“opposite of incontinence incontinence bladder surgery”

If bladder spasms occur or there is no urine in the drainage bag when a catheter is in place, the catheter may be blocked by blood, thick sediment, or a kink in the catheter or drainage tubing. Sometimes spasms are caused by the catheter irritating the bladder, prostate or penis. Such spasms can be controlled with medication such as butylscopolamine, although most patients eventually adjust to the irritation and the spasms go away.[16]

Evacuation aids (suppositories or enemas) e.g. glycerine or bisacodyl suppositories may be prescribed. People may have poor resting tone of the anal canal, and consequently may not be able to retain an enema, in which case irrigation (retrograde anal irrigation) may be a better option, as this equipment utilizes an inflatable catheter to prevent loss of the irrigation tip and to provide a water tight seal during irrigation. A volume of lukewarm water is gently pumped into the colon via the anus. People can be taught how to perform this treatment in their own homes, but it does require special equipment. If the irrigation is efficient, stool will not reach the rectum again for up to 48 hours.[31] By regularly emptying the bowel using transanal irrigation, controlled bowel function is often re-established to a high degree in patients with bowel incontinence and/or constipation. This enables control over the time and place of evacuation and development of a consistent bowel routine.[31] However, persistent leaking of residual irrigation fluid during the day may occur and make this option unhelpful, particularly in persons with obstructed defecation syndrome who may have incomplete evacuation of any rectal contents. Consequently, the best time to carry out the irrigation is typically in the evening, allowing any residual liquid to be passed the next morning before leaving the home. Complications such as electrolyte imbalance and perforation are rare. The effect of transanal irrigation varies considerably. Some individuals experience complete control of incontinence, and other report little or no benefit.[31] It has been suggested that if appropriate, people be offered home retrograde anal irrigation.[4]

When a man or woman’s pelvic floor muscles are weak, bladder control issues can happen. The pelvic floor muscles are like a sling that holds up the uterus and bladder. For women, a pregnancy and childbirth can often lead to a stretching and weakening of the vital pelvic floor muscles.  When pelvic floor muscles are compromised for this reason or another, the bladder can then sag out of place. The opening of the urethra also stretches and urine easily leaks out.

Additionally, OAB is associated with increased economic burden and financial complications due to the need for increased caregiver hours, nursing-home placement, and treatment of infections or fractures.

Caffeine and alcohol are diuretics, which means they trigger increased urination. They actually block the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), which, as the name suggests, prevents you from peeing frequently. (4) Once you remove this natural inhibitory mechanism with too much coffee, tea, chocolate or alcohol, it can lead to more frequent trips to the bathroom.

Your GP may advise on treatment or refer you to a continence advisor for advice on bladder training and pelvic floor exercises. Sometimes physiotherapists can help with pelvic floor exercises. In some situations, you and your doctor may decide to wait and see how things go before trying treatment. This is because some mild cases get better on their own over time and without treatment. Sometimes a specialist (usually a urologist or a urogynaecologist if you are a woman) needs to be involved in more difficult cases. Surgery can be used to treat incontinence, especially stress incontinence.

^ Jump up to: a b c d e Gormley, EA; Lightner, DJ; Faraday, M; Vasavada, SP (May 2015). “Diagnosis and Treatment of Overactive Bladder (Non-Neurogenic) in Adults: AUA/SUFU Guideline Amendment”. The Journal of Urology. 193 (5): 1572–80. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2015.01.087. PMID 25623739.

Research shows that 25 to 45 percent of women have some degree of UI. In women ages 20 to 39, 7 to 37 percent report some degree of UI. Nine to 39 percent of women older than 60 report daily UI. Women experience UI twice as often as men.1 Pregnancy, childbirth, menopause, and the structure of the female urinary tract account for this difference.

If you have it, you know overactive bladder (OAB) is a “gotta go now” feeling. While that’s an easy way to explain the condition to a doctor or loved ones, it isn’t as simple to find out what causes it in the first place.

Absorption – The Attends Extra Absorbent Breathable Brief has the rapid lock system that provides superior acquisition. This triple moisture locking system gives this product better absorption, promotes better skin health and odor control.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a bladder disorder that results in an abnormal urge to urinate, urinary frequency, and nocturia (voiding at night). Some patients may also experience urinary incontinence (involuntary loss of bladder control).

Electromyogram or EMG is defined as a test that records the electrical activity of muscles. Normal muscles produce a typical pattern of electrical current that is usually proportional to the level of muscle activity. Diseases of muscle and/or nerves can produce abnormal electormyogram patterns.

Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, et al. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002. 21(2):167-78. [Medline].

As your bladder fills, nerve signals sent to your brain eventually trigger the need to urinate. When you urinate, nerve signals coordinate the relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles and the muscles of the urethra (urinary sphincter muscles). The muscles of the bladder tighten (contract), pushing the urine out.

There is little information on what causes Pollakiuria, but experts believe stress plays a role. Doctors feel this condition doesn’t require treatment, as the frequent urination disappears in three months. Since the child experiences increased daytime urination, the condition is also known as Extraordinary Daytime Urinary Frequency Syndrome.

Talk with your doctor about whether surgery will help your condition and what type of surgery is best for you. The procedure you choose may depend on your own preferences or on your surgeon’s experience. Ask what you should expect after the procedure. You may also wish to talk with someone who has recently had the procedure. Surgeons have described more than 200 procedures for stress incontinence, so no single surgery stands out as best.

Stress incontinence results from a weak urinary sphincter. Medications that strengthen the urethral contraction include sympathomimetic drugs (such as pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, known as Sudafed), estrogen, and milodrine.

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Stress incontinence occurs when pelvic floor muscles weaken. The condition is the most common type of urinary incontinence in young women. Stress incontinence is the second most common type in older women. Activities like exercise, walking, stretching, bending, laughing, coughing, sneezing, or lifting place strain on weakened pelvic floor muscles, and that leads to leaks. Any activity that increases physical strain on pelvic floor muscles may lead to stress incontinence–even sex. The amount that leaks varies. It may be a few drops or up to a tablespoon or more, depending on severity.

OAB is an extremely common disorder. Approximately 33% of people in the United States have OAB. An estimated 40% of women in the U.S. have the condition. Despite the fact that millions of people and a large percentage of women have OAB, it is not normal and you don’t have to live with uncomfortable, limiting symptoms. There are treatments that can help.

Surgery. As a last resort, surgery to treat urgency incontinence in men includes the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) and the male sling. A health care professional performs the surgery in a hospital with regional or general anesthesia. Most men can leave the hospital the same day, although some may need to stay overnight.

Siamak N. Nabili, M. (2014). Overactive Bladder: Facts for Men, Women, and Children. [online] MedicineNet. Available at: http://www.medicinenet.com/overactive_bladder/article.htm [Accessed 6 Apr. 2015].

Radical prostatectomy: The surgical removal of the entire prostate gland — called radical prostatectomy — is one treatment for prostate cancer. In some cases, the surgery may lead to erection problems and UI.

Trospium chloride (Sanctura) is available in both a once a day and twice a day therapy. Trospium is less likely to get into the brain and is broken down differently than other medications, which may be beneficial in some individuals.

Sensory afferent nerves may also play a role in OAB. Activation of normally C sensory fibers may help produce symptoms of OAB in individuals with neurologic and other disorders. Several types of receptors identified on sensory nerves may have a role in OAB symptoms. These include vanilloid, purinergic, neurokinin A, and nerve growth factor receptors. Substances such as nitric oxide, calcitonin gene-related protein, and brain-derived neurotropic factor may also have a role in modulating sensory afferent fibers in the human bladder. [6, 7]

Women who have urgency incontinence can use the same techniques as for stress incontinence, including bladder training, urgency suppression, pelvic floor exercises, and behavioral and lifestyle changes. A woman can also try urgency suppression techniques, medications, Botox injections, and electrical nerve stimulation if necessary.

This minor outpatient procedure is used for stress incontinence in men and women when the sphincter controlling outflow of urine is weakened or incompetent. Done under local anesthesia, collagen or another substance is injected into the area around the urethra. This adds bulk, which better compresses the sphincter. A skin test is required before the procedure to determine if any allergic reaction might occur to the collagen.

Most people urinate between six and eight times a day. But if you’re drinking plenty, it’s not abnormal to go as many as 10 times a day. You may also pee more often if you’re taking certain medications, like diuretics for high blood pressure.

An alternative theory of the mechanism of stress incontinence stems from research involving ultrasound visualization of the bladder neck and proximal urethra during stress maneuvers. This research found that 93% of patients with stress incontinence displayed funneling of the proximal urethra with straining, and half of those individuals also showed funneling at rest. [14] In addition, during stress maneuvers, the urethra did not rotate and descend as a single unit; rather, the posterior urethral wall moved farther than the anterior wall.

Since there are so many possible causes of incontinence, bladder weakness or bladder problems, it should be diagnosed by a physician in order to ensure that this is not a symptom of another medical problem, and so that the correct treatment options can be discussed and selected.

Additional Information – Tena has been providing products in the incontinence area for over 50 years. They are constantly improving their products and technology for a better caring product. They understand that each person and situation is unique. They want to provide products that are tailored to meet each individuals needs and circumstances.

Acidic foods and drinks, such as grapefruits and orange juice, can also irritate your bladder, Dr. Winkler says. But don’t let citrus scare you away from other fruits, such as apples, blueberries, and pears, which provide key nutrients as well as a healthy dose of fiber.

“incontinence synonym female stress incontinence”

S2-S5 nerve root injury (herniation) can cause bladder dysfunction. Cauda equina syndrome can develop in patients with a large centrally protruding disk. Symptoms include bilateral leg pain and weakness, saddle anesthesia, urinary retention or incontinence, and fecal retention or incontinence. It is important to recognize this syndrome early because there is a high risk for chronic neurologic deficits if treatment is delayed.

This adult diaper brief has the most absorbency you can get which will protect the skin from being damp. The peach mat absorbent core will guarantee the right ph neutralization and maximum odor control.

So, ensure that your little one eats fiber-rich food and drinks enough water to prevent constipation. Persistent constipation is not a good sign. You should consult your pediatrician to learn about the reason for constipation. Also, if your child complains of pain while passing stool, he needs medical evaluation. The pain could be why your kid is controlling bowel movements, which cause frequent urination.

Cardoza, L., & Robinson, D. (2002, November). Special considerations in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with symptoms of overactive bladder [Abstract]. Urology, 60(5), 64-71. Retrieved from http://www.goldjournal.net/article/S0090-4295(02)01799-5/abstract

Subak LL, Wing R, West DS, Franklin F, Vittinghoff E, Creasman JM, et al. Weight loss to treat urinary incontinence in overweight and obese women. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 29. 360(5):481-90. [Medline]. [Full Text].

UI is not a disease. Instead, it can be a symptom of certain conditions or the result of particular events during a man’s life. Conditions or events that may increase a man’s chance of developing UI include

This severe type of incontinence is characterized by constant or near constant leakage with no symptoms other than wetness. Generally, this represents a significant breech in the storage capabilities of the bladder or urethra. Urogenital fistulas are a classic example.

For urge incontinence not responding to behavioral treatments or drugs, stimulation of nerves to the bladder leaving the spine can be effective in some patients. Neuromodulation is the name of this therapy. The FDA has approved a device called InterStim for this purpose. Your doctor will need to test to if this device would be helpful to you. The doctor applies an external stimulator to determine if neuromodulation works in you. If you have a 50 percent reduction in symptoms, a surgeon will implant the device. Although neuromodulation can be effective, it is not for everyone. The therapy is expensive, involving surgery with possible surgical revisions and replacement.

You can get on track for good urologic health with better eating habits and small changes to your lifestyle.  Read our Living Healthy section to find healthy recipes and fitness tips to manage and prevent urologic conditions.

Scheduled toilet trips. Setting a schedule for toileting — for example, every two to four hours — gets you on track to urinate at the same times every day rather than waiting until you feel the urge to urinate.

People who receive this treatment should talk to their health care provider about taking antibiotics before, during and after, to help prevent urinary tract infection (UTI). Side effects include painful urination, urinary retention (incomplete emptying of the bladder), and UTI.

Visit your doctor or other health professional if you have concerns about bladder control. Difficulty with bladder control can be prevented, treated, better managed or cured. You shouldn’t be embarrassed to discuss your bladder problems as many other people experience problems too.

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Biofeedback: This improves the strength and coordination of the anal muscles that help control bowel movements, and heightens the sensation related to the rectum filling with stool. It usually involves a specially trained physiotherapist teaching you simple exercises to strengthen your pelvic-floor muscles, sense when stool is ready to be released and contract the muscles if it’s not appropriate to have a bowel movement at a specific time.

Urge incontinence (unstable or overactive bladder) is the second most common cause. You have an urgent desire to pass urine. Sometimes urine leaks before you have time to get to the toilet. The bladder muscle contracts too early and the normal control is reduced. In most cases, the cause of urge incontinence is not known. This is called idiopathic urge incontinence. It seems that the bladder muscle gives wrong messages to the brain and the bladder may feel fuller than it actually is. Sometimes urge incontinence can occur because of problems with the nervous system (the brain, spinal cord and other nerves in the body). See separate leaflet called Urge Incontinence for more details.

In case, your kid displays frequent urge to urinate, consult a pediatric urologist. If your child doesn’t have infection and diabetes, the urge could have behavioral reasons. This comes from consuming large amounts of fluids unnecessarily, resulting in frequent urge. Other children, especially boys between the ages of three and a half and four years, are fascinated with the process of urination. This habit can last for about six months before it disappears.

What you should know – The McKesson Protective Underwear Ultra is a unisex pull on for moderate absorbency. The pull on style is as easy to use as your normal underwear. It features a stretchable waistband for comfort and fit. The core is a high quality layer that will absorb fluids quickly away from the skin. This reduces the pH level for a healthier skin and odor reduction. The leg cuffs at the leg openings give you a better, snug fit and helps with leakage control. The McKesson Protective Underwear Ultra is very discreet and comfortable.

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To work properly, your bladder relies on a healthy urinary tract. It also needs intact communication pathways between your nerves and bladder muscle. Several conditions can affect these parts of your body and cause your bladder muscle to contract involuntarily. This can trigger symptoms of OAB.

In 1989, the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference estimated the annual cost of urinary incontinence in the United States to be $12.4 billion. Some experts believe that this is a conservative estimate. True costs can be difficult to estimate because many individuals do not come to the attention of medical specialists.

If you are frequently experiencing an increased need to urinate, it could be a sign that your sugar levels are too high. If you have access to blood glucose testing strips, you may wish to test your sugar levels if you are urinating more often than normal.

Do not squeeze other muscles at the same time or hold your breath. Also, be careful not to tighten your stomach, leg, or buttock muscles. Squeezing the wrong muscles can put more pressure on your bladder control muscles. Squeeze just the pelvic muscles.

A normal bladder functions through a complex coordination of musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychological functions that allow it to fill and empty. The prime effector of continence is the synergic relaxation of detrusor muscles and contraction of bladder neck and pelvic floor muscles.

The patient may have a congenital problem (born with a defect), there may be an injury to the spinal cord or urinary system, or there may be a hole (fistula) between the bladder and, for example, the vagina.

A reduced force of contraction in response to electrical field stimulation: This finding is in contrast to a previous study showing an increased sensitivity to electrical field stimulation, but the authors believe that the muscle strips may have had increased sensitivity to direct electrical stimulation (non–nerve mediated).

Mixed incontinence is urinary incontinence resulting from a combination of stress and urge incontinence. [8] Approximately 40-60% of females with incontinence have this combination. Although it is generally defined as detrusor overactivity and impaired urethral function, the pathophysiology of mixed urinary incontinence is still being investigated. While generally thought of as separate etiologies for incontinence, some indirect evidence may link these disorders in some instances.

Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience UI twice as often as men.

You may discover that certain situations make you go to the toilet more often or less often when you’re out. Knowing where the toilet is and going to the toilet as soon as you get the urge are habits that many people with bladder problems practice, especially when they’re away from home.

Functional incontinence occurs when physical disability, external obstacles, or problems in thinking or communicating keep a person from reaching a place to urinate in time. For example, a man with Alzheimer’s disease may not plan ahead for a timely trip to a toilet. A man in a wheelchair may have difficulty getting to a toilet in time. Arthritis—pain and swelling of the joints—can make it hard for a man to walk to the restroom quickly or open his pants in time.

In males, early obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may result in urge incontinence. [22] The pathophysiology of BPH is poorly understood. Relative obstruction develops because of mechanical factors, dynamic factors, and detrusor alterations.

Other diagnostic tests may include stress tests in which you are asked to cough hard so your doctor can observe for loss of urine, ultrasound to examine the urinary system organs, urine and blood tests to search for contributing factors, or specialised urodynamic testing by means of a catheter to test your bladder strength. Your GP may refer you to a urologist or urogynaecologist.

Medications: Your doctor may recommend specific medication or bulking agents such as fibre supplements to change stool consistency, depending on whether you suffer from diarrhoea or constipation. Another option is Solesta, an injectable FDA-approved gel that’s injected into the anus and effectively reduces or completely treats FI in some people. This gel narrows the anal opening by increasing the growth of rectal tissue and helping it to remain tightly closed.

A cystogram is a radiograph (X-ray image) of the bladder. In this procedure, a solution containing a radioisotope (contrast media) is instilled into the bladder via a catheter until the bladder is full (or the patient indicates that the bladder feels full). X-ray images are then taken of the bladder while full and during or after urination.

Urge incontinence is associated with the frequent passage of urine during the day (frequency) and night (nocturia). Bladder muscle instability caused by pathology in the bladder, such as infection, stones or tumour, is often associated with burning urine (dysuria) and blood in the urine (hematuria). Bladder pain is common with infections, stones and interstitial cystitis.

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Selecting an adult diaper or incontinence product can be overwhelming. There are many questions that arise such as, “Which diapers are the most absorbent?” “Which diapers are the best for overnight?” “What is my size in a particular brand?” “Should I use the tab-style or pull-on style underwear?”

About one in 20 people experience poor bowel control. It is more common as you get older, but a lot of young people also have poor bowel control. Many people with poor bowel control also have poor bladder control (wetting themselves).

Biofeedback is effective for both common forms of this disorder. A review of more than 24 different studies involving more than 1,500 affected women concluded that those who received biofeedback in addition to pelvic floor muscle training were much more likely to report improvements or cures of their condition compared to those who received pelvic floor muscle training alone. However, it is unknown whether the increase in successful outcomes was due to the addition of biofeedback or the extra time that women spent with healthcare professionals during the sessions.

Mark A Silverberg, MD, MMB, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Urgency suppression. By using certain techniques, a man can suppress the urge to urinate, called urgency suppression. Urgency suppression is a way for a man to train his bladder to maintain control so he does not have to panic about finding a restroom. Some men use distraction techniques to take their mind off the urge to urinate. Other men find taking long, relaxing breaths and being still can help. Doing pelvic floor exercises also can help suppress the urge to urinate.

Absorbency – This is one of the most important factors in an adult diaper that sets one apart from another. The whole purpose of a person wearing them is to prevent leaks and accidents from occurring where the user ends up with wet clothing. A good quality adult diaper needs to be as absorbent as possible and needs to be able to handle as much liquid as the user expels. Since most adult diapers have different degrees of absorbency, from light to heavy to overnight it should be fairly easy to get the amount of absorbency you need. You want to be certain that the adult diaper remains comfortable even where there is liquid present. You also want to ensure that it absorbs the liquid well and pulls the dampness away from the skin.

Also known as reflex incontinence or “overactive bladder,” this is the second most common type of urinary incontinence. There is a sudden, involuntary contraction of the muscular wall of the bladder that causes an urge to urinate that cannot be stopped.

How to treat an overactive bladder with natural remedies In this article, learn about the symptoms of an overactive bladder, when a doctor should be consulted, and natural remedies to treat an overactive bladder. Read now

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) has many research programs aimed at finding treatments for urinary disorders, including urinary incontinence. The NIDDK is sponsoring the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network (UITN), a consortium of urologists and urogynecologists who are evaluating and comparing treatment methods for stress and mixed incontinence in women. The goal of the first study, completed in 2007, was to learn which treatment methods have the best short- and long-term outcomes for treating stress urinary incontinence in women. Ongoing studies focus on treatments for urge incontinence and minimally invasive treatments for stress incontinence.

Management of overactive bladder often begins with behavioral strategies, such as fluid schedules, timed voiding and bladder-holding techniques using your pelvic floor. If these initial efforts don’t help enough with your overactive bladder symptoms, medications are available.

The bladder is made of two types of muscles: the detrusor, a muscular sac that stores urine and squeezes to empty, and the sphincter, a circular group of muscles at the bottom or neck of the bladder that automatically stay contracted to hold the urine in and automatically relax when the detrusor contracts to let the urine into the urethra. A third group of muscles below the bladder (pelvic floor muscles) can contract to keep urine back.

A pessary is a device used to treat this problem. The device is inserted into the vagina by a doctor or nurse. The pessary pushes into the vaginal wall, affecting the position of the urethra so that leaks are less likely. A pessary may be used as a nonsurgical option to treat certain kinds of pelvic organ prolapse. Some pessaries are meant to be worn continuously. Others may be used as needed, for example only during grueling exercise.

stress urinary incontinence a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as loss of urine of less than 50 ml when there is increased abdominal pressure. See also stress incontinence.

The medication oxybutynin is used to control such problems as urgent, uncontrolled, or frequent urination and other conditions that affect the bladder muscles. Oxybutynin works by relaxing the bladder muscles to prevent urinary problems. However, there are newer drugs available that may have fewer side effects.

Pharmacological management may include anti-diarrheal/constipating agents and laxatives/stool bulking agents Stopping or substituting any previous medication that causes diarrhea may be helpful in some (see table). There is not good evidence for the use of any medications however.[28]

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I am a 21 year old female in the UK, and I have been suffering with a painful burning sensation which I believe to be coming from my urethra since September 2014. The pain comes and goes throughout…

When the brain senses the bladder is about half full, it usually sends out nerve signals. These cause the pelvic floor and sphincter muscles to relax while the detrusor contracts, squeezing out urine.

An ectopic ureter is a congenital (born with) abnormality in which the ureter opens in an abnormal position. Depending on the position of the opening it can cause incontinence in females but not in males. If only one side is affected the patient passes urine in the normal manner, while also suffering from a continuous leak. Symptoms are present from birth.

Liquid stool is more difficult to control than formed, solid stool. Hence, FI can be exacerbated by diarrhea.[4] Some consider diarrhea to be the most common aggravating factor.[2] Where diarrhea is caused by temporary problems such as mild infections or food reactions, incontinence tends to be short lived. Chronic conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn’s disease, can cause severe diarrhea lasting for weeks or months. Diseases, drugs, and indigestible dietary fats that interfere with the intestineal absorption may cause steatorrhea (oily rectal discharge & fatty diarrhea) and degrees of FI. Respective examples include cystic fibrosis, orlistat, and olestra. Postcholecystectomy diarrhea is diarrhea that occurs following gall bladder removal, due to excess bile acid.[citation needed] Orlistat is an anti-obesity (weight loss) drug that blocks the absorption of fats. This may give side effects of FI, diarrhea and steatorrhea.[17]

Though it occurs more often as people get older, urinary incontinence isn’t an inevitable consequence of aging. If urinary incontinence affects your daily activities, don’t hesitate to see your doctor. For most people, simple lifestyle changes or medical treatment can ease discomfort or stop urinary incontinence.

Incontinence causes can vary as there are several types of incontinence, with the most common being stress incontinence and urge incontinence. Stress incontinence is caused when the pelvic floor muscles that support the bladder are weakened or damaged, which can occur in pregnancy, childbirth or with weight gain. Urge incontinence’s causes can include infections, neurological disorders and emotional stress.

Urine is made by the kidneys and stored in a sac made of muscle, called the urinary bladder. A tube called the urethra leads from the bladder through the prostate and penis to the outside of the body. Around this tube is a ring of muscles called the urinary sphincter. As the bladder fills with urine, nerve signals tell the sphincter to stay squeezed shut while the bladder stays relaxed. The nerves and muscles work together to prevent urine from leaking out of the body.

The suprapubic catheter has advantages compared to the urethral catheter: The risk of urethral damage is eliminated, a suprapubic tube is more patient-friendly, bladder spasms occur less often because the suprapubic catheter does not irritate the outflow area of the bladder, and suprapubic tubes are more sanitary because the tube is away from the urethra/anal area (perineum). Suprapubic tubes may cause fewer urinary tract infections than standard urethral catheters.

By looking at your bladder diary, the doctor may see a pattern and suggest making it a point to use the bathroom at regular timed intervals, a habit called timed voiding. As you gain control, you can extend the time between scheduled trips to the bathroom. Behavioral treatment also includes Kegel exercises to strengthen the muscles that help hold in urine.

Studies show that many things increase risk. For example, aging is linked to urinary incontinence. Pregnancy, delivery, and number of children increase the risk in women. Women who have had a baby have higher rates of urinary incontinence. The risk increases with the number of children. This is true for cesarean section (c-section) and vaginal delivery.

Digital rectal exam. A digital rectal exam is a physical exam of the rectum. The health care professional slides a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum, usually during a pelvic exam. A health care professional uses the digital rectal exam to check for stool or masses in the rectum that may be causing UI.

Daneshgari F, Imrey PB, Risendal B, Dwyer A, Barber MD, Byers T. Differences in urinary incontinence between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women: a population-based study. BJU Int. 2008 Mar. 101(5):575-9. [Medline].

Involuntary actions of bladder muscles can occur because of damage to the nerves of the bladder, to the nervous system (spinal cord and brain), or to the muscles themselves. Multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, and injury-including injury that occurs during surgery-all can harm bladder nerves or muscles.

Obstruction. A tumor anywhere along your urinary tract can block the normal flow of urine, leading to overflow incontinence. Urinary stones — hard, stone-like masses that form in the bladder — sometimes cause urine leakage.

In a prospective cohort study of 5,391 young women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health, depressive symptoms were associated with 37% higher odds of having urinary incontinence after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index, health behaviors, and reproductive factors. Having physician-diagnosed depression was associated with 42% higher odds. [33]

FI can be divided into those people who experience a defecation urge before leakage (urge incontinence), and those who experience no sensation before leakage (passive incontinence or Urge incontinence is characterized by a sudden need to defecate, with little time to reach a toilet. Urge and passive FI may be associated with weakness of the external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) respectively. Urgency may also be associated with reduced rectal volume, reduced ability of the rectal walls to distend and accommodate stool, and increased rectal sensitivity.[3]

If you’ve been taking water pills, caffeine pills, or other medications that increase your urine output, they can cause OAB-like symptoms. If you need to take your medication with lots of fluids, the fluids can also increase your urine production dramatically and cause urgency (the sudden need to go) and incontinence (loss of bladder control).

However, it’s not uncommon for women to need to go to the toilet more frequently and urgently after this procedure, and some find they’re unable to completely empty their bladder when they go to the toilet.

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Updated by: Jennifer Sobol, DO, urologist with the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Anything that damages, stretches, or weakens pelvic floor muscles may lead to stress incontinence. Some causes cannot be changed. Increasing age and female gender increase the risk. Pelvic floor surgery, injury to the nerves in the lower back, chronic coughing, smoking, obesity, and pregnancy and childbirth are also causes. Women who have multiple pregnancies are at an even greater risk, as are those who have undergone a C-section.

FI is generally treatable with conservative management, surgery or both.[2] The success of treatment depends upon the exact causes and how easily these are corrected.[4] Treatment choice depends on the cause and severity of disease, and the motivation and general health of the person effected. Commonly, conservative measures are used together, if appropriate surgery carried out. Treatments may be attempted until symptoms are satisfactorily controlled. A treatment algorithm based upon the cause has been proposed, including conservative, non-operative and surgical measures (neosphincter refers to either dynamic graciloplasty or artificial bowel sphincter, lavage refers to retrograde rectal irrigation).[2] Conservative measures include dietary modification, drug treatment, retrograde anal irrigation, biofeedback retraining anal sphincter exercises. Incontinence products refer to devices such as anal plugs and perineal pads and garments such as diapers/nappies. Perineal pads are efficient and acceptable for only minor incontinence.[2] If all other measures are ineffective removing the entire colon may be an option.[citation needed]

Urinary frequency is considered abnormal if the person urinates more than eight times in a day. This frequency is usually monitored by having the patient keep a voiding diary where they record urination episodes.[3] The number of episodes varies depending on sleep, fluid intake, medications, and up to seven is considered normal if consistent with the other factors.

Bladder training. This is the most common OAB treatment that doesn’t involve medication. Bladder training helps change the way you use the bathroom. Instead of going whenever you feel the urge, you urinate at set times of the day, called scheduled voiding. You learn to control the urge to go by waiting — for a few minutes at first, then gradually increasing to an hour or more between bathroom visits.

This type of incontinence includes the symptoms of stress incontinence and urge incontinence together. With mixed incontinence, the problem is that the bladder is overactive (the urge to urinate is strong and frequent) and the urethra may be underactive (the urine cannot be held back even without the urge to urinate). Those with mixed incontinence experience mild to moderate urine loss with physical activities (stress incontinence). At other times, they experience sudden urine loss without any warning (urge incontinence). Urinary frequency, urgency, and nocturia also occur. Most of the time, the symptoms blend together, and the first goal of treatment is to address the part of the symptom complex that is most distressing.

You may want to reconsider reaching for hot pepper sauce at every meal or always eating sushi with wasabi. For pretty much the same reason that hot, spicy foods can make your mouth burn, it is thought they can irritate the bladder lining and worsen symptoms. “If you want to eat foods with flavor, you can use some herbs instead of spices,” says Harvey Winkler, MD, co-chief of urogynecology at North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System in Manhasset, N.Y.

The procedure usually is performed using local anesthesia and intravenous (IV) sedation. A lead (special wire with electrical contacts) is placed near the sacral nerve and is passed under the skin to a neurostimulator, which is about the size of a stopwatch. The neurostimulator is placed under the skin in the upper buttock.

Specific treatment is not always required.[3] If treatment is desired pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, and other behavioral methods are initially recommended.[4] Weight loss in those who are overweight, decreasing caffeine consumption, and drinking moderate fluids, can also have benefits.[4] Medications, typically of the anti-muscarinic type, are only recommended if other measures are not effective.[4] They are no more effective than behavioral methods; however, they are associated with side effects, particularly in older people.[4][7] Some non-invasive electrical stimulation methods appear effective while they are in use.[8] Injections of botulinum toxin into the bladder is another option.[4] Urinary catheters or surgery are generally not recommended.[4] A diary to track problems can help determine whether treatments are working.[4]

OAB symptoms may interfere with your daily activities and disrupt sleep. The potential for frequent, hurried trips to the bathroom and the possibility of incontinence can be stressful. Many people find that OAB makes them less social and more likely to stay home to avoid being caught without a bathroom.

Third-line therapy: Sacral neuromodulation or peripheral tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) for carefully selected patients with severe refractory OAB symptoms or those who are not candidates for second-line therapy and are willing to undergo a surgical procedure; intradetrusor injection of onabotulinumtoxinA is another option

Alpha-blockers. Terazosin (Hytrin), doxazosin (Cardura), tamsulosin (Flomax), alfuzosin (Uroxatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo) are used to treat problems caused by prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction. These medications relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck, which lets urine flow normally and prevents abnormal bladder contractions that can lead to urgency incontinence.

Another study published last June in the journal PLoS One found that 77 percent of more than 1,500 mothers studied had persistent back pain a year after having their babies, and 49 percent had urinary incontinence.

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Some nervous system conditions can increase the susceptibility to develop overactive bladder. These conditions include diabetic neuropathy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, dementia, and Parkinson’s disease.

Don’t restrict fluid. Ask your doctor how much fluid you need daily. If you don’t drink enough, your urine becomes concentrated and can irritate the lining of your bladder. This increases the urge to urinate.

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Sometimes, however, frequent urination may be due to damage to the nerves in the bladder as well. Sometimes a woman does not experience problems with bladder control immediately after giving birth, but she may experience symptoms years later.

Medical treatment does not have a great role in stress incontinence. Postmenopausal atrophy affects the closure of the urethra. Oestrogens, which can be taken orally or applied locally, restores the bulk of urethral tissue leading to more effective closure. Alpha-agonists increase the tone in the bladder neck, thereby increasing outflow resistance. Some studies indicate a beneficial effect using a combination of estrogen and an alpha-agonist in older post-menopausal women.

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Dietary modification may be important for successful management.[3] Both diarrhea and constipation can contribute to different cases, so dietary advice must be tailored to address the underlying cause or it may be ineffective or counter productive. In persons with disease aggravated by diarrhea or those with rectal loading by soft stools, the following suggestions may be beneficial: increase dietary fiber; reduce wholegrain cereals/bread; reduce fruit and vegetables which contain natural laxative compounds (rhubarb, figs, prunes/plums); limit beans, pulses, cabbage and sprouts; reduce spices (especially chilli); reduce artificial sweeteners (e.g. sugar free chewing gum); reduce alcohol (especially stout, beer and ale); reduce lactose if there is some degree of lactase deficiency; and reduce caffeine. Caffeine lowers the resting tone of the anal canal and also causes diarrhea. Excessive doses of vitamin C, magnesium, phosphorus and/or calcium supplements may increase FI. Reducing olestra fat substitute, which can cause diarrhea, may also help.[27]

Treatments include surgery, pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, and electrical stimulation.[7] The benefit of medications is small and long term safety is unclear.[7] It is more common in older women.[8]

Injection of botulinum toxin into the bladder is considered a third-line therapy for the treatment of overactive bladder and is used in individuals who have tried and failed and/or cannot tolerate the side effects of medical therapy and/or has contraindications to the use of medications to treat overactive bladder.

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OAB is an extremely common disorder. Approximately 33% of people in the United States have OAB. An estimated 40% of women in the U.S. have the condition. Despite the fact that millions of people and a large percentage of women have OAB, it is not normal and you don’t have to live with uncomfortable, limiting symptoms. There are treatments that can help.

Some medicines can cause overactive bladder. Talk with your doctor about the medicines you’re taking to find out if they could affect your bladder. But don’t stop taking your medicine without talking to your doctor first.

A normal bladder functions through a complex coordination of musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychological functions that allow it to fill and empty. The prime effector of continence is the synergic relaxation of detrusor muscles and contraction of bladder neck and pelvic floor muscles.

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Petros PE. New ambulatory surgical methods using an anatomical classification of urinary dysfunction improve stress, urge and abnormal emptying. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 1997. 8(5):270-7. [Medline].

Herschorn S, Swift S, Guan Z, et al. Comparison of fesoterodine and tolterodine extended release for the treatment of overactive bladder: a head-to-head placebo-controlled trial. BJU Int. 2010 Jan. 105(1):58-66. [Medline].

Vaginal weight training can be used to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles and treat stress incontinence in women. Vaginal weights look like tampons and are used to enhance pelvic floor muscle exercises. Shaped like a small cone, vaginal weights are available in a set of five, with increasing weights (for example, 20 g, 32.5 g, 45 g, 60 g, and 75 g). As part of a progressive resistive exercise program, a single weight is inserted into the vagina and held in place by tightening the muscles around the vagina for as long as 15 minutes. As the levator ani muscles become stronger, the exercise duration may be increased to 30 minutes.

Understanding the causes and risk factors for OAB may help you avoid developing it. If you have OAB, diagnosing the cause and identifying triggers can help you manage your condition. Healthy lifestyle choices are important. Try to maintain a healthy weight, eat a well-balanced diet, and get regular exercise. Stay in touch with your doctor, who can help you manage your symptoms and treat any underlying health conditions.

Conditions that can worsen or contribute to the different types of incontinence include constipation or stool impaction, diabetes, hypertension, tobacco use, and obesity. Further, taking certain medications (such as some antidepressants, estrogens, diuretics, and sleep medications) may worsen incontinence.

Antipsychotics: A number of antipsychotics have been associated with urinary incontinence, including chlorpromazine, thioridazine, chlorprothixene, thiothixene, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine (including enanthate and decanoate), haloperidol, and pimozide.19-24 Incontinence occurs over a broad range of antipsychotic dosages. Additionally, whereas some patients experience urinary incontinence within hours of initiating antipsychotic therapy, others do not experience incontinence for weeks after initiation. In most cases, the incontinence remits spontaneously upon discontinuation of the antipsychotic. Typical antipsychotics are primarily dopamine antagonists and lead to stress urinary incontinence, atypical antipsychotics are antagonists at serotonin receptors.24 Antipsychotics also cause incontinence by one or more of the following mechanisms: alpha-adrenergic blockade, dopamine blockade, and cholinergic actions on the bladder.25 Owing to these complex drug-receptor interactions, a generalized description of how antipsychotics cause urinary incontinence cannot be given.1

To urinate, the brain signals the muscular bladder wall to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax. As the sphincters relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra.

Urge incontinence is a form of urinary incontinence characterized by the involuntary loss of urine occurring for no apparent reason while feeling urinary urgency as discussed above. Like frequency, the person can track incontinence in a diary to assist with diagnosis and management of symptoms. Urge incontinence can also be measured with pad tests, and these are often used for research purposes. Some people with urge incontinence also have stress incontinence and this can complicate clinical studies.[3]

The Public Education Council improves the quality of resources the Foundation provides. The Council serves to develop, review and oversee the educational materials and programs the Foundation provides.

An OAB occurs when the bladder squeezes (contracts) suddenly without you having control and when the bladder is not full. OAB syndrome is a common condition where no cause can be found for the repeated and uncontrolled bladder contractions. (For example, it is not due to a urine infection or an enlarged prostate gland.)

Certain medications may lead to symptoms of OAB. Diuretics can cause urge incontinence because of increased bladder filling, stimulating the detrusor. Bethanechol can also cause urge incontinence through its stimulation of bladder smooth-muscle contraction.

Urinary incontinence. Urodynamic study revealing detrusor instability in a 75-year-old man with urge incontinence. Note the presence of multiple uninhibited detrusor contractions (phasic contractions) that is generating 40- to 75-cm H2O pressure during the filling cystometrogram (CMG). He also has small bladder capacity (81 mL), which is indicative of poorly compliant bladder.

Urgency, the hallmark of OAB, is defined as the sudden compelling desire to urinate, a sensation that is difficult to defer. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is urinary leakage associated with urgency. UUI is one of the most common types of urinary incontinence. Some women may have both stress urinary incontinence and UUI, and this is called mixed urinary incontinence.

Constipation can also put extra pressure on your bladder and pelvic floor muscles so make sure you have plenty of fresh fruit, veggies and fibre in your diet. These will help your digestive system work better and help you avoid constipation

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Uroflowmetry, or uroflow, is used to identify abnormal voiding patterns. This is a noninvasive test to measure the volume of urine voided (urinated), the velocity or speed of the urination, and its duration.

OAB can have many causes, including aging-related changes, medical conditions like Parkinson’s disease, bladder obstruction, and weak pelvic muscles. Sometimes, the cause is unknown. OAB is a very common and treatable condition.

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Treatments are different for each person. They depend on the type of incontinence you have and how much it affects your life. After your doctor knows what has caused the incontinence, your treatment may include exercises, bladder training, medicines, a pessary, or a combination of these. Some women may need surgery.

You will need to keep a diary. On the diary make a note of the times you pass urine, and the amount (volume) that you pass each time. Also make a note of any times that you leak urine (are incontinent). Your doctor or nurse may have some pre-printed diary charts for this purpose to give you. Keep an old measuring jug by the toilet so that you can measure the amount of urine you pass each time you go to the toilet. 

Tapp AJ, Cardozo LD, Versi E, Cooper D. The treatment of detrusor instability in post-menopausal women with oxybutynin chloride: a double blind placebo controlled study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990 Jun. 97(6):521-6. [Medline].

A 2013 randomized controlled trial found no benefit of adding biofeedback to pelvic floor muscle exercise in stress urinary incontinence, but observing improvements in both groups.[25][non-primary source needed] In another randomized controlled trial the addition of biofeedback to the training of pelvic floor muscles for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence, improved pelvic floor muscle function, reduced urinary symptoms, and improved of the quality of life.[26][non-primary source needed]

Burgio KL, Locher JL, Goode PS, Hardin JM, McDowell BJ, Dombrowski M, et al. Behavioral vs drug treatment for urge urinary incontinence in older women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998 Dec 16. 280(23):1995-2000. [Medline].

Side effects—including dry mouth, constipation, headache, blurred vision, dry eyes, hypertension, drowsiness, urinary retention, and others—depend on which medication is prescribed and occur in approximately 20 percent of those who use these medications. Oral OAB medications should be used with caution in patients with certain types of kidney, liver, stomach, and urinary problems. Due to an increased risk for narrow-angle glaucoma, an ophthalmologist should be consulted before using OAB medications. Women who are pregnant should not take these medicines without consulting a physician.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission. Symptoms of MS include sexual problems and problems with the bowel, bladder, eyes, muscles, speech, swallowing, brain, and nervous system. The early symptoms and signs of multiple sclerosis usually start between age 20 and 40. MS in children, teens, and those over age 40 is rare. Treatment options for multiple sclerosis vary depending on the type and severity of symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to manage MS symptoms.

Overactive bladder occurs when a muscle in the bladder known as the detrusor contracts more often than normal. This causes a person to feel a sudden and sometimes overwhelming urge to urinate even when the bladder isn’t full.

OAB is another common type of urinary incontinence. It is also called “urgency” incontinence. OAB affects more than 30% of men and 40% of women in the U.S. It affects people’s lives. They may restrict activities. They may fear they will suddenly have to urinate when they aren’t near a bathroom. They may not even be able to get a good night’s sleep. Some people have both SUI and OAB and this is known as mixed incontinence.

Percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation. The posterior tibial nerve also controls bladder function . It can be stimulated by passing electric current through a needle inserted through the skin just above the ankle.

The cure rate of this procedure is reported to be somewhat higher for women than men. The collagen used can be absorbed by the body over time, so the procedure may need to be repeated. In addition, other materials exist that work as effectively as collagen and may last longer (silicone-coated beads and Coaptite, or Macroplastique).

Typically, the medications for overactive bladder start to work within one to two weeks, and optimal relief of OAB symptoms is usually achieved by six weeks. The most common medications (anticholinergics), bladder relaxants, target to decrease the overactivity of the detrusor muscle. Anticholinergics should be used under the direction of the physician prescribing them. They may have some common side effects, including dry mouth, constipation, facial flushing, blurry vision, and confusion (in the elderly). There are multiple anticholinergic therapies approved for the treatment of overactive bladder. They all are similar in their ability to treat the symptoms of overactive bladder but differ in the frequency and type of side effects as well as method of use. Some are once daily, some are topical treatments applied to the skin, and some come in different doses, allowing one to increase the dose if needed. Lastly, several of these medications are now available in generic forms.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition that affects millions of Americans. Overactive bladder isn’t a disease. It’s the name of a group of urinary symptoms. The most common symptom of OAB is a sudden urge to urinate that you can’t control. Some people will leak urine when they feel the urge. Leaking urine is called “incontinence.” Having to go to the bathroom many times during the day and night is another symptom of OAB.

To urinate, the brain signals the muscular bladder wall to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax. As the sphincters relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra.

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Medications: Your doctor may recommend specific medication or bulking agents such as fibre supplements to change stool consistency, depending on whether you suffer from diarrhoea or constipation. Another option is Solesta, an injectable FDA-approved gel that’s injected into the anus and effectively reduces or completely treats FI in some people. This gel narrows the anal opening by increasing the growth of rectal tissue and helping it to remain tightly closed.

Prostate problems: Problems with the prostate are usually treated by a specialist called a urologist. There are two common drug types prescribed for enlarged prostate: 5ARIs (5-alpha-reductase inhibitors), which reduce the level of the hormone that causes the prostate to grow, and alpha blockers, which relax the smooth muscle cells, including the bladder. Surgery may also be considered to treat prostate problems.

The first step is to find the right muscles. One way to find them is to imagine that you are sitting on a marble and want to pick up the marble with your vagina. Imagine sucking or drawing the marble into your vagina.

Frequent urination may be caused by diseases affecting the urinary tract at level. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder (ureters), the bladder, and the duct through which urine flows from the bladder out of the body (urethra).

In the NOBLE study, the prevalence of OAB was similar in women and men (16.9% and 16%, respectively). [17] However, the prevalence of incontinence associated with OAB differed. Among women, 9.3% reported having OAB with incontinence; 7.6% reported having OAB without incontinence. In contrast, more men reported having OAB without incontinence (13.4%) than with incontinence (2.6%). In women, the prevalence of OAB with urgency urinary incontinence increased with increasing body mass index (BMI), whereas in men, no difference was found.

A suprapubic catheter is a tube surgically inserted into the bladder through an incision made in the abdomen (above the pubic bone). This type of catheter is used for long-term catheterization, and when the tube is removed, the hole in the abdomen seals up within one to two days. The most common use of a suprapubic catheter is in people with spinal cord injuries and a malfunctioning bladder. As in the urethral catheter, a doctor or nurse must change the suprapubic tube at least once a month on a regular basis.

Pads and protective garments. Most products are no more bulky than normal underwear and can be easily worn under everyday clothing. Men who have problems with dribbles of urine can use a drip collector — a small pocket of absorbent padding that’s worn over the penis and held in place by close-fitting underwear.

The condition known as overactive bladder may or may not be associated with urge incontinence. OAB refers to sudden, uncontrollable bladder contractions. When these contractions are associated with leaks, urge incontinence is also present. OAB is disruptive because strong, frequent bladder contractions prompt numerous trips to the bathroom throughout the day and sometimes also at night. OAB can interfere with work, fitness, and social life. If you get up multiple times at night to urinate, OAB can also keep you from getting a good night’s sleep.

Learn where your pelvic floor muscles are and then strengthen them by doing Kegel exercises — tighten (contract) muscles, hold the contraction for two seconds and relax muscles for three seconds. Work up to holding the contraction for five seconds and then 10 seconds at a time. Do three sets of 10 repetitions each day.

OAB symptoms may interfere with your daily activities and disrupt sleep. The potential for frequent, hurried trips to the bathroom and the possibility of incontinence can be stressful. Many people find that OAB makes them less social and more likely to stay home to avoid being caught without a bathroom.

Biofeedback techniques can be helpful in many cases. The person learns to maintain higher tone in the anal sphincter through use of a balloon device that provides feedback information about pressures in the rectum. With practice the person can learn better control and develop a more acute awareness of the need to defecate.

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Are you or a person you care for having accidents before making it to the toilet? It’s time to clear your path of obstacles so you can get there faster. Help yourself once you’re there by wearing easy-to-release clothes – think elastic waistbands and Velcro closures. Louise says if it’s got to that stage there are ways of coping, take the aisle seat on a plane, go to the loo before a big presentation, if you are caring for someone make sure easy access clothing is worn.