Overactive bladder occurs when a muscle in the bladder known as the detrusor contracts more often than normal. This causes a person to feel a sudden and sometimes overwhelming urge to urinate even when the bladder isn’t full.
A 2009 survey of women in a managed care population found that the prevalence of undiagnosed urinary incontinence was 53% in the preceding year.  Some individuals pay out of pocket for adult incontinence undergarments, absorbable pads, skin care products, deodorants, and increased laundry expenses.
Estrogens: study showed that oral and transdermal estrogen, with or without progestin, increased the risk of urinary incontinence by 45% to 60% in community-dwelling elderly women.14 A summary of randomized, controlled trials also showed that the use of oral estrogen increased the risk of urinary incontinence by 50% to 80%.30
Bladder control problems in men (urinary incontinence). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/bladder-control-problems-men. Accessed March 18, 2017.
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One of the most common types of drugs to treat high blood pressure are diuretics known as “water pills,” which remove sodium and water from the kidneys, allowing your blood vessels to relax. If your trips to the bathroom are getting annoyingly high, talk to your doctor about diet, exercise and lifestyle interventions for treating high blood pressure. (6)
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Cystometry is a procedure that measures the capacity and pressure changes of the bladder as it fills and empties. The evaluation determines the presence or absence of detrusor overactivity (or instability).
Collect the urine sample mid-stream in the sample container. If you aren’t taking the sample to the lab right away, store it in the refrigerator. However, make sure it reaches the lab within 24 hours.
The aim is to slowly stretch the bladder so that it can hold larger and larger volumes of urine. In time, the bladder muscle should become less overactive and you should become more in control of your bladder. This means that more time can elapse between feeling the desire to pass urine and having to get to a toilet. Leaks of urine are then less likely. A doctor, nurse, or continence advisor will explain how to do bladder training. The advice may be something like the following:
Your doctor will do a physical exam. He or she will ask what kinds of fluids you drink and how much. Your doctor will also want to know how often you urinate, how much, and if you leak. It may help to write down these things in a bladder diary(What is a PDF document?) for 3 or 4 days before you see your doctor.
Hydroxychloroquine: Hydroxychloroquine has recently been identified as an agent that can induce urinary incontinence. There is currently only one report supporting this finding. In this report, a 71-year-old female patient developed urinary incontinence as an adverse reaction to hydroxychloroquine administered at therapeutic doses to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Urinary incontinence remitted with drug withdrawal and reappeared when the drug was readministered.31
On the other hand, a pharmacologic agent or any other factor that results in chronic urinary retention can lead to a rise in intravesical pressure and a resultant trickling loss of urine. In this way, drugs that cause urinary retention can indirectly lead to overflow incontinence.2
Intermittent catheters are single use catheters that are inserted into the bladder to empty it, and once the bladder is empty they are removed and discarded. Intermittent catheters are primarily used for retention (inability to empty the bladder) but for some people can be used to reduce / avoid incontinence.