Like its symptoms, incontinence treatment depends on the underlying cause as well as its severity. The most conservative approach to treating incontinence is bladder training and exercises (such as Kegel exercises) to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles.
UI can be slightly bothersome or totally debilitating. For some men, the chance of embarrassment keeps them from enjoying many activities, including exercising, and causes emotional distress. When people are inactive, they increase their chances of developing other health problems, such as obesity and diabetes.
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Martha K Terris, MD, FACS Professor, Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, Director, Urology Residency Training Program, Medical College of Georgia; Professor, Department of Physician Assistants, Medical College of Georgia School of Allied Health; Chief, Section of Urology, Augusta Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Triggers for women with urgency incontinence include drinking a small amount of water, touching water, hearing running water, or being in a cold environment—even if for just a short while—such as reaching into the freezer at the grocery store. Anxiety or certain liquids, medications, or medical conditions can make urgency incontinence worse.
Castillo PA, Espaillat-Rijo LM, Davila GW. Outcome measures and definition of cure in female stress urinary incontinence surgery: a survey of recent publications. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2010 Mar. 21(3):343-8. [Medline].
In the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation (NOBLE) study, which evaluated 5204 adults 18 years of age and older who were representative of the US population by sex, age, and geographical region, 16.5% of the study participants met the criteria for OAB. Of these, 6.1% met the criteria for OAB with urgency incontinence, and 10.4% met criteria for OAB without urgency incontinence. Among individuals with OAB with urgency incontinence, 45% had mixed incontinence symptoms (urgency incontinence plus stress incontinence). Data in the study were gathered with the use of a computer-assisted telephone interview questionnaire. 
Bladder retraining: This treatment is helpful for overactive bladder syndrome. It involves holding your urine for a slightly longer time than you usually do. The intervals are lengthened, often over the course of about 12 weeks. This helps retrain the bladder to hold urine longer and to urinate less frequently.
If a weak pelvic floor is at the root of your OAB then kegel exercises can help a lot. These pelvic floor exercises can be done anywhere at anytime and they benefit both men and women. When done regularly, they can really help an overactive bladder.
Gender — women tend to be more susceptible than men because menstruation, pregnancy and menopause all lead to a rise in oestrogen levels and weaker pelvic floor muscles. For men, an enlarged prostate or damage from prostate surgery can cause an overactive bladder.
Alpha-blockers. Terazosin (Hytrin), doxazosin (Cardura), tamsulosin (Flomax), alfuzosin (Uroxatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo) are used to treat problems caused by prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction. These medications relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck, which lets urine flow normally and prevents abnormal bladder contractions that can lead to urgency incontinence.
Electromyogram or EMG is defined as a test that records the electrical activity of muscles. Normal muscles produce a typical pattern of electrical current that is usually proportional to the level of muscle activity. Diseases of muscle and/or nerves can produce abnormal electormyogram patterns.
Overactive bladder can have a major impact on just about every aspect of your life. It can force you to avoid vacations, dinners out, and other social situations. You can even miss out on valuable time with family and friends because you’re afraid your overactive bladder — also called OAB — will trigger at the wrong time and embarrass you.
There is a continuous spectrum of different clinical presentations from incontinence of flatus (gas), through incontinence of mucus or liquid stool, to solids. The term anal incontinence often is used to describe flatus incontinence, however it is also used as a synonym for FI generally. It may occur together with incontinence of liquids or solids, or it may present in isolation. Flatus incontinence may be the first sign of FI. Once continence to flatus is lost, it is rarely restored. Anal incontinence may be equally disabling as the other types. Fecal leakage, fecal soiling and fecal seepage are minor degrees of FI, and describe incontinence of liquid stool, mucus, or very small amounts of solid stool. They cover a spectrum of increasing symptom severity (staining, soilage, seepage and accidents). Rarely, minor FI in adults may be described as encopresis. Fecal leakage is a related topic to rectal discharge, but this term does not necessarily imply any degree of incontinence. Discharge generally refers to conditions where there is pus or increased mucus production, or anatomical lesions that prevent the anal canal from closing fully, whereas fecal leakage generally concerns disorders of IAS function and functional evacuation disorders which cause a solid fecal mass to be retained in the rectum. Solid stool incontinence may be called complete (or major) incontinence, and anything less as partial (or minor) incontinence (i.e. incontinence of flatus (gas), liquid stool and/or mucus).
Arnold, J., McLeod, N., Thani-Gasalam, R. and Rachid, P. (2012). RACGP – Overactive bladder syndrome –management and treatment options. [online] Racgp.org.au. Available at: http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2012/november/overactive-bladder-syndrome/ [Accessed 6 Apr. 2015].
Binding of acetylcholine to the M3 receptor activates phospholipase C via coupling with G proteins. This action causes the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and contraction of the bladder smooth muscle. Increased sensitivity to stimulation by muscarinic receptors may lead to OAB. Leakage of acetylcholine from the parasympathetic nerve terminal may lead to micromotion of the detrusor, which may activate sensory afferent fibers, leading to the sensation of urgency.
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Treatment may also include drugs such as darifenacin (Enablex), desmopressin acetate (Noctiva), imipramine (Tofranil), mirabegron (Myrbetriq), oxybutynin (Ditropan), oxybutynin skin patch (Oxytrol), solifenacin (Vesicare). tolterodine extended-release (Detrol LA), and trospium extended-release (Sanctura XR), Oxytrol for women is the only drug available over the counter. Darifenacin is specifically for people who wake up more than twice a night to urinate.
Molicare Slip Maxi disposable underwear is an updated version of Molicare Super Plus, and feedback indicates that it’s every bit as good, making it an excellent choice for those with daily incontinence. Its super-absorbent core makes it ideal for overnight use or heavy bladder and bowel leakage, and reviewers say the padded panels make for a comfortable fit. See our full review »
Non-medical treatment can be very effective in motivated patients with minor degrees of stress incontinence. The short-term results are often very good, but this isn’t always maintained in the long term. Published studies quote cure/improvement rates of 50-80% for pelvic-floor exercises.
Treatments for OAB can be classified into three categories; nonmedical therapy or behavioral therapy, medical therapy, and rarely, surgical therapy. In general, the combination of behavioral therapy and medications has been proven to be more effective in treating OAB than either therapy alone.
Coyne, K. S., Sexton, C. C., Bell, J. A., Thompson, C. L., Dmochowski, R., Bavendam, T., … Quentin Clemens, J. (2012, July 27). The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and overactive bladder (OAB) by racial/ethnic group and age: Results from OAB-POLL [Abstract]. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 32(3), 230–237. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22847394
Urinary frequency is occasionally related to neurologic conditions. Stroke, spinal cord injuries, and multiple sclerosis are often associated with frequent urination. Often urinary frequency is caused by abnormal pelvic nerve function and coordination.
In most cases, the reason why an OAB develops is not known and the condition is then referred to as ‘overactive bladder syndrome’. Symptoms may become worse at times of stress. Symptoms may also be made worse by caffeine in tea, coffee, cola, etc and by alcohol (see below).
Overtime OAB causes your bladder muscles to react a certain way. Bladder retraining can help reboot your bladder muscles. The idea is to let the urge to urinate pass before going to the bathroom and gradually work your way toward longer holding times. Bladder retraining also works best alongside Kegel exercises.
Pessaries come in many shapes and sizes. The device fits into your vagina and provides support to vaginal tissues displaced by pelvic organ prolapse. Your doctor can fit you for a pessary and help you decide which type would best suit your needs.
Typically speaking, Pollakiuria is a benign condition and often appears as numerous small voids in a potty-trained toddler. There is often no other underlying condition other than the need to urinate frequently. Doctors do not believe in treating Pollakiuria with drugs as the condition resolves on its own in about seven to 12 months.
Bladder control problems in women (urinary incontinence). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/bladder-control-problems-women. Accessed March 18, 2017.
Overactive bladder can cause other problems too. Hurrying to the bathroom can lead to falls and broken bones. Overactive bladder can also cause sleeping problems, depression, and urinary tract infections.
A complete medical history, which includes a voiding diary and incontinence questionnaire, physical examination, and one or more diagnostic procedures, helps the physician determine the type of urinary incontinence and an appropriate treatment plan.
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Urine is pretty germ-free when it’s your bladder. But on its way out of your body through the urethra, it’s exposed to bacteria. That’s one reason that it’s not a good idea to taste or drink urine (some people are curious) or pee on a jellyfish sting. Both can put you at risk for a bacterial or STD infection.