiding and bladder-holding techniques using your pelvic floor. If these initial efforts don’t help enough with your overactive bladder symptoms, medications are available.

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development also supports research in the area of pelvic health. The Pelvic Floor Disorders Network (PFDN) was formed in 2001 to do research to improve the care and daily lives of women with pelvic organ prolapse and bladder and bowel control problems. For more information about the PFDN, please visit www.nichd.nih.gov/research/supported/pelvicfloor.cfm.

What you should know – The Tranquility Elite is manufactured with the same high quality standards as our best seller Tranquility Premium Overnight Pull Ons. It has all the key features that the Tranquility brand is known for – kufguards, peach mat construction, leg gathers, hook tab closures and latex free. This product is new to the marketplace and is getting great reviews. It has a higher capacity of 44 fluid ounces. That is over 5 cups of fluid. It is a brief with tabs, which gives you the ability to adjust the product as needed, and the higher capacity means less changes during the day or night.

Surgery — The most frequently performed one is a repositioning the neck of the bladder. There is also an sphincter implant, which can be helpful for men who have incontinence after prostate cancer surgery. Sacral nerve stimulation device, an option for some adults, involves a device which can be implanted in the body to help stimulate nerves in the pelvis and improve bladder function.

Dr. Marc Bubbs, ND is a Naturopathic Doctor, Strength Coach, Author, Speaker, and Blogger practicing in Toronto, Canada. He believes that diet, exercise, and lifestyle factors have the most profound impact on your overall health and performance. Marc is the author of The Paleo Project – A 21st Guide to Looking Leaner, Getting Stronger, & Living Longer and currently serves as the Sports Nutrition Lead for Canadian Men’s Olympic Basketball Team.

If the symptoms also indicate a possibility of a urinary tract infect, your pediatrician may also suggest a urine culture test along with urinalysis. This will help in identifying the bacteria causing the infection.

The guidelines provide an informed framework for selecting appropriate behavioral, pharmacologic, and surgical treatment and supportive services that can be used to treat urinary incontinence. The panel concluded that behavioral techniques such as bladder training and pelvic muscle exercises are effective, low cost interventions that can reduce incontinence significantly in varied populations. Surgery, except in very specific cases, should be considered only after behavioral and pharmacologic interventions have been tried. The panel found evidence in the literature that treatment can improve or cure urinary incontinence in most patients. The address of the AHCPR is Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, P.O. Box 8547, Silver Spring, MD 20907. They can also be called toll free at (800) 358-9295.

The Tranquility Premium Overnight comes in: X-Small (17-28 inch waist) all the way up to 2XL (62-80 inch waist). This product is available by the pack or case. It is recommended, if you are trying the product for the first time, to order the pack size first.

Frequent urination: Causes, symptoms, and treatment Frequent urination is not life-threatening but it can affect quality of life, and it can also indicate a more serious problem. Find out more. Read now

Incontinence is not always preventable but you can reduce your risk of developing the condition. Lose weight if you are overweight, as this will reduce the pressure on your bladder and pelvic floor muscles.

Doganay M, Kilic S, Yilmaz N. Long-term effects of extracorporeal magnetic innervations in the treatment of women with urinary incontinence: results of 3-year follow-up. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010 Jul. 282(1):49-53. [Medline].

Insertion of nerve stimulators have been approved for treating overactive bladder, which is refractory (unresponsive) to other more common therapies mentioned above. These devices can modulate and rebalance the nerve stimulation responsible for OAB and hyperactive detrusor muscle.

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This plan incorporates dietary changes such as adjusting how much one drinks and avoiding dietary stimulants. In addition, there are distraction and relaxation techniques to delay voiding to help expand the urinary bladder. By using these strategies, an individual can train the bladder to accommodate more stored urine.

In stress incontinence, the improvement rate with alpha-agonists is 19-74%; improvement rates with muscle exercise and surgery, improvement rates are 87% and 88%, respectively. [45] In urge incontinence, the improvement rate is higher with bladder training (75%) than with the use of anticholinergics (44%). Surgical options for urge incontinence are limited and have a high morbidity.

The bladder is made of two types of muscles: the detrusor, a muscular sac that stores urine and squeezes to empty, and the sphincter, a circular group of muscles at the bottom or neck of the bladder that automatically stay contracted to hold the urine in and automatically relax when the detrusor contracts to let the urine into the urethra. A third group of muscles below the bladder (pelvic floor muscles) can contract to keep urine back.

There are actually two different types of overactive bladder. “Dry” is when you have a sudden, urgent need to urinate many times during the day. “Wet” means you have the sudden, urgent need to urinate and you experience bladder leakage, which is also referred to as urge incontinence. Both “dry” and “wet” can occur without any underlying health condition. (7) An estimated 60 percent of OAB patients have dry OAB (no leakage) while 40 percent have wet OAB (urine leakage). (8)

About Overactive Bladder:  Overactive bladder is a problem with bladder storage function that causes a sudden urge to urinate. The urge may be difficult to suppress, and overactive bladder can lead to the involuntary loss of urine (incontinence).

Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists: Alpha-adrenergic agonists such as clonidine and methyldopa mimic the action of norepinephrine at receptors. In this way they may contract the bladder neck, causing urinary retention and thus overflow urinary incontinence.2,16-18

Bulking agents. A urologist injects bulking agents, such as collagen and carbon spheres, near the urinary sphincter to treat incontinence. The bulking agent makes the tissues thicker and helps close the bladder opening. Before the procedure, the health care professional may perform a skin test to make sure the man doesn’t have an allergic reaction to the bulking agent. A urologist performs the procedure during an office visit. The man receives local anesthesia. The urologist uses a cystoscope—a tubelike instrument used to look inside the urethra and bladder—to guide the needle for injection of the bulking agent. Over time, the body may slowly eliminate certain bulking agents, so a man may need to have injections again.

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Urge incontinence can mean that your bladder empties during sleep, after drinking a small amount of water, or when you touch water or hear it running (as when washing dishes or hearing someone else taking a shower). Certain fluids and medications such as diuretics or emotional states such as anxiety can worsen this condition. Some medical conditions, such as hyperthyroidism and uncontrolled diabetes, can also lead to or worsen urge incontinence.

An estimated 50-70% of women with urinary incontinence fail to seek medical evaluation and treatment because of social stigma. Only 5% of individuals who are incontinent and 2% of nursing home residents who are incontinent receive appropriate medical evaluation and treatment. Patients who are incontinent often cope with this condition for 6-9 years before seeking medical therapy.

At least 30 million American adults consider their OAB symptoms bothersome to everyday activity. The direct costs of OAB in the United States are similar to those of breast cancer and osteoporosis, totaling more than $12 billion annually.

Transient incontinence is a temporary version of incontinence. Medications, urinary tract infections, mental impairment, and restricted mobility can all trigger transient incontinence. Severe constipation can cause transient incontinence when the impacted stool pushes against the urinary tract and obstructs outflow. A cold can trigger incontinence, which resolves once the coughing spells cease.

Urinary and Kidney Team. (2016, March 1). What your bladder is trying to tell you about your health. Retrieved from https://health.clevelandclinic.org/2016/03/what-your-bladder-is-trying-to-tell-you-about-your-health/

Another medicine which has recently become available is called mirabegron. This acts by helping the bladder muscle to relax. Side-effects can include raised blood pressure, headache, blocked nose, sneezing, sore throat, constipation and diarrhoea.

Best treatments for an overactive bladder Learn about different treatment options for an overactive bladder, such as dietary and lifestyle changes. Also learn how to monitor an overactive bladder. Read now

This is a medical procedure that sends safe, electrical pulses through your vagina or anus (bottom). They also can be given through a patch. Another method involves placing a wire near your tailbone. Your doctor will tell you how many treatments are necessary for you.

Urge incontinence. You have a sudden, intense urge to urinate followed by an involuntary loss of urine. You may need to urinate often, including throughout the night. Urge incontinence may be caused by a minor condition, such as infection, or a more-severe condition such as a neurologic disorder or diabetes.

With OAB, your brain tells your bladder to empty – even when it isn’t full. Or the bladder muscles are too active. They contract (squeeze) to pass urine before your bladder is full. This causes the urge (need) to urinate.

You can also do special exercises called Kegels to make your pelvic muscles stronger. These muscles control the flow of urine. Doing these exercises can improve some bladder problems. It may help to work with a physical therapist who has special training in pelvic muscle exercises.

Another aspect here would be to encourage children to practice healthy bathroom habits. You should encourage your child to use the restroom every two to three hours. It will also help to ensure that you don’t let your child drink too many liquids unnecessarily.

When it isn’t full of urine, the bladder is relaxed. When nerve signals in your brain let you know that your bladder is getting full, you feel the need to urinate. If your urinary system is normal, you can delay urination for some time.

Dietz HP, Wilson PD. Anatomical assessment of the bladder outlet and proximal urethra using ultrasound and videocystourethrography. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 1998. 9(6):365-9. [Medline].

FI is one of the most psychologically and socially debilitating conditions in an otherwise healthy individual, but it is generally treatable.[2] Management may be achieved through an individualized mix of dietary, pharmacologic, and surgical measures. Health care professionals are often poorly informed about treatment options,[2] and may fail to recognize the effect of FI.[3]

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Construction consists of a thin pad made of polymers that are super absorbent and draw wetness away from the skin which keeps the skin dry. This is important for many reasons such as health of the skin and odor protection as well. These Seni adult diapers are latex-free are geared towards active and those with limited mobility with severe incontinence.

Third, interest in urinary incontinence disorders within the medical community is surging. This increased interest is arising among basic scientists, clinical researchers, and clinicians. The subspecialties of urogynecology and female urology are emerging, and structured fellowships are in the credentialing process. A Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery fellowship is now accredited as a subspecialty by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG) and the American Board of Urology (ABU).

Practice Bladder Control: This exercise is usually included in overactive bladder syndrome treatment. You will need to hold your urine for a longer time than you normally do. Over the course of 12 weeks the urinating intervals are also lengthened, which will train your bladder to hold urine for a longer period of time.

Midurethral slings are newer procedures that you can have on an outpatient basis. These procedures use synthetic mesh materials that the surgeon places midway along the urethra. The two general types of midurethral slings are retropubic slings, such as the transvaginal tapes (TVT), and transobturator slings (TOT). The surgeon makes small incisions behind the pubic bone or just by the sides of the vaginal opening as well as a small incision in the vagina. The surgeon uses specially designed needles to position a synthetic tape under the urethra. The surgeon pulls the ends of the tape through the incisions and adjusts them to provide the right amount of support to the urethra.

Children with overactive bladders have a need to urinate more often than usual because their bladder muscles have uncontrollable spasms. The muscles surrounding the urethra — the tube from the bladder that urine passes through — can be affected. These muscles are meant to prevent urine from leaving the body, but they may be “overridden” if the bladder undergoes a strong contraction.

Treatment of urinary incontinence in women may include behavioral or nonpharmacologic treatments, like bladder training and Kegel exercises, medication, biofeedback, neuromodulation, surgery, catheterization, or a combination of these therapies.

Tapp AJ, Cardozo LD, Versi E, Cooper D. The treatment of detrusor instability in post-menopausal women with oxybutynin chloride: a double blind placebo controlled study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990 Jun. 97(6):521-6. [Medline].

Metastatic carcinoma can cause epidural spinal cord compression. Back pain is the initial symptom in most cases. Almost 20% of cases involve the lumbosacral spine. If the sacral cord is involved, urinary incontinence or retention can be expected. Urinary incontinence symptoms represent an unfavorable prognostic indicator in this patient population. Early diagnosis and treatment of spinal cord compression is extremely important. Paraplegia or quadriplegia can develop within hours or days after the first neurologic deficit appears.

If blood glucose levels become too high, the body will try to remedy the situation by removing glucose from the blood through the kidneys. When this happens, the kidneys will also filter out more water and you will need to more than usual as a result.

In children over the age of four who have been toilet trained, a similar condition is generally termed encopresis (or soiling), which refers to the voluntary or involuntary loss of (usually soft or semi-liquid) stool.[23] The term pseudoincontinence is used when there is FI in children who have anatomical defects (e.g. enlarged sigmoid colon or anal stenosis).[2] Encopresis is a term that is usually applied when there are no such anatomical defects present. The ICD-10 classifies nonorganic encopresis under “behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence” and organic causes of encopresis along with FI.[24] FI can also be classified according to gender, since the cause in females may be different from males, for example it may develop following radical prostatectomy in males,[25] whereas females may develop FI as an immediate or delayed consequence of damage whilst giving birth. Pelvic anatomy is also different according to gender, with a wider pelvic outlet in females.

Siamak N. Nabili, M. (2014). Overactive Bladder: Facts for Men, Women, and Children. [online] MedicineNet. Available at: http://www.medicinenet.com/overactive_bladder/article.htm [Accessed 6 Apr. 2015].

The exact cause of an overactive bladder is a mystery. However, several factors are known to contribute to the involuntary contraction of the bladder muscle, improper bladder function, and other symptoms associated with an overactive bladder.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition that affects millions of Americans. Overactive bladder isn’t a disease. It’s the name of a group of urinary symptoms. The most common symptom of OAB is a sudden urge to urinate that you can’t control. Some people will leak urine when they feel the urge. Leaking urine is called “incontinence.” Having to go to the bathroom many times during the day and night is another symptom of OAB.

Fecal incontinence (FI), also known as anal incontinence, or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces. FI is a sign or a symptom, not a diagnosis. Incontinence can result from different causes and might occur with either constipation or diarrhea. Continence is maintained by several inter-related factors, including the anal sampling mechanism, and usually there is more than one deficiency of these mechanisms for incontinence to develop. The most common causes are thought to be immediate or delayed damage from childbirth, complications from prior anorectal surgery (especially involving the anal sphincters or hemorrhoidal vascular cushions) and altered bowel habits (e.g., caused by irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, food intolerance, or constipation with overflow incontinence).[1] An estimated 2.2% of community dwelling adults are affected.[2]

The best website by far for testing and reviews of adult diapers is XPMedical.com, an online retailer specializing in incontinence products. Although only a handful of products are tested, its diaper reviews are detailed and specific, and information on each style includes wet and dry measurements, features, results of wetting and rewetting tests, cost per diaper and comments on overall quality and effectiveness. We also considered the reviews done at IncontinenceSupport.info. They are more anecdotal than scientific, and we’d be happier if we knew more about those who administer the site, but the reviews are based on hands-on testing and cover most aspects of what those who need adult diapers should know before making a selection. However, on the whole, there isn’t a lot of informative testing out there on adult diapers, so we also placed a lot of emphasis on user reviews and ratings found at specialty sites that deal with incontinence products, as well as at general retail sites such as Amazon.com and Walmart.com.

Diet modification. You should avoid any food that appears to irritate your bladder or acts as a diuretic. These may include caffeine, alcohol, carbonated drinks, tomato-based products, chocolate, artificial sweeteners, and spicy foods. It’s also important to eat high-fiber foods, because constipation may worsen the symptoms of overactive bladder syndrome.

OAB occurs in both men and women. It’s possible to have overactive bladder at any point in your life. But, it’s especially common in older adults. The prevalence of OAB in people younger than 50 years of age is less than 10 percent. After the age of 60, the prevalence increases to 20 to 30 percent.  (11)

You can take some steps to reduce your likelihood of developing frequent urination. You can also avoid certain foods and drinks closer to nighttime that are known to increase the likelihood of nocturia. Examples include:

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Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience UI twice as often as men.

The normal number of times varies according to the age of the person. Among young children, urinating 8 to 14 times each day is typical. This decreases to 6 to 12 times per day for older children, and to 4 to 6 times per day among teenagers.[3]

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OAB appears to be multifactorial in both etiology and pathophysiology. Symptoms of OAB are suggestive of underlying detrusor overactivity. Overactivity of the detrusor muscle—neurogenic, myogenic, or idiopathic in origin—may result in urinary urgency and urgency incontinence. [5]

Cystoscopy is a procedure in which a pencil-thin tube is inserted into the urethra to look inside the bladder and urethra. A ureteroscopy involves the insertion of a thin instrument into the ureter, usually with a general anesthesia, in order to view the ureter or remove blockages.

Periurethral injections involve the injection of bulking agents into the urethra to improve effective closure. Commonly used agents include fat, collagen, Teflon paste and silicon particles. Injection therapy is suitable for women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency rather than hypermobility, as well as for men with post-prostatectomy incontinence. The major advantage of injection therapy is that it’s a minor procedure. Short-term results are good, but often not maintained long-term.

Many people are hesitant to see a doctor for incontinence as they feel embarrassed or believe it can’t be treated or that the problem will eventually go away by itself. This may be true in a few cases, but many cases can be successfully treated or managed. The treatment of incontinence will vary according to whether it is faecal or urinary incontinence and will depend on the cause, type and severity of the problem.

For some people, just cutting back on caffeine is enough. Others, though, need to cut caffeine out completely. See what works for you, but ease off slowly. Going cold turkey on caffeine might give you headaches.

The cause of overactive bladder is unknown.[3] Risk factors include obesity, caffeine, and constipation.[2] Poorly controlled diabetes, poor functional mobility, and chronic pelvic pain may worsen the symptoms.[3] People often have the symptoms for a long time before seeking treatment and the condition is sometimes identified by caregivers.[3] Diagnosis is based on a person’s signs and symptoms and requires other problems such as urinary tract infections or neurological conditions to be excluded.[1][3] The amount of urine passed during each urination is relatively small.[3] Pain while urinating suggests that there is a problem other than overactive bladder.[3]

Lifestyle modifications: Avoiding foods and drinks known to irritate the bladder can help a woman experience fewer episodes of frequent urination. Examples include avoiding caffeine, alcohol, carbonated beverages, chocolate, artificial sweeteners, spicy foods, and foods that are tomato-based.

Coyne, K. S., Sexton, C. C., Bell, J. A., Thompson, C. L., Dmochowski, R., Bavendam, T., … Quentin Clemens, J. (2012, July 27). The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and overactive bladder (OAB) by racial/ethnic group and age: Results from OAB-POLL [Abstract]. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 32(3), 230–237. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22847394

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Antimuscarinics. Antimuscarinics can help relax bladder muscles and prevent bladder spasms. These medications include oxybutynin (Oxytrol), which a person can buy over the counter, tolterodine (Detrol), darifenacin (Enablex), trospium (Sanctura), fesoterodine (Toviaz), and solifenacin (VESIcare). They are available in pill, liquid, and patch form.

The sacral nerves are located at the bottom of your back. They carry signals from your brain to some of the muscles used when you go to the toilet, such as the detrusor muscle that surrounds the bladder.

In women without urethral hypermobility, the urethra is stabilized during stress by three interrelated mechanisms. One mechanism is reflex, or voluntary, closure of the pelvic floor. Contraction of the levator ani complex elevates the proximal urethra and bladder neck, tightens intact connective tissue supports, and elevates the perineal body, which may serve as a urethral backstop.

Urinary incontinence should not be thought of as a disease, because no specific etiology exists; most individual cases are likely multifactorial in nature. The etiologies of urinary incontinence are diverse and, in many cases, incompletely understood.

Additional Products or Alternatives – The addition of a booster pad to the Per-Fit Frontal Tape Briefs will add to the capacity of the product. There are many to choose from; that will add anywhere from 4 ounces up to 16 ounces. The cover-ups are also very popular as an additional protection from leakage.

What you should know – The Attends Extra Absorbent Breathable brief is a unisex product for those needing heavy incontinence coverage. The sides offer airflow to the skin for better skin health. They are a full coverage product. They offer improved comfort with flex tabs that are soft, flexible, and can be refastened anywhere on the brief. Both the inner and outer coverings are non-woven, cloth-like material that offers a softer and quieter fit.

Jump up ^ Harris, Richard (December 2009). “Genitourinary infection and barotrauma as complications of ‘P-valve’ use in drysuit divers”. Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. 39 (4): 210–2. PMID 22752741. Retrieved 2013-04-04.

Sometimes routine testing does not reveal the underlying cause, and further evaluation is required. You may be referred to a urologist or a urogynecologist for more specialized testing if your health concern is accompanied by pain, recurrent UTIs, blood or protein in the urine, neurological symptoms or muscle weakness, or pelvic organ prolapse. Women with this issue who have a history of radiation or surgery to the pelvic region may also be referred to a urologist.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

Visit your doctor or other health professional if you have concerns about bladder control. Difficulty with bladder control can be prevented, treated, better managed or cured. You shouldn’t be embarrassed to discuss your bladder problems as many other people experience problems too.

Urinary incontinence is not just a medical problem. It can affect emotional, psychological and social life. Many people who have urinary incontinence are afraid to do normal daily activities. They don’t want to be too far from a toilet. Urinary incontinence can keep people from enjoying life.

Your doctor may order a simple urodynamic test to assess the function of your bladder and its ability to empty steadily and completely. These tests usually require a referral to a specialist, and may not be necessary to make a diagnosis or begin treatment. Tests include:

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Symptoms can be directly or indirectly related to the loss of bowel control. The direct (primary) symptom is a lack of control over bowel contents which tends to worsen without treatment. Indirect (secondary) symptoms, which are the result of leakage, include pruritus ani (an intense itching sensation from the anus), perianal dermatitis (irritation and inflammation of the skin around the anus), and urinary tract infections.[1] Due to embarrassment, people may only mention secondary symptoms rather than acknowledge incontinence. Any major underlying cause will produce additional signs and symptoms, such as protrusion of mucosa in external rectal prolapse. Symptoms of fecal leakage (FL) are similar, and may occur after defecation. There may be loss of small amounts of brown fluid and staining of the underwear.[2]

Antidepressants: There are a number of classes of antidepressants, all with varying pharmacologic properties. This makes it difficult to generalize the underlying mechanisms that lead to urinary incontinence as a result of antidepressant use. However, all antidepressants result in urinary retention and, eventually, in overflow incontinence. Most antidepressants are inhibitors of norepinephrine and/or serotonin uptake. Some also act as antagonists at adrenergic, cholinergic, or histaminergic receptors at therapeutic doses.1

Urinary incontinence is more than a health concern. It affects people on a social, psychological, and emotional level. People who have urinary incontinence may avoid certain places or situations for fear of having an accident. Urinary incontinence can limit life, but it doesn’t have to. The concern is treatable once the underlying cause is identified and addressed.

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Absorbent incontinence products come in a wide range of types (drip collectors, pads, underwear and adult diapers), each with varying capacities and sizes. The largest volume of products that is consumed falls into the lower absorbency range of products, and even when it comes to adult diapers, the cheapest and least absorbent brands are used the most. This is not because people choose to use the cheapest and least absorbent brands, but rather because medical facilities are the largest consumer of adult diapers, and they have requirements to change patients as often as every two hours. As such, they select products that meet their frequent-changing needs, rather than products that could be worn longer or more comfortably.[citation needed]

Urinary incontinence is leaking of urine that you can’t control. Many American men and women suffer from urinary incontinence. We don’t know for sure exactly how many. That’s because many people do not tell anyone about their symptoms. They may be embarrassed, or they may think nothing can be done. So they suffer in silence.

OAB appears to be multifactorial in both etiology and pathophysiology. Symptoms of OAB are suggestive of underlying detrusor overactivity. Overactivity of the detrusor muscle—neurogenic, myogenic, or idiopathic in origin—may result in urinary urgency and urgency incontinence. [5]

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Some children develop a habit of not emptying their bladders. This is not a medical condition. Rather, it is a psychological behavior of the child, who may feel that spending even slightest time in the restroom will make him miss out on something more important. with this condition (or behavior) tend to urinate enough to relieve pressure in their bladder. Hence, over time, the sphincter muscle that allows you to hold urine may become overactive, and trigger frequent urination.

There is another common bladder problem called stress urinary incontinence (SUI), which is different from OAB. People with SUI leak urine while sneezing, laughing or doing other physical activities. More information on SUI can be found at www.urologyhealth.org/SUI/.

Frequent urination may be caused by diseases affecting the urinary tract at any level. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder (ureters), the bladder, and the duct through which urine flows from the bladder out of the body (urethra).

Urethral hypermobility is related to impaired neuromuscular functioning of the pelvic floor coupled with injury, both remote and ongoing, to the connective tissue supports of the urethra and bladder neck. When this occurs, the proximal urethra and the bladder neck descend to rotate away and out of the pelvis at times of increased intra-abdominal pressure.

If blood glucose levels become too high, the body will try to remedy the situation by removing glucose from the blood through the kidneys. When this happens, the kidneys will also filter out more water and you will need to urinate more than usual as a result.

Functional incontinence occurs when a person recognizes the need to urinate but cannot make it to the bathroom. The loss of urine may be large. There are several causes of functional incontinence including confusion, dementia, poor eyesight, mobility or dexterity, unwillingness to toilet because of depression or anxiety or inebriation due to alcohol.[14] Functional incontinence can also occur in certain circumstances where no biological or medical problem is present. For example, a person may recognise the need to urinate but may be in a situation where there is no toilet nearby or access to a toilet is restricted.

If the child does not outgrow the condition, treatments can include bladder training and medication. In bladder training, the child uses exercises to strengthen and coordinate the urethra and bladder muscles to control urination. Such exercises teach the child to prevent urinating when away from the toilet and to anticipate the urge to urinate. Additional techniques to help overactive bladder include:

Several risk factors are associated with OAB. White people, persons with insulin-dependent diabetes, and individuals with depression are 3 times as likely to develop OAB. Other risk factors include the following [10] :

For urinary incontinence treatment, start with your primary care doctor. Tell him or her you are having problems with bladder control. If your primary care doctor is unable to help, ask for a referral to a specialist. Doctors who specialize in treating urinary incontinence include urogynecologists, gynecologists with extra training in urinary incontinence, or urologists, doctors who specialize in problems of the urinary tract system in men and women.

Childbirth. Vaginal delivery can weaken muscles needed for bladder control and also damage bladder nerves and supportive tissue, leading to a dropped (prolapsed) pelvic floor. With prolapse, the bladder, uterus, rectum or small intestine can get pushed down from the usual position and protrude into the vagina. Such protrusions can be associated with incontinence.

Urinary incontinence is common, especially in women. It can occur at any age but it is more likely to develop as you get older. It is estimated that about three million people in the UK are regularly incontinent. Overall, this is about 4 in 100 adults. However, as many as 1 in 5 women over the age of 40 have some degree of urinary incontinence.

^ Lipp, A; Shaw, C; Glavind, K (17 December 2014). “Mechanical devices for urinary incontinence in women”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD001756. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001756.pub6. PMID 25517397.

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Jump up ^ Romano, [edited by] Carlo Ratto, Giovanni B. Doglietto ; forewords by A.C Lowry, L. Paahlman, G. (2007). Fecal incontinence : diagnosis and treatment (1. ed.). Milan: Springer. p. 313. ISBN 88-470-0637-6.

Electrical nerve stimulation. If behavioral and lifestyle changes and medications do not improve symptoms, a urologist may suggest electrical nerve stimulation as an option to UI, urinary frequency—urination more often than normal—and other symptoms. Electrical nerve stimulation involves altering bladder reflexes using pulses of electricity. The two most common types of electrical nerve stimulation are percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and sacral nerve stimulation.4

OAB can be caused by the nerve signals between your bladder and brain telling your bladder to empty even when it isn’t full. OAB can also be the result of your bladder muscles being too active. Then your bladder muscles contract to pass urine before your bladder is full, and that causes a sudden, strong need to urinate. We call this “urgency.”

Antimuscarinics. Antimuscarinics can help relax bladder muscles and prevent bladder spasms. These medications include oxybutynin (Oxytrol), which a person can buy over the counter, tolterodine (Detrol), darifenacin (Enablex), trospium (Sanctura), fesoterodine (Toviaz), and solifenacin (VESIcare). They are available in pill, liquid, and patch form.

The hallmark of OAB is urinary urgency, a sudden urge to urinate that may be difficult to control. Actual loss of urine (incontinence) is not a defining symptom of overactive bladder, but it can happen as a result of urgency. Urinary incontinence tends to be more common in women with OAB compared to men.

In 2008, Ontario’s Minister of Health George Smitherman revealed that he was considering wearing adult diapers himself to test their absorbency following complaints that nursing home residents were forced to remain in unchanged diapers for days at a time. Smitherman’s proposal earned him criticism from unions who argued that the priority was not the capacity of the diapers but rather staff shortages affecting how often they were changed, and he later apologized.[32][33][34][35]

Pelvic surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are major risk factors.[4] Urinary incontinence is often a result of an underlying medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners.[5] There are four main types of incontinence:[6]

Bladder control problems in women (urinary incontinence). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/bladder-control-problems-women. Accessed March 18, 2017.

A variety of drugs have been associated with urinary incontinence. This may be due to direct incontinence or overflow incontinence secondary to urinary retention. When reviewing patient profiles, pharmacists should take into consideration the use of oral estrogens, alpha-blockers, sedative-hypnotics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, ACE inhibitors, loop diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and calcium channel blockers that may lead to urinary incontinence. It is important to keep in mind that some incontinence patients taking these medications may be too embarrassed to discuss their condition voluntarily.

If urinary frequency interferes with your lifestyle or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, back or side pain, vomiting, chills, increased appetite or thirst, fatigue, bloody or cloudy urine, or a discharge from the penis or vagina, it’s important to see your doctor.

Sometimes conditions that are not related to the bladder can cause a person to void more often. One example is vaginal atrophy, or loss of normal vaginal tissue with loss of estrogen with age or surgical removal of the ovaries.

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Jump up ^ Kuffel, A; Kapitza, KP; Löwe, B; Eichelberg, E; Gumz, A (October 2014). “[Chronic pollakiuria: cystectomy or psychotherapy]”. Der Urologe. Ausg. A. 53 (10): 1495–9. doi:10.1007/s00120-014-3618-x. PMID 25214314.

Cystoscopy is a procedure in which a pencil-thin tube is inserted into the urethra to look inside the bladder and urethra. A ureteroscopy involves the insertion of a thin instrument into the ureter, usually with a general anesthesia, in order to view the ureter or remove blockages.

Jump up ^ Koch, Kenneth L (1 January 2012). “Tissue engineering for neuromuscular disorders of the gastrointestinal tract”. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 18 (47): 6918–25. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i47.6918. PMC 3531675 . PMID 23322989.

There are numerous bladder problems and different types of incontinence. The doctor can determine what kind you have by taking a detailed medical history, reviewing the nature of your problem and ordering lab tests. A urine test can screen for blood, protein, and other abnormalities. The doctor will perform a physical exam noting any aberrations. He or she may ask you to perform a cough stress test where you stand and cough to see if it provokes an accident. A post-void residual urine test assesses how much you urinate and the amount left over after voiding. The test helps determine if there’s an obstruction in the urinary tract.

Continued problems with frequent urination should be evaluated by your doctor and possibly a urologist. If medications are recommended, follow instructions given to you by your doctor. Report any problems or side effects from the medication to your doctor. If you are advised to do bladder retraining or modify your diet or other behavioral changes, follow all instructions from your doctor.

Behavioral and lifestyle changes. Women with UI may be able to reduce leaks by making behavioral and lifestyle changes. For example, the amount and type of liquid women drink can affect UI. Women should talk with their health care professional about whether to drink less liquid during the day; however, women should not limit liquids to the point of becoming dehydrated. Signs of dehydration in women include

In case, your kid displays frequent urge to urinate, consult a pediatric urologist. If your child doesn’t have infection and diabetes, the urge could have behavioral reasons. This comes from consuming large amounts of fluids unnecessarily, resulting in frequent urge. Other children, especially boys between the ages of three and a half and four years, are fascinated with the process of urination. This habit can last for about six months before it disappears.

Urinary incontinence (UI) is the accidental leakage of urine. At different ages, males and females have different risks for developing UI. In childhood, girls usually develop bladder control at an earlier age than boys, and bedwetting — or nocturnal enuresis — is less common in girls than in boys. However, adult women are far more likely than adult men to experience UI because of anatomical differences in the pelvic region and the changes induced by pregnancy and childbirth. Nevertheless, many men do suffer from incontinence. Its prevalence increases with age, but UI is not an inevitable part of aging.

Eapen, R. S., & Radomski, S. B. (2016, June 6). Review of the epidemiology of overactive bladder. Research and Reports in Urology, 8, 71–76. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4902138/

An infrequent cause of bladder incontinence (usually acute) is a condition termed cauda equina syndrome. It is caused by significant narrowing of the spinal canal that may be caused by trauma, disc herniation, spinal tumors, inflammation, infections, or after spinal surgery. The incontinence often occurs acutely and may be accompanied by bowel incontinence, groin numbness, and loss of strength and/or sensation in the lower extremities. This condition is a medical emergency; if pressure on the nerves is not removed quickly (within about 48 hours of initial symptoms), permanent nerve damage with function loss may occur. Most clinicians suggest that the earliest interventions have the best outcomes.

Another common symptom of OAB is urge incontinence. This happens when the urge to urinate is so strong that you can’t control it, causing urine to leak before you make it to the It may occur when you laugh, sneeze, cough, or exercise.

Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is common. Symptoms include an urgent feeling to go to the toilet, going to the toilet frequently and sometimes leaking urine before you can get to the toilet (urge incontinence). Treatment with bladder training often cures the problem. Sometimes medication may be advised in addition to bladder training to relax the bladder.

The transobturator male sling may be of particular benefit to men who experience stress incontinence after prostatectomy. [4] Transobturator vaginal tape (TVT-O) is widely used for stress incontinence in women [5]

According to the National Association for Continence, up to 50 percent of men experience symptoms of an enlarged prostate by the time they turn 60. A whopping 90 percent of men experience symptoms by age 85.

Encourage your child to wait a bit longer to urinate. Children often fear wetting their pants. It is important that you encourage your child to try and hang on a little longer every time he (or she) experiences the urge to urinate. Try helping your kid increase the duration between urinations. This way, you can help your child go back to his usual three-hour interval between each time he urinates, thereby going back to his normal routine.

Some patients with stress incontinence have urine leakage into the proximal urethra that may, at first, trigger sensory urgency and/or bladder contractions, which initially are suppressible. Later, in a subgroup of these individuals, myopathic changes may occur in the bladder that make the spread of abnormally generated contractile signals more efficient and more difficult to suppress voluntarily.

Conventional treatment typically involves prescription medications, specifically antimuscarinic drugs, that aim to calm the bladder.  The seven common drugs for overactive bladder include: darifenacin (Enablex); fesoterodine (Toviaz); mirabegron (Myrbetriq); oxybutynin (Ditropan XL, a skin patch called Oxytrol, a topical gel called Gelnique, and generic); solifenacin (Vesicare); tolterodine (Detrol and generic, Detrol LA) and trospium (Sanctura, Sanctura XR and generic).

Tolterodine (Detrol, Detrol LA) is indicated for the treatment of an overactive bladder with symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, or urge incontinence. This medication affects the salivary glands less than oxybutynin, thus, it is better tolerated with fewer side effects (dry mouth). Detrol is usually prescribed twice a day, whereas the long-acting type (Detrol LA) is taken only once a day.

A variety of drugs have been associated with urinary incontinence. This may be due to direct incontinence or overflow incontinence secondary to urinary retention. When reviewing patient profiles, pharmacists should take into consideration the use of oral estrogens, alpha-blockers, sedative-hypnotics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, ACE inhibitors, loop diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and calcium channel blockers that may lead to urinary incontinence. It is important to keep in mind that some incontinence patients taking these medications may be too embarrassed to discuss their condition voluntarily.

OAB usually caused by abnormal contractions of the muscles of the urinary bladder (mainly detrusor muscle), resulting in a sudden, uncontrollable urge to urinate (called urinary urgency) with or without actual leakage of urine, even thought only small amounts of urine may be in the bladder.

Tape procedures can be used for women with stress incontinence. A piece of plastic tape is inserted through a cut (incision) inside the vagina and threaded behind the tube that carries urine out of the body (urethra).

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Gormley, EA; Lightner, DJ; Burgio, KL; Chai, TC; Clemens, JQ; Culkin, DJ; Das, AK; Foster HE, Jr; Scarpero, HM; Tessier, CD; Vasavada, SP; American Urological, Association; Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine & Urogenital, Reconstruction (December 2012). “Diagnosis and treatment of overactive bladder (non-neurogenic) in adults: AUA/SUFU guideline”. The Journal of Urology. 188 (6 Suppl): 2455–63. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2012.09.079. PMID 23098785.

Drake MJ, Nitti VW, Ginsberg DA, Brucker BM, Hepp Z, McCool R, et al. Comparative assessment of the efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA and oral therapies (anticholinergics and mirabegron) for overactive bladder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BJU Int. 2017 Nov. 120 (5):611-622. [Medline].

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It has long been suggested that legislators don a diaper before an extended filibuster, so often that it has been jokingly called “taking to the diaper.” There has certainly been at least one such instance, in which Strom Thurmond gave a record-holding 24 hours and 18 minute speech.

We’ve provided a buyer’s guide for you to give you even more helpful information on adult diapers so you can arm yourself with important knowledge that can make choosing the right product for yourself or a loved one much easier less worrisome.

Urge incontinence is a form of urinary incontinence characterized by the involuntary loss of urine occurring for no apparent reason while feeling urinary urgency as discussed above. Like frequency, the person can track incontinence in a diary to assist with diagnosis and management of symptoms. Urge incontinence can also be measured with pad tests, and these are often used for research purposes. Some people with urge incontinence also have stress incontinence and this can complicate clinical studies.[3]

Incontinence aids: Using incontinence aids or products can help manage the symptoms of incontinence. Incontinence aids make suffering from incontinence less life-changing as you can still partake in daily life without needing to be chained to a toilet. Incontinence aids usually come in the form of super absorbent undergarments, pants or guards, which lock in any moisture and turn it into gel to prevent leaking or dampness. Depend has a great range of incontinence aids for men and women to help you manage any kind of incontinence.

A catheter is a long, thin tube inserted up the urethra or through a hole in the abdominal wall into the bladder to drain urine (suprapubic catheter). Draining the bladder this way has been used to treat incontinence for many years. Bladder catheterization may be a temporary or a permanent solution for urinary incontinence.

Among other investigational therapies, neurokinin receptor antagonists, alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, nerve growth factor inhibitors, gene therapy, and stem cell–based therapies are of considerable interest. The future development of new modalities in OAB treatment appears promising.

The mechanisms and factors contributing to normal continence are multiple and inter-related. The puborectalis sling, forming the anorectal angle (see diagram), is responsible for gross continence of solid stool.[3] The IAS is an involuntary muscle, contributing about 55% of the resting anal pressure. Together with the hemorrhoidal vascular cushions, the IAS maintains continence of flatus and liquid during rest. The EAS is a voluntary muscle, doubling the pressure in the anal canal during contraction, which is possible for a short time. The rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is an involuntary IAS relaxation in response to rectal distension, allowing some rectal contents to descend into the anal canal where it is brought into contact with specialized sensory mucosa to detect consistency. The rectoanal excitatory reflex (RAER) is an initial, semi-voluntary contraction of the EAS and puborectalis which in turn prevents incontinence following the RAIR. Other factors include the specialized anti-peristaltic function of the last part of the sigmoid colon, which keeps the rectum empty most of the time, sensation in the lining of the rectum and the anal canal to detect when there is stool present, its consistency and quantity, and the presence of normal rectoanal reflexes and defecation cycle which completely evacuates stool from the rectum and anal canal. Problems affecting any of these mechanisms and factors may be involved in the cause.[2]

The oxybutynin transdermal system (Oxytrol) is a thin, flexible, clear patch that is applied to the skin of the abdomen or hip, twice weekly, to treat overactive bladder. This treatment delivers oxybutynin continuously through the skin into the bloodstream and relieves symptoms for up to 4 days—allowing twice a week dosing. The first over-the-counter (OTC) form of this medication—Oxytrol for Women—was approved by the FDA in January 2013 for use in women over the age of 18. At this time, Oxytrol is available for men by prescription only.

When the bladder doesn’t empty properly, urine spills over, causing overflow incontinence. Weak bladder muscles or a blocked urethra can cause this type of incontinence. Nerve damage from diabetes or other diseases can lead to weak bladder muscles; tumors and urinary stones can block the urethra. Men with overflow incontinence may have to urinate often, yet they release only small amounts of urine or constantly dribble urine.

A normal bladder functions through a complex coordination of musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychological functions that allow it to fill and empty. The prime effector of continence is the synergic relaxation of detrusor muscles and contraction of bladder neck and pelvic floor muscles.

Some hypothesize that under normal circumstances, any increase in intra-abdominal pressure is transmitted equally to the bladder and proximal urethra. This is likely due to the retropubic location of the proximal and mid urethra within the sphere of intra-abdominal pressure. At rest, the urethra has a higher intrinsic pressure than the bladder. This pressure gradient relationship is preserved if acute increases in intra-abdominal pressure are transmitted equally to both organs.

Urinary incontinence in women is a common problem. Overactive bladder (OAB), stress incontinence, and urge incontinence can be treated. Learn more about the types of urinary incontinence, their symptoms, and treatment options.

Moore KN, Schieman S, Ackerman T, Dzus HY, Metcalfe JB, Voaklander DC. Assessing comfort, safety, and patient satisfaction with three commonly used penile compression devices. Urology. 2004 Jan. 63(1):150-4. [Medline].

Overactive bladder can occur at any age, but it is most common in the elderly population. Recent surveys have suggested a prevalence of 10%-20% in the population over 40 years of age with similar numbers in men compared to women. It is worth mentioning, however, that men tend to develop this condition later in life than do women.

Polyuria is a symptom of diabetes mellitus, which involves frequent urination but in large amounts. The other symptoms of diabetes mellitus include polydipsia (drinking more fluids than usual, basically having more than normal thirst), polyphagia (unexplained increase in hunger), and drastic weight loss.

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The hypogastric nerves release norepinephrine to stimulate beta3-adrenoceptors in the detrusor and alpha1-adrenoceptors in the bladder neck and proximal urethra. The role of beta3-adrenoceptors is to mediate smooth-muscle relaxation and increase bladder compliance, whereas that of alpha1-adrenoceptors is to mediate smooth-muscle contraction and increase bladder outlet resistance.1 The somatic, pudendal, and sacral nerves release acetylcholine to act on nicotinic receptors in the striated muscle in the distal urethra and pelvic floor, which contract to increase bladder outlet resistance.1

Detrusor overactivity, according to this theory, occurs because of the premature firing of stretch receptors in the bladder base secondary to poor endopelvic connective tissue support to the filling bladder.

Monitoring the Intake of Fluids: While it is important to drink at least 8 glasses of water in the day, you need to make sure that you are not overdoing it. Moreover, choose to drink the right fluids and stay away from coffee, tea, aerated drinks and alcohol.

Urinary incontinence is a treatable condition with an excellent prognosis. Medical and surgical treatments for urinary incontinence can have very high cure rates. The choice of treatment depends upon the underlying cause for the incontinence and in some cases depends upon the willingness of the patient to participate in the treatment process (for options such as pelvic floor exercises and biofeedback).

Numerous treatments are available to help you manage symptoms of an overactive bladder. You’ll work closely with your doctor to come up with an effective treatment plan. Options can include medication to relieve symptoms and reduce urges. Other treatments can include:

Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is common. Symptoms include an urgent feeling to go to the toilet, going to the toilet frequently and sometimes leaking urine before you can get to the toilet (urge incontinence). Treatment with bladder training often cures the problem. Sometimes medication may be advised in addition to bladder training to relax the bladder.

The bladder is examined to see if it is full (overflow incontinence) or empty, and whether it is tender or not. A basic neurological examination is performed to rule out neurological causes for the incontinence. The underwear and pads are examined for evidence of wetness. The genital skin is inspected for evidence of urine-induced dermatitis. The urethra and vagina are examined next, usually with a speculum in place. The health professional specifically looks for atrophy of the tissues and for evidence of leaking with coughing (stress incontinence). An assessment is made of the integrity of the bladder and urethral support. A urine sample is tested for evidence of infection and blood.

Incontinence is a term that describes any accidental or involuntary loss of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or bowel motion, faeces or wind from the bowel (faecal or bowel incontinence).

Conventional treatment typically involves prescription medications, specifically antimuscarinic drugs, that aim to calm the bladder.  The seven common drugs for overactive bladder include: darifenacin (Enablex); fesoterodine (Toviaz); mirabegron (Myrbetriq); oxybutynin (Ditropan XL, a skin patch called Oxytrol, a topical gel called Gelnique, and generic); solifenacin (Vesicare); tolterodine (Detrol and generic, Detrol LA) and trospium (Sanctura, Sanctura XR and generic).

^ Jump up to: a b Hosker, G; Cody, JD; Norton, CC (Jul 18, 2007). “Electrical stimulation for faecal incontinence in adults”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD001310. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001310.pub2. PMID 17636665.

Another cause of overactive bladder is a condition called pollakiuria, or frequent daytime urination syndrome. Children who have pollakiuria urinate frequently. In some cases, they may urinate every five to 10 minutes or urinate between 10 and 30 times a day. This condition is most common among children aged 3 to 8 and is present only during waking hours. There are no other symptoms present. Doctors believe that pollakiuria is related to stress. Usually, the condition goes away after two to three weeks without requiring treatment.

Franco, E., Pares, D., Colomé, N. L., Paredes, J. R. M., & Tardiu, L. A. (2014, November). Urinary incontinence during pregnancy. Is there a difference between first and third trimester [Abstract]? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 182, 86-90. Retrieved from http://www.ejog.org/article/S0301-2115(14)00468-0/abstract

Best treatments for an overactive bladder Learn about different treatment options for an overactive bladder, such as dietary and lifestyle changes. Also learn how to monitor an overactive bladder. Read now

What you should know – The Tranquility Slimline is a disposable brief with tabs. It is a high performance brief with a high capacity. It contains all of the Tranquility key features. These briefs are soft and comfortable with only a little padding on the sides at the hip. This makes them undetectable under your clothing and good during the day.

Noblett K, Benson K, Kreder K. Detailed analysis of adverse events and surgical interventions in a large prospective trial of sacral neuromodulation therapy for overactive bladder patients. Neurourol Urodyn. 2016 Aug 4. [Medline].

If it is not possible to discontinue the antipsychotic, urinary incontinence caused by antipsychotics can be managed with a variety of pharmacologic agents. Desmopressin is perhaps the most effective, but also the most expensive, therapeutic agent available for this use. Other agents include pseudoephedrine, oxybutynin, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, and dopamine agonists.25

Stylized diagram showing action of the puborectalis sling, the looping of the puborectalis muscle around the bowel. This pulls the bowel forwards, and forms the anorectal angle, the angle between the anal canal and the rectum. A-puborectalis, B-rectum, C-level of anorectal ring and anorectal angle, D-anal canal, E-anal verge, F-representation of internal and external anal sphincters, G-coccyx & sacrum, H-pubic symphysis, I-Ischium, J-pubic of adults struggle with chronic incontinence on a daily basis. Fortunately, there are a wealth of quality products on the market designed to meet their needs, though choosing the best one for your particular situation can be tricky at times.

Drink normal quantities of fluids. It may seem sensible to cut back on the amount that you drink so the bladder does not fill so quickly. However, this can make symptoms worse as the urine becomes more concentrated, which may irritate the bladder muscle (detrusor). Aim to drink normal quantities of fluids each day. This is usually about two litres of fluid per day – about 6-8 cups of fluid, and more in hot climates and hot weather.

Intermittent Catheterisation — This can be done at home and involves inserting a thin tube into the urethra each time you need to urinate. This procedure is quite invasive, so we recommend you speak with your doctor first to see if this procedure right for you.

In 2008, Ontario’s Minister of Health George Smitherman revealed that he was considering wearing adult diapers himself to test their absorbency following complaints that nursing home residents were forced to remain in unchanged diapers for days at a time. Smitherman’s proposal earned him criticism from unions who argued that the priority was not the capacity of the diapers but rather staff shortages affecting how often they were changed, and he later apologized.

Vaginal and anal examination. A doctor or nurse may insert a gloved finger into the vagina and back passage (rectum). This can assess the strength and tone of the pelvic floor muscles. For men, the rectal examination can also assess the size of the prostate gland. For women, the doctor or nurse may also look for signs of pelvic organ bulging (prolapse) during the vaginal examination. They may use an instrument called a speculum to help them with this. See separate leaflet called Genitourinary Prolapse for more details.

For many people suffering from an overactive bladder, the actual cause cannot be identified. It can be a relief to know that there is no other health problem causing your symptoms but it can also be frustrating and confusing not having a reason for the problem.

Chapple CR, Siddiqui E. Mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder: a review of efficacy, safety and tolerability with a focus on male, elderly and antimuscarinic poor-responder populations, and patients with OAB in Asia. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Feb. 10 (2):131-151. [Medline].

Urinary diversion: If the bladder must be removed or all bladder function is lost because of nerve damage, you may consider surgery to create a urinary diversion. In this procedure, the surgeon creates a reservoir by removing a piece of the small intestine and directing the ureters to the reservoir. The surgeon also creates a stoma, an opening on the lower abdomen where the urine can be drained through a catheter or into a bag.

Urine culture. A health care professional performs a urine culture by placing part of a urine sample in a tube or dish with a substance that encourages any bacteria present to grow. A woman collects the urine sample in a special container in a health care professional’s office or a commercial facility. The office or facility tests the sample onsite or sends it to a lab for culture. A health care professional can identify bacteria that multiply, usually in 1 to 3 days. A health care professional performs a urine culture to determine the best treatment when urinalysis indicates the woman has a UTI. More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Urinary Tract Infection in Adults.

Changing when you drink. You should try to maintain a normal life as much as possible with regard to drinking and visiting the toilet. However, drinking late at night may mean your sleep is disturbed by the desire to get up and go to the toilet.

Small vaginal cones of increasing weight may be used to help with exercise.[23][24] They seem to be better than no active treatment in women with stress urinary incontinence, and have similar effects to training of pelvic floor muscles or electrostimulation.[24]

Suspected overflow incontinence (obstruction or poor bladder contraction) – An ultrasound scan will confirm a large bladder volume after the patient has tried to pass urine. In a man the most likely cause is obstruction due to an enlarged prostate or a urethral stricture. A digital rectal examination and a cystoscopy will confirm the diagnosis. If the overflow incontinence is due to poor bladder contraction this can be confirmed with urodynamic testing.

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Jump up ^ Salat-Foix, D; Suchowersky, O (February 2012). “The management of gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson’s disease”. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 12 (2): 239–48. doi:10.1586/ern.11.192. PMID 22288679.

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Overflow incontinence. This occurs when there is an obstruction to the outflow of urine. The obstruction prevents the normal emptying of the bladder. A pool of urine constantly remains in the bladder that cannot empty properly. This is called chronic urinary retention. Consequently, pressure builds up behind the obstruction. The normal bladder emptying mechanism becomes faulty and urine may leak past the blockage from time to time. Treatment depends on the cause. An enlarged prostate gland in men is a common cause of overflow incontinence. It may be treated by surgical removal of the prostate (prostatectomy) or with medicines to shrink the prostate gland.

Anybody with a degree of incontinence that affects his or her lifestyle should see a health professional. Patients with blood in the urine, bladder pain or burning of urine need to have serious underlying causes of the incontinence excluded and should seek help promptly.

Urinary incontinence is the involuntary and unintentional leaking of urine. Urinary incontinence can also be an embarrassing problem. As with many potentially embarrassing or uncomfortable symptoms, those affected may be hesitant to speak up or ask questions about their condition, even at the doctor’s office. Urinary incontinence occurs more often in women than in men, and it is a lot more common than you might expect. In fact, chances are that you know other people who have been affected by urinary incontinence.

The hallmark of OAB is urinary urgency, a sudden urge to urinate that may be difficult to control. Actual loss of urine (incontinence) is not a defining symptom of overactive bladder, but it can happen as a result of urgency. Urinary incontinence tends to be more common in women with OAB compared to men.

Vaginal and anal examination. A doctor or nurse may insert a gloved finger into the vagina and back passage (rectum). This can assess the strength and tone of the pelvic floor muscles. For men, the rectal examination can also assess the size of the prostate gland. For women, the doctor or nurse may also look for signs of pelvic organ bulging (prolapse) during the vaginal examination. They may use an instrument called a speculum to help them with this. See separate leaflet called Genitourinary Prolapse for more details.

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There are ways to manage incontinence, and in many cases cure it. Due to embarrassment many people do not seek help and therefore are unaware of the many treatment options that are now available This web site is intended to give you some facts on incontinence – what it is and what it is not, and why it occurs. Most importantly, this information strives to give you the confidence of knowing that something can be done and you are not alone. This is the first step in preparing you to become an educated partner with an interested and knowledgeable healthcare professional.

In January 2009, oxybutynin chloride gel (Gelnique) received FDA approval to treat overactive bladder. This gel is applied once daily to the skin of the thigh, abdomen, or shoulder and delivers a consistent dose of oxybutynin through the skin for 24 hours. Side effects of Gelnique include adverse skin reactions, dry mouth, and urinary tract infection (UTI).

People with medical conditions which cause them to experience urinary or faecal incontinence often require diapers or similar products because they are unable to control their bladders or bowels. People who are bedridden or in wheelchairs, including those with good bowel and bladder control, may also wear diapers because they are unable to access the toilet independently. Those with cognitive impairment, such as dementia, may require diapers because they may not recognize their need to reach a toilet.

Help your child calm down. Frequent urination is due to stress. So it will help if you reduce the stress in your child’s life by allowing him to relax and calm down. Do not overburden your child with your expectations. If you feel your child is stressed or experiencing peer pressure, talk to him and help him understand that he needn’t be a star performer every time and everywhere. Try to create a more harmonious environment at home.

For some people, just cutting back on caffeine is enough. Others, though, need to cut caffeine out completely. See what works for you, but ease off slowly. Going cold turkey on caffeine might give you headaches.

Caffeine and alcohol are diuretics, which means they trigger increased urination. They actually block the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), which, as the suggests, prevents you from peeing frequently. (4) Once you remove this natural inhibitory mechanism with too much coffee, tea, chocolate or alcohol, it can lead to more frequent trips to the bathroom.

Vulvovaginitis is the irritation of the skin in and around the vagina for girls and the opening of the urethra for boys. This condition can cause symptoms similar to any urinary tract infection, and frequent urination is one of them. This condition usually occurs in girls before puberty when the skin around the vaginal area becomes highly sensitive.

Urodynamics uses physical measurements such as urine pressure and flow rate as well as clinical assessment. These studies measure the pressure in the bladder at rest and while filling. These studies range from simple observation to precise measurements using specialized equipment.

There is some controversy about the classification and diagnosis of OAB.[3][18] Some sources classify overactive bladder into “wet” and “dry” variants depending on whether it is an urgent need to urinate or if it includes incontinence. Wet variants are more common than dry variants.[19] The distinction is not absolute, one study suggested that many classified as “dry” were actually “wet” and that patients with no history of any leakage may have had other syndromes.[20]

Medications that control the muscle spasms in the bladder can help reduce urinary incontinence, or loss of bladder control. Your doctor also may suggest doing pelvic exercises, such as Kegels or bladder retraining exercises, to help delay urination.

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Among other investigational therapies, neurokinin receptor antagonists, alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, nerve growth factor inhibitors, gene therapy, and stem cell–based therapies are of considerable interest. The future development of new modalities in OAB treatment appears promising.

Frequent urination may be a symptom of diabetes or can result from medications, such as diuretics. If urinary frequency occurs at night, it may be referred to as nocturia (having to urinate at night). Many pregnant women also experienced an increased need to urinate.

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Urgency suppression. By using certain techniques, a man can suppress the urge to urinate, called urgency suppression. Urgency suppression is a way for a man to train his bladder to maintain control so he does not have to panic about finding a restroom. Some men use distraction techniques to take their mind off the urge to urinate. Other men find taking long, relaxing breaths and being still can help. Doing pelvic floor exercises also can help suppress the urge to urinate.

Gender. Women are more likely to have stress incontinence. Pregnancy, childbirth, menopause and normal female anatomy account for this difference. However, men with prostate gland problems are at increased risk of urge and overflow incontinence.

This procedure is generally considered only after other treatments have failed, and it is most commonly done for men after prostate surgery. Because of where the pump is placed, activities such as bike riding may not be recommended.

However, it is possible to have a functionally small bladder, which means your bladder, for any number of reasons, can’t hold a lot of urine. Bladder muscles (detrusor) and/or the bladder sphincter muscles become overactive and as a result there is a constant need to void.

Pelvic exam. A pelvic exam is a visual and physical exam of the pelvic organs. The health care professional has the woman come to the exam with a full bladder. The woman will sit upright with her legs spread and asks her to cough. This test is called a cough stress test. Leakage of urine indicates stress incontinence. The health care professional then has the woman lie on her back on an exam table and place her feet on the corners of the table or in supports. The health care professional looks at the pelvic organs and slides a gloved, lubricated finger into the vagina to check for prolapse or other physical problems that may be causing UI. The health care professional will determine the woman’s pelvic muscle strength by asking her to squeeze her pelvic floor muscles.

The PNS causes contraction of the detrusor, while the muscles of pelvic floor and external sphincter relax. The PNS fibers, as well as those responsible for somatic (voluntary) control of micturition (urination), originate from the S2 to S4 segments of the spinal cord in the sacral plexus. The somatic fibers innervate the external sphincter and are responsible for the voluntary control of continence in the face of a pressing desire to void.

Your doctor may instruct you to keep a diary for a day or more-sometimes up to a week-to record when you void. This diary should note the times you urinate and the amounts of urine you produce. To measure your urine, you can use a special pan that fits over the toilet rim. You can also use the bladder diary to record your fluid intake, episodes of urine leakage, and estimated amounts of leakage.

Urgency, the hallmark of OAB, is defined as the sudden compelling desire to urinate, a sensation that is difficult to defer. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is urinary leakage associated with urgency. UUI is one of the most common types of urinary incontinence. Some women may have both stress urinary incontinence and UUI, and this is called mixed urinary incontinence.

Another finding described in bladder muscle specimens from patients with detrusor overactivity is local loss of inhibitory medullary neurologic activity. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a smooth muscle relaxant, is decreased markedly in the bladders of patients with detrusor overactivity. In addition, bladders of individuals with detrusor overactivity have been found deficient in smooth muscle–relaxing prostaglandins.

Alpha-blockers: Terazosin (Hytrin), doxazosin (Cardura), tamsulosin (Flomax), and alfzosin (Uroxatral) are used to treat problems caused by prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction. They act by relaxing the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck, allowing normal urine flow and preventing abnormal bladder contractions that can lead to urge incontinence.

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Urinary incontinence. Urodynamic study revealing detrusor hyperreflexia in a 22-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis. Note the presence of multiple phasic contractions (uninhibited detrusor contractions) generating as much as 100 cm H2O pressure.