Jump up ^ “Urinary Tract Infection, Community Antibiotic Use”. www.cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-10-04. Retrieved 2017-12-19. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
Urinary incontinence is more than a health concern. It affects people on a social, psychological, and emotional level. People who have urinary incontinence may avoid certain places or situations for fear of having an accident. Urinary incontinence can limit life, but it doesn’t have to. The concern is treatable once the underlying cause is identified and addressed.
Urinary frequency is occasionally related to neurologic conditions. Stroke, spinal cord injuries, and multiple sclerosis are often associated with frequent urination. Often urinary frequency is caused by abnormal pelvic nerve function and coordination.
OAB occurs in both men and women. It’s possible to have overactive bladder at any point in your life. But, it’s especially common in older adults. The prevalence of OAB in people younger than 50 years of age is less than 10 percent. After the age of 60, the prevalence increases to 20 to 30 percent. (11)
Treatment of urinary incontinence in women may include behavioral or nonpharmacologic treatments, like bladder training and Kegel exercises, medication, biofeedback, neuromodulation, surgery, catheterization, or a combination of these therapies.
Parkinson’s disease is a slowly progressive neurological disease characterized by a fixed inexpressive face, a tremor at rest, slowing of voluntary movements, a gait with short accelerating steps, peculiar posture and muscle weakness, caused by degeneration of an area of the brain called the basal ganglia, and by low production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Most patients are over 50, but at least 10 percent are under 40.
ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers: The renin-angiotensin system exists specifically in the bladder and the urethra. Blocking angiotensin receptors with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers decreases both detrusor overactivity and urethral sphincter tone, leading to reduced urge incontinence and increased stress urinary incontinence.29 Furthermore, ACE inhibitors can result in a chronic dry cough that can cause stress incontinence. This was demonstrated in a female patient with cystocele who was receiving enalapril. The patient developed a dry cough and stress incontinence, which ceased within 3 weeks of discontinuing the ACE inhibitor.
In a Swedish study of 9197 nulliparous women aged 25-64 years, the rate of urinary incontinence increased from 9.7% in the youngest women with a body mass index <25 kg/m2 to 48.4% among the oldest women with a body mass index ≥35 kg/m2.  In a Dutch study of 1257 adults, the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 49.0% in women versus 22.6% in men. In both men and women, the prevalence of urinary incontinence increased with aging. [37, 38] OAB can be due to urinary tract infections. Since nerves control the bladder, OAB can occur due to a neurological disorder. Pollakiuria is another condition that can cause overactive bladder. As mentioned above, this condition results in frequent urination with no other symptom.OAB can also occur due to:  Fecal incontinence has three main consequences: local reactions of the perianal skin and urinary tract, including maceration (softening and whitening of skin due to continuous moisture), urinary tract infections, or decubitus ulcers (pressure sores); a financial expense for individuals (due to cost of medication and incontinence products, and loss of productivity), employers (days off), and medical insurers and society generally (health care costs, unemployment); and an associated decrease in quality of life. There is often reduced self-esteem, shame, humiliation, depression, a need to organize life around easy access to a toilet and avoidance of enjoyable activities. FI is an example of a stigmatized medical condition, which creates barriers to successful management. People may be too embarrassed to seek medical help, and attempt to self-manage the symptom in secrecy from others. Percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation. The posterior tibial nerve also controls bladder function . It can be stimulated by passing an electric current through a needle inserted through the skin just above the ankle. Patients with urinary incontinence should undergo a basic evaluation that includes a history, physical examination, and urinalysis (see Presentation). Additional information from a patient's voiding diary, cotton-swab test, cough stress test, measurement of postvoid residual (PVR) urine cystoscopy, and urodynamic studies may be needed in selected patients (see Workup). The role of the M2 receptor in the human bladder is not well established. Data from small studies demonstrating up-regulation of the M2 receptor in certain pathologic states suggest that it may have a role in detrusor overactivity related to obstruction and spinal cord injury. Sacral nerve stimulation involves a health care professional implanting a battery-operated stimulator beneath the skin in the lower back near the sacral nerve. The procedure takes place in an outpatient center often with local anesthesia. Based on the person’s feedback, the health care professional can adjust the amount of stimulation so it works best for that individual. The electrical pulses enter the body for minutes to hours, two or more times a day, either through wires placed on the lower back or just above the pubic area—between the navel and the pubic hair—or through special devices inserted into the vagina. Sacral nerve stimulation may increase blood flow to the bladder, strengthen pelvic muscles that help control the bladder, and trigger the release of natural substances that block pain. The person can turn the stimulator on or off at any time. If a period of test stimulation is successful, a health care professional will implant a device that delivers regular impulses to the bladder. A health care professional places a wire next to the tailbone and attaches it to a permanent stimulator under the skin of the lower abdomen. Tranquility Premium Overnight Underwear garners high praise from users and expert reviewers alike for its good absorbency, comfortable fit and ease of use. Absorbency is excellent and the adult pull-ons are available in a wide range of sizes. Though their thickness makes them best for overnight uses, those with heavy incontinence could consider them as an alternative to a standard adult diaper. See our full review » Incontinence is a widespread condition that ranges in severity from 'just a small leak' to complete loss of bladder or bowel control. In fact, over 4.8 million Australians have bladder or bowel control problems for a variety of reasons. Incontinence can be treated and managed. In many cases it can also be cured. Midurethral slings are newer procedures that you can have on an outpatient basis. These procedures use synthetic mesh materials that the surgeon places midway along the urethra. The two general types of midurethral slings are retropubic slings, such as the transvaginal tapes (TVT), and transobturator slings (TOT). The surgeon makes small incisions behind the pubic bone or just by the sides of the vaginal opening as well as a small incision in the vagina. The surgeon uses specially designed needles to position a synthetic tape under the urethra. The surgeon pulls the ends of the tape through the incisions and adjusts them to provide the right amount of support to the urethra. These estimates do not reflect the intangible OAB-related costs, such as time spent by family members away from work to care for elderly patients with OAB, to accompany them to physician visits, to shop for protective devices, and to help with toileting and laundry. Therefore, the cost figures underestimate the economic impact of OAB.  Many people have a mixture of OAB syndrome and stress incontinence. Pelvic floor exercises are the main treatment for stress incontinence. Briefly, this treatment involves exercises to strengthen the muscles that wrap underneath the bladder, womb (uterus) and rectum. Learn more about stress incontinence and pelvic floor exercises. You can take some steps to reduce your likelihood of developing frequent urination. You can also avoid certain foods and drinks closer to nighttime that are known to increase the likelihood of nocturia. Examples include: Physical exam: The doctor may examine the vagina and check the strength of the pelvic floor muscles. They may examine the rectum of a male patient, to determine whether the prostate gland is enlarged. A health care professional treats overflow incontinence caused by a blockage in the urinary tract with surgery to remove the obstruction. Men with overflow incontinence that is not caused by a blockage may need to use a catheter to empty the bladder. A catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. A health care professional can teach a man how to use a catheter. A man may need to use a catheter once in a while, a few times a day, or all the time. Catheters that are used continuously drain urine from the bladder into a bag that is attached to the man’s thigh with a strap. Men using a continuous catheter should watch for symptoms of an infection. Medical treatment does not have a great role in stress incontinence. Postmenopausal atrophy affects the closure of the urethra. Oestrogens, which can be taken orally or applied locally, restores the bulk of urethral tissue leading to more effective closure. Alpha-agonists increase the tone in the bladder neck, thereby increasing outflow resistance. Some studies indicate a beneficial effect using a combination of estrogen and an alpha-agonist in older post-menopausal women. Intermittent Catheterisation — This can be done at home and involves inserting a thin tube into the urethra each time you need to urinate. This procedure is quite invasive, so we recommend you speak with your doctor first to see if this procedure right for you. Frequent urination may be a symptom of diabetes or can result from medications, such as diuretics. If urinary frequency occurs at night, it may be referred to as nocturia (having to urinate at night). Many pregnant women also experienced an increased need to urinate. [redirect url='http://healthforsurvival.com/incontinence/bump' sec='999']