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Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience UI twice as often as men.

The normal number of times varies according to the age of the person. Among young children, urinating 8 to 14 times each day is typical. This decreases to 6 to 12 times per day for older children, and to 4 to 6 times per day among teenagers.[3]

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OAB appears to be multifactorial in both etiology and pathophysiology. Symptoms of OAB are suggestive of underlying detrusor overactivity. Overactivity of the detrusor muscle—neurogenic, myogenic, or idiopathic in origin—may result in urinary urgency and urgency incontinence. [5]

Cystoscopy is a procedure in which a pencil-thin tube is inserted into the urethra to look inside the bladder and urethra. A ureteroscopy involves the insertion of a thin instrument into the ureter, usually with a general anesthesia, in order to view the ureter or remove blockages.

Periurethral injections involve the injection of bulking agents into the urethra to improve effective closure. Commonly used agents include fat, collagen, Teflon paste and silicon particles. Injection therapy is suitable for women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency rather than hypermobility, as well as for men with post-prostatectomy incontinence. The major advantage of injection therapy is that it’s a minor procedure. Short-term results are good, but often not maintained long-term.

Many people are hesitant to see a doctor for incontinence as they feel embarrassed or believe it can’t be treated or that the problem will eventually go away by itself. This may be true in a few cases, but many cases can be successfully treated or managed. The treatment of incontinence will vary according to whether it is faecal or urinary incontinence and will depend on the cause, type and severity of the problem.

For some people, just cutting back on caffeine is enough. Others, though, need to cut caffeine out completely. See what works for you, but ease off slowly. Going cold turkey on caffeine might give you headaches.

The cause of overactive bladder is unknown.[3] Risk factors include obesity, caffeine, and constipation.[2] Poorly controlled diabetes, poor functional mobility, and chronic pelvic pain may worsen the symptoms.[3] People often have the symptoms for a long time before seeking treatment and the condition is sometimes identified by caregivers.[3] Diagnosis is based on a person’s signs and symptoms and requires other problems such as urinary tract infections or neurological conditions to be excluded.[1][3] The amount of urine passed during each urination is relatively small.[3] Pain while urinating suggests that there is a problem other than overactive bladder.[3]

Lifestyle modifications: Avoiding foods and drinks known to irritate the bladder can help a woman experience fewer episodes of frequent urination. Examples include avoiding caffeine, alcohol, carbonated beverages, chocolate, artificial sweeteners, spicy foods, and foods that are tomato-based.

Coyne, K. S., Sexton, C. C., Bell, J. A., Thompson, C. L., Dmochowski, R., Bavendam, T., … Quentin Clemens, J. (2012, July 27). The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and overactive bladder (OAB) by racial/ethnic group and age: Results from OAB-POLL [Abstract]. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 32(3), 230–237. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22847394

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Antimuscarinics. Antimuscarinics can help relax bladder muscles and prevent bladder spasms. These medications include oxybutynin (Oxytrol), which a person can buy over the counter, tolterodine (Detrol), darifenacin (Enablex), trospium (Sanctura), fesoterodine (Toviaz), and solifenacin (VESIcare). They are available in pill, liquid, and patch form.

The sacral nerves are located at the bottom of your back. They carry signals from your brain to some of the muscles used when you go to the toilet, such as the detrusor muscle that surrounds the bladder.

In women without urethral hypermobility, the urethra is stabilized during stress by three interrelated mechanisms. One mechanism is reflex, or voluntary, closure of the pelvic floor. Contraction of the levator ani complex elevates the proximal urethra and bladder neck, tightens intact connective tissue supports, and elevates the perineal body, which may serve as a urethral backstop.

Urinary incontinence should not be thought of as a disease, because no specific etiology exists; most individual cases are likely multifactorial in nature. The etiologies of urinary incontinence are diverse and, in many cases, incompletely understood.

Additional Products or Alternatives – The addition of a booster pad to the Per-Fit Frontal Tape Briefs will add to the capacity of the product. There are many to choose from; that will add anywhere from 4 ounces up to 16 ounces. The cover-ups are also very popular as an additional protection from leakage.

What you should know – The Attends Extra Absorbent Breathable brief is a unisex product for those needing heavy incontinence coverage. The sides offer airflow to the skin for better skin health. They are a full coverage product. They offer improved comfort with flex tabs that are soft, flexible, and can be refastened anywhere on the brief. Both the inner and outer coverings are non-woven, cloth-like material that offers a softer and quieter fit.

Jump up ^ Harris, Richard (December 2009). “Genitourinary infection and barotrauma as complications of ‘P-valve’ use in drysuit divers”. Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine. 39 (4): 210–2. PMID 22752741. Retrieved 2013-04-04.

Sometimes routine testing does not reveal the underlying cause, and further evaluation is required. You may be referred to a urologist or a urogynecologist for more specialized testing if your health concern is accompanied by pain, recurrent UTIs, blood or protein in the urine, neurological symptoms or muscle weakness, or pelvic organ prolapse. Women with this issue who have a history of radiation or surgery to the pelvic region may also be referred to a urologist.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

Visit your doctor or other health professional if you have concerns about bladder control. Difficulty with bladder control can be prevented, treated, better managed or cured. You shouldn’t be embarrassed to discuss your bladder problems as many other people experience problems too.

Urinary incontinence is not just a medical problem. It can affect emotional, psychological and social life. Many people who have urinary incontinence are afraid to do normal daily activities. They don’t want to be too far from a toilet. Urinary incontinence can keep people from enjoying life.

Your doctor may order a simple urodynamic test to assess the function of your bladder and its ability to empty steadily and completely. These tests usually require a referral to a specialist, and may not be necessary to make a diagnosis or begin treatment. Tests include:

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Symptoms can be directly or indirectly related to the loss of bowel control. The direct (primary) symptom is a lack of control over bowel contents which tends to worsen without treatment. Indirect (secondary) symptoms, which are the result of leakage, include pruritus ani (an intense itching sensation from the anus), perianal dermatitis (irritation and inflammation of the skin around the anus), and urinary tract infections.[1] Due to embarrassment, people may only mention secondary symptoms rather than acknowledge incontinence. Any major underlying cause will produce additional signs and symptoms, such as protrusion of mucosa in external rectal prolapse. Symptoms of fecal leakage (FL) are similar, and may occur after defecation. There may be loss of small amounts of brown fluid and staining of the underwear.[2]

Antidepressants: There are a number of classes of antidepressants, all with varying pharmacologic properties. This makes it difficult to generalize the underlying mechanisms that lead to urinary incontinence as a result of antidepressant use. However, all antidepressants result in urinary retention and, eventually, in overflow incontinence. Most antidepressants are inhibitors of norepinephrine and/or serotonin uptake. Some also act as antagonists at adrenergic, cholinergic, or histaminergic receptors at therapeutic doses.1

Urinary incontinence is more than a health concern. It affects people on a social, psychological, and emotional level. People who have urinary incontinence may avoid certain places or situations for fear of having an accident. Urinary incontinence can limit life, but it doesn’t have to. The concern is treatable once the underlying cause is identified and addressed.

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Absorbent incontinence products come in a wide range of types (drip collectors, pads, underwear and adult diapers), each with varying capacities and sizes. The largest volume of products that is consumed falls into the lower absorbency range of products, and even when it comes to adult diapers, the cheapest and least absorbent brands are used the most. This is not because people choose to use the cheapest and least absorbent brands, but rather because medical facilities are the largest consumer of adult diapers, and they have requirements to change patients as often as every two hours. As such, they select products that meet their frequent-changing needs, rather than products that could be worn longer or more comfortably.[citation needed]

Urinary incontinence is leaking of urine that you can’t control. Many American men and women suffer from urinary incontinence. We don’t know for sure exactly how many. That’s because many people do not tell anyone about their symptoms. They may be embarrassed, or they may think nothing can be done. So they suffer in silence.

OAB appears to be multifactorial in both etiology and pathophysiology. Symptoms of OAB are suggestive of underlying detrusor overactivity. Overactivity of the detrusor muscle—neurogenic, myogenic, or idiopathic in origin—may result in urinary urgency and urgency incontinence. [5]

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Some children develop a habit of not emptying their bladders. This is not a medical condition. Rather, it is a psychological behavior of the child, who may feel that spending even slightest time in the restroom will make him miss out on something more important. with this condition (or behavior) tend to urinate enough to relieve pressure in their bladder. Hence, over time, the sphincter muscle that allows you to hold urine may become overactive, and trigger frequent urination.

There is another common bladder problem called stress urinary incontinence (SUI), which is different from OAB. People with SUI leak urine while sneezing, laughing or doing other physical activities. More information on SUI can be found at www.urologyhealth.org/SUI/.

Frequent urination may be caused by diseases affecting the urinary tract at any level. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder (ureters), the bladder, and the duct through which urine flows from the bladder out of the body (urethra).

Urethral hypermobility is related to impaired neuromuscular functioning of the pelvic floor coupled with injury, both remote and ongoing, to the connective tissue supports of the urethra and bladder neck. When this occurs, the proximal urethra and the bladder neck descend to rotate away and out of the pelvis at times of increased intra-abdominal pressure.

If blood glucose levels become too high, the body will try to remedy the situation by removing glucose from the blood through the kidneys. When this happens, the kidneys will also filter out more water and you will need to urinate more than usual as a result.

Functional incontinence occurs when a person recognizes the need to urinate but cannot make it to the bathroom. The loss of urine may be large. There are several causes of functional incontinence including confusion, dementia, poor eyesight, mobility or dexterity, unwillingness to toilet because of depression or anxiety or inebriation due to alcohol.[14] Functional incontinence can also occur in certain circumstances where no biological or medical problem is present. For example, a person may recognise the need to urinate but may be in a situation where there is no toilet nearby or access to a toilet is restricted.

If the child does not outgrow the condition, treatments can include bladder training and medication. In bladder training, the child uses exercises to strengthen and coordinate the urethra and bladder muscles to control urination. Such exercises teach the child to prevent urinating when away from the toilet and to anticipate the urge to urinate. Additional techniques to help overactive bladder include:

Several risk factors are associated with OAB. White people, persons with insulin-dependent diabetes, and individuals with depression are 3 times as likely to develop OAB. Other risk factors include the following [10] :

For urinary incontinence treatment, start with your primary care doctor. Tell him or her you are having problems with bladder control. If your primary care doctor is unable to help, ask for a referral to a specialist. Doctors who specialize in treating urinary incontinence include urogynecologists, gynecologists with extra training in urinary incontinence, or urologists, doctors who specialize in problems of the urinary tract system in men and women.

Childbirth. Vaginal delivery can weaken muscles needed for bladder control and also damage bladder nerves and supportive tissue, leading to a dropped (prolapsed) pelvic floor. With prolapse, the bladder, uterus, rectum or small intestine can get pushed down from the usual position and protrude into the vagina. Such protrusions can be associated with incontinence.

Urinary incontinence is common, especially in women. It can occur at any age but it is more likely to develop as you get older. It is estimated that about three million people in the UK are regularly incontinent. Overall, this is about 4 in 100 adults. However, as many as 1 in 5 women over the age of 40 have some degree of urinary incontinence.

^ Lipp, A; Shaw, C; Glavind, K (17 December 2014). “Mechanical devices for urinary incontinence in women”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD001756. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001756.pub6. PMID 25517397.

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Jump up ^ Romano, [edited by] Carlo Ratto, Giovanni B. Doglietto ; forewords by A.C Lowry, L. Paahlman, G. (2007). Fecal incontinence : diagnosis and treatment (1. ed.). Milan: Springer. p. 313. ISBN 88-470-0637-6.

Electrical nerve stimulation. If behavioral and lifestyle changes and medications do not improve symptoms, a urologist may suggest electrical nerve stimulation as an option to UI, urinary frequency—urination more often than normal—and other symptoms. Electrical nerve stimulation involves altering bladder reflexes using pulses of electricity. The two most common types of electrical nerve stimulation are percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and sacral nerve stimulation.4

OAB can be caused by the nerve signals between your bladder and brain telling your bladder to empty even when it isn’t full. OAB can also be the result of your bladder muscles being too active. Then your bladder muscles contract to pass urine before your bladder is full, and that causes a sudden, strong need to urinate. We call this “urgency.”

Antimuscarinics. Antimuscarinics can help relax bladder muscles and prevent bladder spasms. These medications include oxybutynin (Oxytrol), which a person can buy over the counter, tolterodine (Detrol), darifenacin (Enablex), trospium (Sanctura), fesoterodine (Toviaz), and solifenacin (VESIcare). They are available in pill, liquid, and patch form.

The hallmark of OAB is urinary urgency, a sudden urge to urinate that may be difficult to control. Actual loss of urine (incontinence) is not a defining symptom of overactive bladder, but it can happen as a result of urgency. Urinary incontinence tends to be more common in women with OAB compared to men.

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Pelvic surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are major risk factors.[4] Urinary incontinence is often a result of an underlying medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners.[5] There are four main types of incontinence:[6]

Bladder control problems in women (urinary incontinence). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/bladder-control-problems-women. Accessed March 18, 2017.

A variety of drugs have been associated with urinary incontinence. This may be due to direct incontinence or overflow incontinence secondary to urinary retention. When reviewing patient profiles, pharmacists should take into consideration the use of oral estrogens, alpha-blockers, sedative-hypnotics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, ACE inhibitors, loop diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and calcium channel blockers that may lead to urinary incontinence. It is important to keep in mind that some incontinence patients taking these medications may be too embarrassed to discuss their condition voluntarily.

If urinary frequency interferes with your lifestyle or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, back or side pain, vomiting, chills, increased appetite or thirst, fatigue, bloody or cloudy urine, or a discharge from the penis or vagina, it’s important to see your doctor.

Sometimes conditions that are not related to the bladder can cause a person to void more often. One example is vaginal atrophy, or loss of normal vaginal tissue with loss of estrogen with age or surgical removal of the ovaries.

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Jump up ^ Kuffel, A; Kapitza, KP; Löwe, B; Eichelberg, E; Gumz, A (October 2014). “[Chronic pollakiuria: cystectomy or psychotherapy]”. Der Urologe. Ausg. A. 53 (10): 1495–9. doi:10.1007/s00120-014-3618-x. PMID 25214314.

Cystoscopy is a procedure in which a pencil-thin tube is inserted into the urethra to look inside the bladder and urethra. A ureteroscopy involves the insertion of a thin instrument into the ureter, usually with a general anesthesia, in order to view the ureter or remove blockages.

Jump up ^ Koch, Kenneth L (1 January 2012). “Tissue engineering for neuromuscular disorders of the gastrointestinal tract”. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 18 (47): 6918–25. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i47.6918. PMC 3531675 . PMID 23322989.

There are numerous bladder problems and different types of incontinence. The doctor can determine what kind you have by taking a detailed medical history, reviewing the nature of your problem and ordering lab tests. A urine test can screen for blood, protein, and other abnormalities. The doctor will perform a physical exam noting any aberrations. He or she may ask you to perform a cough stress test where you stand and cough to see if it provokes an accident. A post-void residual urine test assesses how much you urinate and the amount left over after voiding. The test helps determine if there’s an obstruction in the urinary tract.

Continued problems with frequent urination should be evaluated by your doctor and possibly a urologist. If medications are recommended, follow instructions given to you by your doctor. Report any problems or side effects from the medication to your doctor. If you are advised to do bladder retraining or modify your diet or other behavioral changes, follow all instructions from your doctor.

Behavioral and lifestyle changes. Women with UI may be able to reduce leaks by making behavioral and lifestyle changes. For example, the amount and type of liquid women drink can affect UI. Women should talk with their health care professional about whether to drink less liquid during the day; however, women should not limit liquids to the point of becoming dehydrated. Signs of dehydration in women include

In case, your kid displays frequent urge to urinate, consult a pediatric urologist. If your child doesn’t have infection and diabetes, the urge could have behavioral reasons. This comes from consuming large amounts of fluids unnecessarily, resulting in frequent urge. Other children, especially boys between the ages of three and a half and four years, are fascinated with the process of urination. This habit can last for about six months before it disappears.

Urinary incontinence (UI) is the accidental leakage of urine. At different ages, males and females have different risks for developing UI. In childhood, girls usually develop bladder control at an earlier age than boys, and bedwetting — or nocturnal enuresis — is less common in girls than in boys. However, adult women are far more likely than adult men to experience UI because of anatomical differences in the pelvic region and the changes induced by pregnancy and childbirth. Nevertheless, many men do suffer from incontinence. Its prevalence increases with age, but UI is not an inevitable part of aging.

Eapen, R. S., & Radomski, S. B. (2016, June 6). Review of the epidemiology of overactive bladder. Research and Reports in Urology, 8, 71–76. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4902138/

An infrequent cause of bladder incontinence (usually acute) is a condition termed cauda equina syndrome. It is caused by significant narrowing of the spinal canal that may be caused by trauma, disc herniation, spinal tumors, inflammation, infections, or after spinal surgery. The incontinence often occurs acutely and may be accompanied by bowel incontinence, groin numbness, and loss of strength and/or sensation in the lower extremities. This condition is a medical emergency; if pressure on the nerves is not removed quickly (within about 48 hours of initial symptoms), permanent nerve damage with function loss may occur. Most clinicians suggest that the earliest interventions have the best outcomes.

Another common symptom of OAB is urge incontinence. This happens when the urge to urinate is so strong that you can’t control it, causing urine to leak before you make it to the It may occur when you laugh, sneeze, cough, or exercise.

Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is common. Symptoms include an urgent feeling to go to the toilet, going to the toilet frequently and sometimes leaking urine before you can get to the toilet (urge incontinence). Treatment with bladder training often cures the problem. Sometimes medication may be advised in addition to bladder training to relax the bladder.

The transobturator male sling may be of particular benefit to men who experience stress incontinence after prostatectomy. [4] Transobturator vaginal tape (TVT-O) is widely used for stress incontinence in women [5]

According to the National Association for Continence, up to 50 percent of men experience symptoms of an enlarged prostate by the time they turn 60. A whopping 90 percent of men experience symptoms by age 85.

Encourage your child to wait a bit longer to urinate. Children often fear wetting their pants. It is important that you encourage your child to try and hang on a little longer every time he (or she) experiences the urge to urinate. Try helping your kid increase the duration between urinations. This way, you can help your child go back to his usual three-hour interval between each time he urinates, thereby going back to his normal routine.

Some patients with stress incontinence have urine leakage into the proximal urethra that may, at first, trigger sensory urgency and/or bladder contractions, which initially are suppressible. Later, in a subgroup of these individuals, myopathic changes may occur in the bladder that make the spread of abnormally generated contractile signals more efficient and more difficult to suppress voluntarily.

Conventional treatment typically involves prescription medications, specifically antimuscarinic drugs, that aim to calm the bladder.  The seven common drugs for overactive bladder include: darifenacin (Enablex); fesoterodine (Toviaz); mirabegron (Myrbetriq); oxybutynin (Ditropan XL, a skin patch called Oxytrol, a topical gel called Gelnique, and generic); solifenacin (Vesicare); tolterodine (Detrol and generic, Detrol LA) and trospium (Sanctura, Sanctura XR and generic).

Tolterodine (Detrol, Detrol LA) is indicated for the treatment of an overactive bladder with symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, or urge incontinence. This medication affects the salivary glands less than oxybutynin, thus, it is better tolerated with fewer side effects (dry mouth). Detrol is usually prescribed twice a day, whereas the long-acting type (Detrol LA) is taken only once a day.

A variety of drugs have been associated with urinary incontinence. This may be due to direct incontinence or overflow incontinence secondary to urinary retention. When reviewing patient profiles, pharmacists should take into consideration the use of oral estrogens, alpha-blockers, sedative-hypnotics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, ACE inhibitors, loop diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and calcium channel blockers that may lead to urinary incontinence. It is important to keep in mind that some incontinence patients taking these medications may be too embarrassed to discuss their condition voluntarily.

OAB usually caused by abnormal contractions of the muscles of the urinary bladder (mainly detrusor muscle), resulting in a sudden, uncontrollable urge to urinate (called urinary urgency) with or without actual leakage of urine, even thought only small amounts of urine may be in the bladder.

Tape procedures can be used for women with stress incontinence. A piece of plastic tape is inserted through a cut (incision) inside the vagina and threaded behind the tube that carries urine out of the body (urethra).

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Gormley, EA; Lightner, DJ; Burgio, KL; Chai, TC; Clemens, JQ; Culkin, DJ; Das, AK; Foster HE, Jr; Scarpero, HM; Tessier, CD; Vasavada, SP; American Urological, Association; Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine & Urogenital, Reconstruction (December 2012). “Diagnosis and treatment of overactive bladder (non-neurogenic) in adults: AUA/SUFU guideline”. The Journal of Urology. 188 (6 Suppl): 2455–63. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2012.09.079. PMID 23098785.

Drake MJ, Nitti VW, Ginsberg DA, Brucker BM, Hepp Z, McCool R, et al. Comparative assessment of the efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA and oral therapies (anticholinergics and mirabegron) for overactive bladder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BJU Int. 2017 Nov. 120 (5):611-622. [Medline].

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Urge incontinence is a form of urinary incontinence characterized by the involuntary loss of urine occurring for no apparent reason while feeling urinary urgency as discussed above. Like frequency, the person can track incontinence in a diary to assist with diagnosis and management of symptoms. Urge incontinence can also be measured with pad tests, and these are often used for research purposes. Some people with urge incontinence also have stress incontinence and this can complicate clinical studies.[3]

Incontinence aids: Using incontinence aids or products can help manage the symptoms of incontinence. Incontinence aids make suffering from incontinence less life-changing as you can still partake in daily life without needing to be chained to a toilet. Incontinence aids usually come in the form of super absorbent undergarments, pants or guards, which lock in any moisture and turn it into gel to prevent leaking or dampness. Depend has a great range of incontinence aids for men and women to help you manage any kind of incontinence.

A catheter is a long, thin tube inserted up the urethra or through a hole in the abdominal wall into the bladder to drain urine (suprapubic catheter). Draining the bladder this way has been used to treat incontinence for many years. Bladder catheterization may be a temporary or a permanent solution for urinary incontinence.

Among other investigational therapies, neurokinin receptor antagonists, alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, nerve growth factor inhibitors, gene therapy, and stem cell–based therapies are of considerable interest. The future development of new modalities in OAB treatment appears promising.

The mechanisms and factors contributing to normal continence are multiple and inter-related. The puborectalis sling, forming the anorectal angle (see diagram), is responsible for gross continence of solid stool.[3] The IAS is an involuntary muscle, contributing about 55% of the resting anal pressure. Together with the hemorrhoidal vascular cushions, the IAS maintains continence of flatus and liquid during rest. The EAS is a voluntary muscle, doubling the pressure in the anal canal during contraction, which is possible for a short time. The rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is an involuntary IAS relaxation in response to rectal distension, allowing some rectal contents to descend into the anal canal where it is brought into contact with specialized sensory mucosa to detect consistency. The rectoanal excitatory reflex (RAER) is an initial, semi-voluntary contraction of the EAS and puborectalis which in turn prevents incontinence following the RAIR. Other factors include the specialized anti-peristaltic function of the last part of the sigmoid colon, which keeps the rectum empty most of the time, sensation in the lining of the rectum and the anal canal to detect when there is stool present, its consistency and quantity, and the presence of normal rectoanal reflexes and defecation cycle which completely evacuates stool from the rectum and anal canal. Problems affecting any of these mechanisms and factors may be involved in the cause.[2]

The oxybutynin transdermal system (Oxytrol) is a thin, flexible, clear patch that is applied to the skin of the abdomen or hip, twice weekly, to treat overactive bladder. This treatment delivers oxybutynin continuously through the skin into the bloodstream and relieves symptoms for up to 4 days—allowing twice a week dosing. The first over-the-counter (OTC) form of this medication—Oxytrol for Women—was approved by the FDA in January 2013 for use in women over the age of 18. At this time, Oxytrol is available for men by prescription only.

When the bladder doesn’t empty properly, urine spills over, causing overflow incontinence. Weak bladder muscles or a blocked urethra can cause this type of incontinence. Nerve damage from diabetes or other diseases can lead to weak bladder muscles; tumors and urinary stones can block the urethra. Men with overflow incontinence may have to urinate often, yet they release only small amounts of urine or constantly dribble urine.

A normal bladder functions through a complex coordination of musculoskeletal, neurologic, and psychological functions that allow it to fill and empty. The prime effector of continence is the synergic relaxation of detrusor muscles and contraction of bladder neck and pelvic floor muscles.

Some hypothesize that under normal circumstances, any increase in intra-abdominal pressure is transmitted equally to the bladder and proximal urethra. This is likely due to the retropubic location of the proximal and mid urethra within the sphere of intra-abdominal pressure. At rest, the urethra has a higher intrinsic pressure than the bladder. This pressure gradient relationship is preserved if acute increases in intra-abdominal pressure are transmitted equally to both organs.

Urinary incontinence in women is a common problem. Overactive bladder (OAB), stress incontinence, and urge incontinence can be treated. Learn more about the types of urinary incontinence, their symptoms, and treatment options.

Moore KN, Schieman S, Ackerman T, Dzus HY, Metcalfe JB, Voaklander DC. Assessing comfort, safety, and patient satisfaction with three commonly used penile compression devices. Urology. 2004 Jan. 63(1):150-4. [Medline].

Overactive bladder can occur at any age, but it is most common in the elderly population. Recent surveys have suggested a prevalence of 10%-20% in the population over 40 years of age with similar numbers in men compared to women. It is worth mentioning, however, that men tend to develop this condition later in life than do women.

Polyuria is a symptom of diabetes mellitus, which involves frequent urination but in large amounts. The other symptoms of diabetes mellitus include polydipsia (drinking more fluids than usual, basically having more than normal thirst), polyphagia (unexplained increase in hunger), and drastic weight loss.

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The hypogastric nerves release norepinephrine to stimulate beta3-adrenoceptors in the detrusor and alpha1-adrenoceptors in the bladder neck and proximal urethra. The role of beta3-adrenoceptors is to mediate smooth-muscle relaxation and increase bladder compliance, whereas that of alpha1-adrenoceptors is to mediate smooth-muscle contraction and increase bladder outlet resistance.1 The somatic, pudendal, and sacral nerves release acetylcholine to act on nicotinic receptors in the striated muscle in the distal urethra and pelvic floor, which contract to increase bladder outlet resistance.1

Detrusor overactivity, according to this theory, occurs because of the premature firing of stretch receptors in the bladder base secondary to poor endopelvic connective tissue support to the filling bladder.

Monitoring the Intake of Fluids: While it is important to drink at least 8 glasses of water in the day, you need to make sure that you are not overdoing it. Moreover, choose to drink the right fluids and stay away from coffee, tea, aerated drinks and alcohol.

Urinary incontinence is a treatable condition with an excellent prognosis. Medical and surgical treatments for urinary incontinence can have very high cure rates. The choice of treatment depends upon the underlying cause for the incontinence and in some cases depends upon the willingness of the patient to participate in the treatment process (for options such as pelvic floor exercises and biofeedback).

Numerous treatments are available to help you manage symptoms of an overactive bladder. You’ll work closely with your doctor to come up with an effective treatment plan. Options can include medication to relieve symptoms and reduce urges. Other treatments can include:

Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is common. Symptoms include an urgent feeling to go to the toilet, going to the toilet frequently and sometimes leaking urine before you can get to the toilet (urge incontinence). Treatment with bladder training often cures the problem. Sometimes medication may be advised in addition to bladder training to relax the bladder.

The bladder is examined to see if it is full (overflow incontinence) or empty, and whether it is tender or not. A basic neurological examination is performed to rule out neurological causes for the incontinence. The underwear and pads are examined for evidence of wetness. The genital skin is inspected for evidence of urine-induced dermatitis. The urethra and vagina are examined next, usually with a speculum in place. The health professional specifically looks for atrophy of the tissues and for evidence of leaking with coughing (stress incontinence). An assessment is made of the integrity of the bladder and urethral support. A urine sample is tested for evidence of infection and blood.

Incontinence is a term that describes any accidental or involuntary loss of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or bowel motion, faeces or wind from the bowel (faecal or bowel incontinence).

Conventional treatment typically involves prescription medications, specifically antimuscarinic drugs, that aim to calm the bladder.  The seven common drugs for overactive bladder include: darifenacin (Enablex); fesoterodine (Toviaz); mirabegron (Myrbetriq); oxybutynin (Ditropan XL, a skin patch called Oxytrol, a topical gel called Gelnique, and generic); solifenacin (Vesicare); tolterodine (Detrol and generic, Detrol LA) and trospium (Sanctura, Sanctura XR and generic).

^ Jump up to: a b Hosker, G; Cody, JD; Norton, CC (Jul 18, 2007). “Electrical stimulation for faecal incontinence in adults”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD001310. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001310.pub2. PMID 17636665.

Another cause of overactive bladder is a condition called pollakiuria, or frequent daytime urination syndrome. Children who have pollakiuria urinate frequently. In some cases, they may urinate every five to 10 minutes or urinate between 10 and 30 times a day. This condition is most common among children aged 3 to 8 and is present only during waking hours. There are no other symptoms present. Doctors believe that pollakiuria is related to stress. Usually, the condition goes away after two to three weeks without requiring treatment.

Franco, E., Pares, D., Colomé, N. L., Paredes, J. R. M., & Tardiu, L. A. (2014, November). Urinary incontinence during pregnancy. Is there a difference between first and third trimester [Abstract]? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 182, 86-90. Retrieved from http://www.ejog.org/article/S0301-2115(14)00468-0/abstract

Best treatments for an overactive bladder Learn about different treatment options for an overactive bladder, such as dietary and lifestyle changes. Also learn how to monitor an overactive bladder. Read now

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Noblett K, Benson K, Kreder K. Detailed analysis of adverse events and surgical interventions in a large prospective trial of sacral neuromodulation therapy for overactive bladder patients. Neurourol Urodyn. 2016 Aug 4. [Medline].

If it is not possible to discontinue the antipsychotic, urinary incontinence caused by antipsychotics can be managed with a variety of pharmacologic agents. Desmopressin is perhaps the most effective, but also the most expensive, therapeutic agent available for this use. Other agents include pseudoephedrine, oxybutynin, benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, and dopamine agonists.25

Stylized diagram showing action of the puborectalis sling, the looping of the puborectalis muscle around the bowel. This pulls the bowel forwards, and forms the anorectal angle, the angle between the anal canal and the rectum. A-puborectalis, B-rectum, C-level of anorectal ring and anorectal angle, D-anal canal, E-anal verge, F-representation of internal and external anal sphincters, G-coccyx & sacrum, H-pubic symphysis, I-Ischium, J-pubic of adults struggle with chronic incontinence on a daily basis. Fortunately, there are a wealth of quality products on the market designed to meet their needs, though choosing the best one for your particular situation can be tricky at times.

Drink normal quantities of fluids. It may seem sensible to cut back on the amount that you drink so the bladder does not fill so quickly. However, this can make symptoms worse as the urine becomes more concentrated, which may irritate the bladder muscle (detrusor). Aim to drink normal quantities of fluids each day. This is usually about two litres of fluid per day – about 6-8 cups of fluid, and more in hot climates and hot weather.

Intermittent Catheterisation — This can be done at home and involves inserting a thin tube into the urethra each time you need to urinate. This procedure is quite invasive, so we recommend you speak with your doctor first to see if this procedure right for you.

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Vaginal and anal examination. A doctor or nurse may insert a gloved finger into the vagina and back passage (rectum). This can assess the strength and tone of the pelvic floor muscles. For men, the rectal examination can also assess the size of the prostate gland. For women, the doctor or nurse may also look for signs of pelvic organ bulging (prolapse) during the vaginal examination. They may use an instrument called a speculum to help them with this. See separate leaflet called Genitourinary Prolapse for more details.

For many people suffering from an overactive bladder, the actual cause cannot be identified. It can be a relief to know that there is no other health problem causing your symptoms but it can also be frustrating and confusing not having a reason for the problem.

Chapple CR, Siddiqui E. Mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder: a review of efficacy, safety and tolerability with a focus on male, elderly and antimuscarinic poor-responder populations, and patients with OAB in Asia. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Feb. 10 (2):131-151. [Medline].

Urinary diversion: If the bladder must be removed or all bladder function is lost because of nerve damage, you may consider surgery to create a urinary diversion. In this procedure, the surgeon creates a reservoir by removing a piece of the small intestine and directing the ureters to the reservoir. The surgeon also creates a stoma, an opening on the lower abdomen where the urine can be drained through a catheter or into a bag.

Urine culture. A health care professional performs a urine culture by placing part of a urine sample in a tube or dish with a substance that encourages any bacteria present to grow. A woman collects the urine sample in a special container in a health care professional’s office or a commercial facility. The office or facility tests the sample onsite or sends it to a lab for culture. A health care professional can identify bacteria that multiply, usually in 1 to 3 days. A health care professional performs a urine culture to determine the best treatment when urinalysis indicates the woman has a UTI. More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Urinary Tract Infection in Adults.

Changing when you drink. You should try to maintain a normal life as much as possible with regard to drinking and visiting the toilet. However, drinking late at night may mean your sleep is disturbed by the desire to get up and go to the toilet.

Small vaginal cones of increasing weight may be used to help with exercise.[23][24] They seem to be better than no active treatment in women with stress urinary incontinence, and have similar effects to training of pelvic floor muscles or electrostimulation.[24]

Suspected overflow incontinence (obstruction or poor bladder contraction) – An ultrasound scan will confirm a large bladder volume after the patient has tried to pass urine. In a man the most likely cause is obstruction due to an enlarged prostate or a urethral stricture. A digital rectal examination and a cystoscopy will confirm the diagnosis. If the overflow incontinence is due to poor bladder contraction this can be confirmed with urodynamic testing.

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Jump up ^ Salat-Foix, D; Suchowersky, O (February 2012). “The management of gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson’s disease”. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 12 (2): 239–48. doi:10.1586/ern.11.192. PMID 22288679.

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Overflow incontinence. This occurs when there is an obstruction to the outflow of urine. The obstruction prevents the normal emptying of the bladder. A pool of urine constantly remains in the bladder that cannot empty properly. This is called chronic urinary retention. Consequently, pressure builds up behind the obstruction. The normal bladder emptying mechanism becomes faulty and urine may leak past the blockage from time to time. Treatment depends on the cause. An enlarged prostate gland in men is a common cause of overflow incontinence. It may be treated by surgical removal of the prostate (prostatectomy) or with medicines to shrink the prostate gland.

Anybody with a degree of incontinence that affects his or her lifestyle should see a health professional. Patients with blood in the urine, bladder pain or burning of urine need to have serious underlying causes of the incontinence excluded and should seek help promptly.

Urinary incontinence is the involuntary and unintentional leaking of urine. Urinary incontinence can also be an embarrassing problem. As with many potentially embarrassing or uncomfortable symptoms, those affected may be hesitant to speak up or ask questions about their condition, even at the doctor’s office. Urinary incontinence occurs more often in women than in men, and it is a lot more common than you might expect. In fact, chances are that you know other people who have been affected by urinary incontinence.

The hallmark of OAB is urinary urgency, a sudden urge to urinate that may be difficult to control. Actual loss of urine (incontinence) is not a defining symptom of overactive bladder, but it can happen as a result of urgency. Urinary incontinence tends to be more common in women with OAB compared to men.

Vaginal and anal examination. A doctor or nurse may insert a gloved finger into the vagina and back passage (rectum). This can assess the strength and tone of the pelvic floor muscles. For men, the rectal examination can also assess the size of the prostate gland. For women, the doctor or nurse may also look for signs of pelvic organ bulging (prolapse) during the vaginal examination. They may use an instrument called a speculum to help them with this. See separate leaflet called Genitourinary Prolapse for more details.

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There are ways to manage incontinence, and in many cases cure it. Due to embarrassment many people do not seek help and therefore are unaware of the many treatment options that are now available This web site is intended to give you some facts on incontinence – what it is and what it is not, and why it occurs. Most importantly, this information strives to give you the confidence of knowing that something can be done and you are not alone. This is the first step in preparing you to become an educated partner with an interested and knowledgeable healthcare professional.

In January 2009, oxybutynin chloride gel (Gelnique) received FDA approval to treat overactive bladder. This gel is applied once daily to the skin of the thigh, abdomen, or shoulder and delivers a consistent dose of oxybutynin through the skin for 24 hours. Side effects of Gelnique include adverse skin reactions, dry mouth, and urinary tract infection (UTI).

People with medical conditions which cause them to experience urinary or faecal incontinence often require diapers or similar products because they are unable to control their bladders or bowels. People who are bedridden or in wheelchairs, including those with good bowel and bladder control, may also wear diapers because they are unable to access the toilet independently. Those with cognitive impairment, such as dementia, may require diapers because they may not recognize their need to reach a toilet.

Help your child calm down. Frequent urination is due to stress. So it will help if you reduce the stress in your child’s life by allowing him to relax and calm down. Do not overburden your child with your expectations. If you feel your child is stressed or experiencing peer pressure, talk to him and help him understand that he needn’t be a star performer every time and everywhere. Try to create a more harmonious environment at home.

For some people, just cutting back on caffeine is enough. Others, though, need to cut caffeine out completely. See what works for you, but ease off slowly. Going cold turkey on caffeine might give you headaches.

Caffeine and alcohol are diuretics, which means they trigger increased urination. They actually block the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), which, as the suggests, prevents you from peeing frequently. (4) Once you remove this natural inhibitory mechanism with too much coffee, tea, chocolate or alcohol, it can lead to more frequent trips to the bathroom.

Vulvovaginitis is the irritation of the skin in and around the vagina for girls and the opening of the urethra for boys. This condition can cause symptoms similar to any urinary tract infection, and frequent urination is one of them. This condition usually occurs in girls before puberty when the skin around the vaginal area becomes highly sensitive.

Urodynamics uses physical measurements such as urine pressure and flow rate as well as clinical assessment. These studies measure the pressure in the bladder at rest and while filling. These studies range from simple observation to precise measurements using specialized equipment.

There is some controversy about the classification and diagnosis of OAB.[3][18] Some sources classify overactive bladder into “wet” and “dry” variants depending on whether it is an urgent need to urinate or if it includes incontinence. Wet variants are more common than dry variants.[19] The distinction is not absolute, one study suggested that many classified as “dry” were actually “wet” and that patients with no history of any leakage may have had other syndromes.[20]

Medications that control the muscle spasms in the bladder can help reduce urinary incontinence, or loss of bladder control. Your doctor also may suggest doing pelvic exercises, such as Kegels or bladder retraining exercises, to help delay urination.

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Among other investigational therapies, neurokinin receptor antagonists, alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, nerve growth factor inhibitors, gene therapy, and stem cell–based therapies are of considerable interest. The future development of new modalities in OAB treatment appears promising.

Frequent urination may be a symptom of diabetes or can result from medications, such as diuretics. If urinary frequency occurs at night, it may be referred to as nocturia (having to urinate at night). Many pregnant women also experienced an increased need to urinate.

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Urgency suppression. By using certain techniques, a man can suppress the urge to urinate, called urgency suppression. Urgency suppression is a way for a man to train his bladder to maintain control so he does not have to panic about finding a restroom. Some men use distraction techniques to take their mind off the urge to urinate. Other men find taking long, relaxing breaths and being still can help. Doing pelvic floor exercises also can help suppress the urge to urinate.

Gender. Women are more likely to have stress incontinence. Pregnancy, childbirth, menopause and normal female anatomy account for this difference. However, men with prostate gland problems are at increased risk of urge and overflow incontinence.

This procedure is generally considered only after other treatments have failed, and it is most commonly done for men after prostate surgery. Because of where the pump is placed, activities such as bike riding may not be recommended.

However, it is possible to have a functionally small bladder, which means your bladder, for any number of reasons, can’t hold a lot of urine. Bladder muscles (detrusor) and/or the bladder sphincter muscles become overactive and as a result there is a constant need to void.

Pelvic exam. A pelvic exam is a visual and physical exam of the pelvic organs. The health care professional has the woman come to the exam with a full bladder. The woman will sit upright with her legs spread and asks her to cough. This test is called a cough stress test. Leakage of urine indicates stress incontinence. The health care professional then has the woman lie on her back on an exam table and place her feet on the corners of the table or in supports. The health care professional looks at the pelvic organs and slides a gloved, lubricated finger into the vagina to check for prolapse or other physical problems that may be causing UI. The health care professional will determine the woman’s pelvic muscle strength by asking her to squeeze her pelvic floor muscles.

The PNS causes contraction of the detrusor, while the muscles of pelvic floor and external sphincter relax. The PNS fibers, as well as those responsible for somatic (voluntary) control of micturition (urination), originate from the S2 to S4 segments of the spinal cord in the sacral plexus. The somatic fibers innervate the external sphincter and are responsible for the voluntary control of continence in the face of a pressing desire to void.

Your doctor may instruct you to keep a diary for a day or more-sometimes up to a week-to record when you void. This diary should note the times you urinate and the amounts of urine you produce. To measure your urine, you can use a special pan that fits over the toilet rim. You can also use the bladder diary to record your fluid intake, episodes of urine leakage, and estimated amounts of leakage.

Urgency, the hallmark of OAB, is defined as the sudden compelling desire to urinate, a sensation that is difficult to defer. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is urinary leakage associated with urgency. UUI is one of the most common types of urinary incontinence. Some women may have both stress urinary incontinence and UUI, and this is called mixed urinary incontinence.

Another finding described in bladder muscle specimens from patients with detrusor overactivity is local loss of inhibitory medullary neurologic activity. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a smooth muscle relaxant, is decreased markedly in the bladders of patients with detrusor overactivity. In addition, bladders of individuals with detrusor overactivity have been found deficient in smooth muscle–relaxing prostaglandins.

Alpha-blockers: Terazosin (Hytrin), doxazosin (Cardura), tamsulosin (Flomax), and alfzosin (Uroxatral) are used to treat problems caused by prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction. They act by relaxing the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck, allowing normal urine flow and preventing abnormal bladder contractions that can lead to urge incontinence.

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Urinary incontinence. Urodynamic study revealing detrusor hyperreflexia in a 22-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis. Note the presence of multiple phasic contractions (uninhibited detrusor contractions) generating as much as 100 cm H2O pressure.

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Stress: Urine leakage associated with increased abdominal pressure from laughing, sneezing, coughing, climbing stairs, or other physical stressors on the abdominal cavity and, thus, the bladder [2, 3]

Intrinsic sphincter deficiency is a condition in which the urethral sphincter is unable to coapt and generate enough resting urethral closing pressure to retain urine in the bladder. The anatomic support of the urethra may be normal.

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Doctors first ask questions about the person’s symptoms and medical history and then do a physical examination. What they find during the history and physical examination often suggests a cause of excessive urination and the tests that may need to be done (see Table: Some Causes and Features of Excessive Urination).

People with medical problems that interfere with thinking, moving, or communicating may have trouble reaching a toilet. A person with Alzheimer’s disease, for example, may not think well enough to plan a timely trip to a restroom. A person in a wheelchair may have a hard time getting to a toilet in time. Functional incontinence is the result of these physical and medical conditions. Conditions such as arthritis often develop with age and account for some of the incontinence of elderly women in nursing homes.

The urinary tract is the body’s drainage system for removing urine, which is composed of wastes and extra fluid. For normal urination to occur, all body parts in the urinary tract need to work together in the correct order.

Stress incontinence results from movements that put pressure on the bladder and cause urine leakage, such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, or physical activity. Physical changes from pregnancy and childbirth often cause stress incontinence. Weakening of pelvic floor muscles can cause the bladder to move downward, pushing the bladder slightly out of the bottom of the pelvis and making it difficult for the sphincters to squeeze tightly enough. As a result, urine can leak during moments of physical stress. Stress incontinence can also occur without the bladder moving downward if the urethra wall is weak. This type of incontinence is common in women, and a health care professional can treat the condition.

^ Sangsawang, Bussara; Sangsawang, Nucharee (2013). “Stress urinary incontinence in pregnant women: a review of prevalence, pathophysiology, and treatment”. International Urogynecology Journal. 24 (6): 901–912. doi:10.1007/s00192-013-2061-7. ISSN 0937-3462.

Jump up ^ Reginelli A, Di Grezia G, Gatta G, Iacobellis F, Rossi C, Giganti M, Coppolino F, Brunese L (2013). “Role of conventional radiology and MRi defecography of pelvic floor hernias”. BMC Surgery. 13 Suppl 2: S53. doi:10.1186/1471-2482-13-S2-S53. PMC 3851064 . PMID 24267789.

Some women also may have a disorder called mixed incontinence, when both urge and stress incontinence occur. Stress incontinence is the loss of urine when you exert physical stress or pressure on your bladder, such as during activities that include running or jumping. Treatment of the stress incontinence is not likely to help the overactive bladder symptoms.

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In 2006, seventeen students taking a geriatrics pharmacotherapy course participated in a voluntary “diaper experience” exercise to help them understand the impact incontinence has on older adults. The students, who wore adult diapers for a day before writing a paper about it, described the experience as unfamiliar and physically challenging, noting that being in diapers had a largely negative impact on them and that better solutions to incontinence required. However, they praised the exercise for giving them insight into incontinence and the effect it has on peoples’ lives.

Frequent urination describes the need to urinate more often than usual. However, there is not really a clear definition of “frequent” when it comes to how often you urinate. The key to deciding if you have issues with frequent urination is whether… Read More

OAB is primarily a neuromuscular problem in which the detrusor muscle contracts inappropriately during bladder filling (ie, storage phase). These contractions often occur regardless of the amount of urine in the bladder. OAB may result from a number of different causes, both neurogenic and nonneurogenic.

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Biofeedback uses measuring devices to help the patient become aware of his or her body’s functioning. By using electronic devices or diaries to track when the bladder and urethral muscles contract, the patient can gain control over these muscles. Biofeedback can be used with pelvic muscle exercises and electrical stimulation to relieve stress and urge incontinence.

The following products are considered to be alternative treatments or natural remedies for Overactive Bladder. Their efficacy may not have been scientifically tested to the same degree as the drugs listed in the table above. However there may be historical, cultural or anecdotal evidence linking their use to the treatment of Overactive Bladder.

Urinary incontinence is an underdiagnosed and underreported medical problem that is estimated to affect up to 13 million people in the United States, predominantly women. includes 10%-35% of adults and 50%-84% of residents in nursing homes. It has also been estimated that most (50%-70%) women with urinary incontinence fail to seek appropriate treatment for the condition because of the social stigma. People with incontinence often live with this condition for six to nine years before seeking medical therapy. Living with urinary incontinence puts people at risk for rashes, sores, and skin and urinary tract infections. Effective treatments for this common problem are available in many cases.

Urination, or voiding, is a complex activity. The bladder is a balloonlike muscle that lies in the lowest part of the abdomen. The bladder stores urine, then releases it through the urethra, the canal that carries urine to the outside of the body. Controlling this activity involves nerves, muscles, the spinal cord and the brain.

By looking at your bladder diary, the doctor may see a pattern and suggest making it a point to use the bathroom at regular timed intervals, a habit called timed voiding. As you gain control, you can extend the time between scheduled trips to the bathroom. Behavioral treatment also includes Kegel exercises to strengthen the muscles that help hold in urine.

total urinary incontinence a nursing diagnosis accepted by the Seventh National Conference on the Classification of Nursing Diagnoses, defined as a state in which an individual has continuous and unpredictable loss of urine; see also urinary incontinence.

Coyne, K. S., Sexton, C. C., Vats, V., Thompson, C., Kopp, Z. S., & Milson, I. (2011, January 22). National community prevalence of overactive bladder in the United States stratified by sex and age. Urology, 77(5), 1081–1087. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21256571

Bladder retraining. This involves increasing the intervals between using the bathroom over the course of about 12 weeks. This helps retrain your bladder to hold urine longer and to urinate less frequently.

The symptoms of OAB are uncomfortable and disruptive. They may begin suddenly, for instance, after surgery or childbirth. They can also worsen over time with deterioration of the pelvic floor muscles. Talk to your doctor as soon as you notice the symptoms of OAB. Early treatment of OAB can help reduce or even eliminate the symptoms.

Idiopathic OAB is OAB in the absence of any underlying neurologic, metabolic, or other causes of OAB, or conditions that may mimic OAB, such as urinary tract infection, bladder cancer, bladder stones, bladder inflammation, or bladder outlet obstruction.

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Jump up ^ Koch, Kenneth L (1 January 2012). “Tissue engineering for neuromuscular disorders of the gastrointestinal tract”. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 18 (47): 6918–25. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i47.6918. PMC 3531675 . PMID 23322989.

29. Elliott CS, Comiter CV. The effect of angiotensin inhibition on urinary incontinence: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2008). Neurourol Urodyn. August 29, 2013 [Epub ahead of print].

If you lose urine for no apparent reason after suddenly feeling the need or urge to urinate, you may have urge incontinence. A common cause of urge incontinence is inappropriate bladder contractions. Abnormal nerve signals might be the cause of these bladder spasms.

If your child discharges large or small amounts of urine frequently, he suffers from frequency. If your child urinates more than seven times a day, it is a case of frequent urination [2]. In most cases, frequent urination usually is a symptom of urinary tract infection (UTI), And, UTIs are more common in girls than boys. The condition can also occur due to undiagnosed diabetes.

You may feel uncomfortable discussing incontinence with your doctor. But if incontinence is frequent or is affecting your quality of life, it’s important to seek medical advice because urinary incontinence may:

Additionally, OAB is associated with increased economic burden and financial complications due to the need for increased caregiver hours, nursing-home placement, and treatment of infections or fractures.

The overall prognosis for overactive bladder is generally good. Through a combined approach of behavioral modifications and medications, the patient can help significantly improve bladder urgency, and the quality of life of those affected by overactive bladder can substantially improve.

Drugs. For urge incontinence, medications known as anticholinergics/antimuscarinics (Detrol, Ditropan XL, Enablex, Oxytrol, Urispas, and Vesicare) can prevent bladder spasms. Oxytrol, Detrol, Ditropan XL, Myrbetriq, and Vesicare also are approved for women with overactive bladder (OAB). Oxytrol is available without a prescription. OAB is a condition in which the bladder squeezes too often or without warning, resulting in incontinence. Also, Botox injected into the bladder muscle causes the bladder to relax, increasing its storage capacity and reducing episodes of urinary incontinence. It can be used for adults who do not respond to or can’t use the medications listed above.

In stress urinary incontinence the continence mechanism cannot deal with elevations in intra-abdominal pressure. The intra-abdominal pressure is transmitted onto the bladder, causing urine to leak from the urethra. Patients are classically dry while sitting still or lying down.

Medications that control the muscle spasms in the bladder can help reduce urinary incontinence, or loss of bladder control. Your doctor also may suggest doing pelvic exercises, such as Kegels or bladder retraining exercises, to help delay urination.

Incontinence is expensive both to individuals in the form of bladder control products and to the health care system and nursing home industry. Injury related to incontinence is a leading cause of admission to assisted living and nursing care facilities. More than 50% of nursing facility admissions are related to incontinence.[37]

As the bladder fills, sympathetic tone contributes to closure of the bladder neck and relaxation of the dome of the bladder and inhibits parasympathetic tone. At the same time, somatic innervation maintains tone in the pelvic floor musculature as well as the striated periurethral muscles.

Double incontinence. There is also a related condition for defecation known as fecal incontinence. Due to involvement of the same muscle group (levator ani) in bladder and bowel continence, patients with urinary incontinence are more likely to have fecal incontinence in addition.[16] This is sometimes termed “double incontinence”.

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Retropubic suspension uses surgical threads called sutures to support the bladder neck. The most common retropubic suspension procedure is called the Burch procedure. In this operation, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen a few inches below the navel and then secures the threads to strong ligaments within the pelvis to support the urethral sphincter. This common procedure is often done at the time of an abdominal procedure such as a hysterectomy.

The first step is to talk to your doctor or contact the National Continence Helpline on 1800 33 00 66. The National Continence Helpline is staffed by a team of continence nurse advisors who offer free information, advice and support and can provide you with a wide range of information resources and referrals to local services.

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Kegel exercises: Also called pelvic-floor exercises, these focus on strengthening the muscles of the anus, buttocks and pelvis. When done correctly, they can be effective in improving or resolving FI. They involve a routine of repeatedly contracting muscles used when making a bowel movement. Hold these muscles as if you’re trying to stop the flow of stool or passing gas for a slow count of five, and then relax. Kegel exercises should be done in a series of 30 contractions three times a day. They usually strengthen the pelvic-floor muscles within a few weeks.

Overactive bladder is a condition in which the bladder squeezes at the wrong time. The condition may be caused by nerve problems, or it may occur without any clear cause. A person with overactive bladder may have any two or all three of the following symptoms:

Medicines can affect bladder control in different ways. Some medicines help prevent incontinence by blocking abnormal nerve signals that make the bladder contract at the wrong time, while others slow the production of urine. Still others relax the bladder or shrink the prostate. Before prescribing a medicine to treat incontinence, your doctor may consider changing a prescription you already take. For example, diuretics are often prescribed to treat high blood pressure because they reduce fluid in the body by increasing urine production. Some men may find that switching from a diuretic to another kind of blood pressure medicine takes care of their incontinence.

Toilet habit. This is also dealt with in bladder training but in general it is best to visit the toilet only when you need to, rather than ‘just in case’. Depending on how much (and what) you are drinking and your level of activity (how much you are sweating), it is normal to pass urine every 3-4 hours on average.

D There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks.

Urinary incontinence — the loss of bladder control — is a common and often embarrassing problem. The severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine when you cough or sneeze to having an urge to urinate that’s so sudden and strong you don’t get to a toilet in time.

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