“autoimmune urticaria symptoms |medicine for urticaria”

Histamine is the ligand for 2 membrane-bound receptors, the H1 and H2 receptors, which are present on many cell types. The activation of the H1 histamine receptors on endothelial and smooth muscle cells leads to increased capillary permeability. The activation of the H2 histamine receptors leads to arteriolar and venule vasodilation. [3, 4, 5] This process is caused by several mechanisms as follows:
Mix a baking soda paste. Baking soda can be used to help relieve the itching of your hives. Mix 1 tbsp of baking soda with enough water to make a paste. Try a few drops at first and stir, adding more as needed. Using your fingers or soft spatula, spread the paste over the hives. Use as often as needed and rinse off with cool water.
There are some researches that link post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a classic stress-mediated syndrome with urticaria (the medical term for hives or nettle-rash), clearing the possible co-morbidity.
Swelling of deeper layers of the skin, angioedema, commonly accompanies urticaria (click for picture). This swelling often results from the same inflammatory processes that cause hives. The redness that is seen surrounding superficial lesions is not observed, though the swelling is readily appreciated. Angioedema generally occurs on the extremities and digits as well as areas of the head, neck, face, and in men, genitalia. It is often described as being painful or burning.
Patches of raised bumps (also called wheals) that appear suddenly. Wheals are pale red in colour and can range in size from a millimetre to several centimetres. Individual hives can join together too.
Blanchable, raised, palpable wheals, which can be linear, annular (circular), or arcuate (serpiginous); can occur on any skin area; are usually transient and migratory; and may coalesce rapidly to form large areas of erythematous, raised lesions that blanch with pressure
The skin reaction usually becomes evident soon after the scratching, and disappears within 30 minutes. Dermatographism is the most common form of a subset of chronic hives, acknowledged as “physical hives”.[citation needed]
cold urticaria urticaria precipitated by cold air, water, or objects, occurring in two forms: In the autosomal dominant form, which is associated with fever, arthralgias, and leukocytosis, the lesions occur as erythematous, burning papules and macules. The more common acquired form is usually idiopathic and self-limited.
Clinical Context:  Colchicine is an alkaloid extract that inhibits microtubule formation. It is often used for the treatment of acute gout. Colchicine has been reported effective for urticarial vasculitis. It concentrates well in leukocytes and reduces neutrophilic chemotaxis and motility. Histologically, urticarial vasculitis presents with neutrophil involvement; therefore, colchicine possibly is useful. However, drug’s effect has not been proven in clinical trials.
A prospective study published in 2004 found that chronic urticaria lasted longer in patients who had associated angioedema; severe urticaria; a positive ASST; or positive thyroid autoantibodies [69]. In this study chronic urticaria lasted for > 1 year in more than 70% of patients and for 5 years (the end of the study period) in 14% of patients. A retrospective study [70] found that 44% of patients seen in a dermatology clinic with either acute or chronic urticaria had a good response to H1 anti-histamine treatment. Patients with physical urticaria responded less well than patients with other types of urticaria and had a more prolonged clinical course.
Dr. Cole is board certified in dermatology. He obtained his BA degree in bacteriology, his MA degree in microbiology, and his MD at the University of California, Los Angeles. He trained in dermatology at the University of Oregon, where he completed his residency.
If warranted, obtain antinuclear antibody and lupus serologies. Anti-SSA and anti-SSB may be seen in patients with Sjögren syndrome. Test results for antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies are generally negative, and, if they are positive, the possibility of Wegener granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis should be considered.
Urticaria, commonly referred to as hives, appears as raised, well-circumscribed areas of erythema and edema involving the dermis and epidermis that are very pruritic (see the image below). It may be acute (<6 wk) or chronic (>6 wk). Urticaria may be confused with a variety of other dermatologic diseases that are similar in appearance and are also pruritic; usually, however, it can be distinguished from these diseases by an experienced clinician. [1]
11. Bosso JV, Simon RA. Urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis provoked by food additives. In: Metcalfe DD, Sampson HA, Simon RA, editors. Food allergy: adverse reactions to foods and food additives. 2nd. Cambridge: Blackwell Science; 1997. pp. 397–409.
Although systemic treatment is best avoided during pregnancy and breast feeding, there have been no reports that second-generation antihistamines cause birth defects. If treatment is required, loratidine and cetirizine are currently preferred.
Arora A, Wetter DA, Gonzalez-Santiago TM, Davis MD, Lohse CM. Incidence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, 1996 to 2010: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014 Nov. 89 (11):1515-24. [View Abstract]
Alcohol: Alcohol allergies are rather rare and in most cases the reaction is brought on by the ingredients used to prepare the alcoholic beverage rather than the alcohol itself. For instance a person may suffer from an allergic reaction after drinking wine but the root cause would probably be the grapes that were used to make the wine. In the same way a person may believe that they are allergic to the alcohol in beer although they are actually allergic to the wheat or barley that is used to make the beer. Some people may even be allergic to the yeast that is used in the fermentation process.
Steven A Conrad, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Critical Care Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Physicians, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Louisiana State Medical Society, Shock Society, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine
Eileen Bailey is a freelance health writer. She is the author of What Went Right: Reframe Your Thinking for a Happier Now, Idiot’s Guide to Adult ADHD, Idiot’s Guide to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Essential Guide to Overcoming Obsessive Love, and Essential Guide to Asperger’s Syndrome. She can be found on Twitter @eileenmbailey and on Facebook at eileenmbailey.
Codeine and other opiate-derived medications can cause degranulation of mast cells by stimulation of opiate receptors. Urticaria and angioedema can result from agents that alter the metabolism of arachidonic acid, such as aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These responses to NSAIDs have the potential to be fulminant with generalized hives and swelling. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), drugs used to treat hypertension, (eg, Captopril) can cause recurrent episodes of angioedema, but urticarial skin lesions are not observed. Because ACE normally inactivates bradykinin, the angioedema is thought to be due to elevated bradykinin levels causing dilation and leaking of vessels in deep layers of the skin. This is the most common cause of angioedema seen in emergency rooms. Tongue, throat and laryngeal swelling can be extremely severe and intubation may be necessary. The swelling resembles that seen in hereditary or acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency where bradykinin is also the mediator of swelling.
Chronic hives don’t put you at any sudden risk of a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis). But if you do experience hives as part of a serious allergic reaction, seek emergency care. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include dizziness, trouble breathing, and swelling of your lips, eyelids and tongue.
Hives usually cause itching, but may also burn or sting. They can appear anywhere on the body, including the face, lips, tongue, throat, or ears. Hives vary in size (from a pencil eraser to a dinner plate), and may join together to form larger areas known as plaques. They can last for hours, or up to one day before fading. Read more about hives (urticaria and angioedema).
To know exactly what kind of hives one has, or to learn more about research into the immune basis of hives or about rarer forms of this condition, consult a physician. It is important, however, to keep in mind that most cases of urticaria are annoying, not serious, and almost always temporary.
61. Shahar E, Bergman R, Guttman-Yassky E, Pollack S. Treatment of severe chronic idiopathic urticaria with oral mycophenolate mofetil in patients not responding to antihistamines and/or corticosteroids. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:1224–7. [PubMed]
Discovering the exact cause of chronic urticaria is often extremely difficult. If the hives occur daily, they are most likely caused by something that you are exposed to daily. In that case, it is easier to see the cause/effect relationship. Sometimes it is several hours after exposure before the itching begins. In that case, some real detective work will be needed to find the culprit. These are the things to consider in order of importance: foods, drugs, infections, inhalants, and psychological factors.
They also play a central role in allergy. Mast cells contain sacks filled with chemicals, including histamine. These chemicals are released response to certain external triggers, e.g., allergens, physical causes. Some individuals’ mast cells are unstable and cause urticaria without being triggered by an external factor. When these chemicals are released in small amounts, they cause local itch, irritation and redness of the overlying skin. In larger amounts, they will cause fluid to leak out of blood vessels, resulting in swelling of the skin. When released in massive amounts, it may result in shock (anaphylaxis).
There are many explanations out there: stress-related hives can be the result of an overactive sympathetic nervous system. It’s the same part of the brain that is responsible for “fight or flight” situations. Something else might be the cause.
Diseases and medications can also cause low blood pressure. When the flow of blood is too low to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to vital organs such as the brain, heart, and kidneys; the organs do not function normally and may be permanently damaged.
To treat a type of chronic hives called CIU, which can last for 6 weeks or longer and sometimes years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 2 medications — antihistamines and omalizumab.
Clinical Context:  Hydroxyzine antagonizes H1 receptors in the periphery. It may suppress histamine activity in the subcortical region of the CNS. Hydroxyzine can be used for symptomatic control. The recommended antihistamine for pregnant patients is diphenhydramine. Hydroxyzine has been used safely in children.

“hives and welts -how can you get hives”

Mortureux P, Léauté-Labrèze C, Legrain-Lifermann V, Lamireau T, Sarlangue J, Taïeb A. Acute urticaria in infancy and early childhood: a prospective study. Arch Dermatol. 1998 Mar. 134(3):319-23. [Medline].
Mastocytosis is a disease in which there is mast cell hyperplasia affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. Clinical features include urticaria, pruritus, flushing, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and headache. Patients may be prone to severe anaphylactoid reactions after exposure to certain medications [79] and severe anaphylactic reactions after exposure to antigens to which they are sensitized, such as insect venom [80], because of the increased tissue load of mast cells. Mastocytosis is classified into cutaneous and systemic variants and urticaria pigmentosa is the most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis, occurring in approximately 85% of children and 95% of adults in whom mastocytosis is limited to the skin. Systemic mastocytosis varies from an indolent condition, where there is no associated haematological disease, to an aggressive mast cell leukaemia. The lesions of urticaria pigmentosa are variable in colour, macular or maculopapular and are usually symmetrical in with sparing of the extremities and face. The diagnosis of urticaria pigmentosa is made by skin biopsy, which shows a significant increase in dermal mast cells [81]. Patients have symptoms of pruritus and dermographism and pressure on affected skin causes erythema and urtication –‘Darier’s sign’. Children usually present before the age of 2 years and urticaria pigmentosa may be present at birth. They tend to have fewer, larger skin lesions than adults and they may also develop bullae, which do not occur in adults. Treatment is with H1 and H2 anti-histamines and ketotifen [82] (an anti-histamine with mast cell-stabilizing properties), methoxsalen with long-wave ultraviolet radiation (psoralen plus ultraviolet A,) [83] and topical steroids [84] may all be used to alleviate urticaria and pruritus. It is rare for children to develop systemic mastocytosis and urticaria pigmentosa resolves completely in about 50% of children. In contrast, urticaria pigmentosa in adults usually persists and about 50% of patients may go on to develop systemic mastocytosis. The prognosis in adults is, therefore, highly variable.
Although sinusitis, cutaneous fungal infections, Helicobacter pylori infection, or other occult infections have been reported in the literature to cause urticaria, the data are not strongly supported. [14, 15, 16, 17, 18]
Acute urticaria is defined as the presence of evanescent wheals which completely resolve within six weeks.[31] Acute urticaria becomes evident a few minutes after the person has been exposed to an allergen. The outbreak may last several weeks, but usually the hives are gone in six weeks. Typically, the hives are a reaction to food, but in about half the cases, the trigger is unknown. Common foods may be the cause, as well as bee or wasp stings, or skin contact with certain fragrances. Acute viral infection is another common cause of acute urticaria (viral exanthem). Less common causes of hives include friction, pressure, temperature extremes, exercise, and sunlight.
It was during the promotion of Veni Vidi Vicious and Your New Favourite Band that the Hives signed a record deal with Universal Music, reportedly worth $50 million. This led to a dispute between the Hives and Burning Heart, who claimed that the Hives were still contracted to them for one more album.
The intense itching can become unbearable to the point where the individual may inadvertently cause damage to the skin by scratching at the affected areas. The condition can be disturbing to parents who have never experienced it themselves, but observe it in their children. Although you may find yourself exasperated as your child continues to scratch at the skin, despite your warnings against doing so, you need to keep your calm. The intense itching can be unbearable, and even adults find it near impossible to restrain themselves. Instead of admonishing your child, , make sure that you take steps to minimize the discomfort and try to distract a child with hives so that they do not scratch the rash. In severe cases, the individual may also have a fever and may suffer from digestive distress. In most cases, the rash subsides for a couple of hours or even days before it returns. Other severe urticaria symptoms include periodic flushing, headaches, dizziness, respiratory problems, fluid retention, tongue or facial swelling and hypotension. Medical attention is essential, as if neglected, severe cases of utricaria can even cause asphyxiation, resulting in death. There are several ongoing research programs to understand the exact causes of this condition in order to increase the effectiveness of existing treatment methods.
Could you be allergic to your own sweat? Yes, says Dr. Anand. Although the cause of hives triggered by exercise is sometimes thought to be an increase of body heat, what actually triggers hives when you work out is sweat. Does that mean you should skip exercise if you have chronic hives? Not necessarily. Talk to your doctor if you suspect this may be one of your triggers — he or she may recommend taking a dose of antihistamine just before you exercise to help prevent a flare-up.
Yet another consideration is if you have an allergy to latex because a number of foods are known to produce a cross-reaction. Foods on this list include avocado, bananas, chestnuts, kiwi, and passion fruit.
Gregory J Raugi, MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of Washington at Seattle School of Medicine; Chief, Dermatology Section, Primary and Specialty Care Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center of Seattle
If your reaction is severe, especially if the swelling involves your throat, you may need an emergency shot of epinephrine (adrenaline) or steroids. Hives in the throat can block your airway, making it difficult to breathe.
In some cases a condition called angio-oedema develops at the same time as hives. In this condition some fluid also leaks into deeper tissues under the skin, which causes the tissues to swell. See separate leaflet called Angio-oedema for more details:
Lin RY, Curry A, Pesola GR, Knight RJ, Lee HS, Bakalchuk L, et al. Improved outcomes in patients with acute allergic syndromes who are treated with combined H1 and H2 antagonists. Ann Emerg Med. 2000 Nov. 36(5):462-8. [Medline].
This is variable. Most cases of idiopathic urticaria resolve over a period of six months but a minority can persist for many years. Some remit and then relapse. 50% of cases of chronic urticaria have resolved within 3-5 years. At least 20% of chronic urticaria patients requiring referral to secondary care are still symptomatic 10 years after first presentation. Factors associated with lasting duration include severe symptoms, associated angio-oedema and positive antithyroid antibodies.
Applying something cool to your skin can help relieve any irritation. To do this, grab a bag of frozen veggies or wrap a handful of ice in a towel and apply to the affected area for up to 10 minutes. Repeat as needed throughout the day.
Hives occur when the mast cells in the skin release histamine and other chemicals into the bloodstream. Histamine is responsible for causing the blood vessels in the skin to leak and swell up. This results in the red, raised welts that are symptomatic of an attack of hives.Causes of hives include:
urticaria pigmentosa, juvenile urticaria pigmentosa present at birth or in the first few weeks of life, usually disappearing before puberty, taking the form of a single nodule or tumor or of a disseminated eruption of yellowish brown to yellowish red macules, plaques, or bullae.
59. Vena GA, Cassano N, Colombo D, Peruzzi P, Pigatto P NEO-I-30 Study Group. Cyclosporine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:705–9. [PubMed]
If you are constantly worried about what causes hives then you should understand that when you expose your body to excessive stress either for a small amount of time or perhaps a long period of time your own body’s immune system sets out to falter and it starts sending histamine for the body to handle what is causing problem.
If you have hives, you want to know what causes them so you can eliminate that trigger and free yourself from the itching. The following lists are not exhaustive but do give the main known hives causes. While most cases of hives are idiopathic, see if you can eliminate any obvious causes of your hives. Just remember that it’s best to talk to your healthcare provider before eliminating all possible hive triggers. If you suspect a medication is causing your hives, contact your healthcare provider immediately.
This medication must be injected under the skin. This option is only available if your hives have lasted for months or years. Common side effects are headache, dizziness, inner ear pain, and cold symptoms.
Acute viral illnesses in children can be associated with urticarial eruptions which last a few weeks and then spontaneously subside. This typically accompanies symptoms of viral rhinitis, pharyngitis, or bronchitis. When such patients are given an antibiotic, the cause of the hives becomes less clear because a drug reaction becomes an alternative possibility. If penicillin or related antibiotics have been given it is worth performing skin testing for penicillin and/or cephalosporin allergy, rather than making an unsubstantiated assumption that the child is “penicillin allergic.” Hepatitis B, infectious mononucleosis (EB virus) and a large number of helminthic parasites may be associated with hives in all age groups.
Occasionally, a person will continue to have hives for many years. These hives, called chronic urticaria, can be one of the most frustrating problems dermatologists see in their patients. This is defined as hives lasting longer than 6 weeks. Patients like this come in miserable and worried with this problem, often having seen multiple specialists. Neither the patient nor the doctor can determine the cause of the hives. Patients will often say, “It has got to be something causing these hives.” The truth is hard to accept for some patients.
Dermatographic urticaria (also known as dermatographism or “skin writing”) is marked by the appearance of weals or welts on the skin as a result of scratching or firm stroking of the skin. Seen in 4–5% of the population, it is one of the most common types of urticaria,[11] in which the skin becomes raised and inflamed when stroked, scratched, rubbed, and sometimes even slapped.[12]
Hives fall into two categories on the basis of the time they have been present: acute urticaria (ordinary hives, which resolve after six to eight weeks) and chronic urticaria (that continues longer than six to eight weeks). Since hives are so common and acute urticaria, by definition, resolves spontaneously, physicians do not generally expend much time or expense to evaluate the cause of hives of less than eight weeks’ duration.

“hives on legs _urticarial vasculitis”

Hives usually itch, but they may also burn or sting. They can show up anywhere on your body, including the face, lips, tongue, throat, and ears. They range in size from a pencil eraser to a dinner plate and may join together to form larger areas known as plaques. They can last for hours, weeks, or even years.
Urticaria affects almost 20 percent of the population but the majority of the time, the cause is unknown (idiopathic). Even so, it is a good idea to try to find the trigger so you can possibly avoid it in the future.
Acute urticaria may rarely progress to life-threatening angioedema or anaphylactic shock in a very short period, although anaphylactic shock is usually of rapid onset with no urticaria or angioedema. [5] Prehospital measures may include the following when there is concern for anaphylactic shock:
Allergic reactions to foods such as nuts, seafood (including fish), chocolate, berries and milk common causes of ordinary hives. Viral infections, insect bites and medications can also cause ordinary hives.
Bluestein HM, Hoover TA, Banerji AS, Camargo CA Jr, Reshef A, Herscu P. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema in a community hospital emergency department. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009 Dec. 103(6):502-7. [Medline].
46. Williams P, Sewell WAC, Bunn C, Pumphrey R, Read G, Jolles S. Clinical Immunology Review Series: an approach to the use of the immunology laboratory in the diagnosis of clinical allergy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;153:10–18. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Antihistamines – available either over the counter or by prescription – are a frequently recommended treatment for hives. They work by blocking the effect of histamine, a chemical in the skin that can cause allergy symptoms, including welts. Low-sedating or nonsedating antihistamines are preferred. They are effective and long-lasting (may be taken once a day) and have few side effects. Your allergist may recommend a combination of two or three antihistamines to treat your hives, along with cold compresses or anti-itch salves to ease the symptoms.
After seeing the video for “Hate to Say I Told You So” on German TV, Alan McGee (Oasis, Creation Records) decided to sign the band to his newly formed Poptones label. Poptones released the ‘best of’ compilation Your New Favourite Band in 2001, which proved to be their breakthrough record, reaching No. 7 in the UK album charts. Following the success of the album, the band re-released singles “Hate to Say I Told You So” and “Main Offender” which reach numbers No. 23 and No. 24 respectively in the UK Singles chart. The band also re-released Veni Vidi Vicious in the US. “The Hives – Introduce the Metric System in Time” was included on the punk rock sampler album Punk-O-Rama Volume 5 from Epitaph Records.[6]
Azathioprine may be used as a steroid-sparing agent once other therapeutic options have been exhausted. Measurement of thiopurine methyltransferase can help ensure safe and optimal treatment with azathioprine.
An objective trial of a low salicylate diet may be indicated in patients who give a clear history of having developed more severe urticaria, or even angioedema or bronchospasm, after taking aspirin or NSAIDs and, particularly, if the patient also responds to LTRA treatment [57]. It is important to explain to the patient that the diet should not become more troublesome than the urticarial symptoms themselves and it may be simpler patients to take a regular dose of an anti-histamine, rather than continue on a strict exclusion diet.
Vital signs should note the presence of bradycardia or tachycardia and tachypnea. General examination should immediately seek any signs of respiratory distress and also note cachexia, jaundice, or agitation.
Allergy symptoms are an example of an overreaction by the immune system to otherwise harmless substances, says Gailen D. Marshall, MD, PhD, professor of medicine and pediatrics at the University of Mississippi.
Angioedema – swelling of tissue beneath the surface of the skin – can be mistaken for or associated with hives. It can be caused by allergic reactions, medications or a hereditary deficiency of some enzymes. The following symptoms may indicate angioedema:
The important thing is that the patient is given enough medication (antihistamines, perhaps in conjunction with other drugs) to suppress the hives. Whatever it is that controls a patients hives, should be the daily regimen, taking the drugs every day, whether or not they have the hives on any given day. The idea is that one is preventing the hives from breaking out.

“horticare +urticaria icd 10 code”

Urticaria and angioedema are commonly classified by duration. Lesions of less than six weeks’ duration are considered acute; episodes that persist beyond six weeks are designated chronic. The causes and mechanisms of hive formation are different in each instance, as are the prognosis and approaches to treatment.
[Guideline] American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Consultation and referral guidelines citing the evidence: how the allergist-immunologist can help. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Feb. 117(2 Suppl Consultation):S495-523. [Medline].
Blanchable, raised, palpable wheals, which can be linear, annular (circular), or arcuate (serpiginous); can occur on any skin area; are usually transient and migratory; and may coalesce rapidly to form large areas of erythematous, raised lesions that blanch with pressure
The experts disagree when it comes to managing stress to ease allergy symptoms. Grossan tells WebMD that after weeks of sneezing, the body’s immune system is exhausted. “Going to bed and resting can help to restore the body’s resistance and is definitely good stress-relief therapy.”
Usually not. The rash is itchy but normally fades within a day or so and causes no harm. Most people with hives (acute urticaria) do not feel too unwell unless they have a cold or flu that is triggering the rash. The cause of the rash is not known in more than half of cases and it is commonly a one-off event.
Stress hives develop due to chronic stress or tension in your life, and appear red, raised and swollen areas on the skin that seem to suddenly appear. Stress hives, which are also known as a stress rash or as stress bumps, are often incredibly itchy, and some people report having a burning or stinging sensation wherever they appear. Stress induced hives will go away by themselves when you have successfully released ALL the stress from your body or taken the hives treamtment OxyHives, which will eliminate your symptoms.
Investigations for a systemic condition or autoinflammatory disease should be undertaken in urticaria patients with fever, joint or bone pain, and malaise. Patients with angioedema without weals should be asked if they take ACE inhibitor drugs and tested for complement C4; C1-INH levels, function and antibodies; and C1q.
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Jump up ^ Kolkhir, P.; Balakirski, G.; Merk, HF.; Olisova, O.; Maurer, M. (December 2015). “Chronic spontaneous urticaria and internal parasites – a systematic review”. Allergy. doi:10.1111/all.12818. PMID 26648083.
“I’ve seen kids break out in hives from having a temper tantrum,” Dr. Li says. “Certainly, stress that’s anxiety-related can cause more itching in patients who have hives and they start to have more hives as a result of itching and scratching the existing ones.”
Although systemic treatment is best avoided during pregnancy and breast feeding, there have been no reports that second-generation antihistamines cause birth defects. If treatment is required, loratidine and cetirizine are currently preferred.
What is cholinergic urticaria and how is it treated? Learn about cholinergic urticaria, a rash that can appear when the body gets warm and sweats. We look at symptoms, treatment, diagnosis, and prevention. Read now
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“Chronic idiopathic hives are itchy red welts that persist for at least six weeks and have no known cause,” says Miriam Anand, MD, an allergist with Allergy Associates and Asthma in Tempe, Arizona. The condition is marked by periods of exacerbation and remission, and for many who have it, the hives may persist for more than five years.
This means there is no explanation for what’s causing it. This can be difficult for some people to accept when they receive the CIU diagnosis from their doctor. Because these chronic hives symptoms come and go without a known cause, many who have been diagnosed with CIU continue to look for possible triggers for their disease. This can turn into a cycle of elimination diets, changing of detergents and other changes in addition to tests for allergies – none of which prove to be the cause of these patients’ hives.
“My hope is that we will be able to move towards a more integrated approach to treating patients which incorporates attention to the multifactorial nature of so many dermatologic conditions, both in their etiology as well as the experience of living with these conditions, whether it is chronic urticaria, psoriasis, acne or delusions of parasitosis,” she says.
If your GP thinks that it’s caused by an allergic reaction, you may be referred to an allergy clinic for an allergy test. However, if you’ve had urticaria most days for more than 6 weeks, it’s unlikely to be the result of an allergy.
If home and natural remedies aren’t enough to help your hives, over-the-counter (OTC) treatments may be your best bet. Not only can OTC options relieve itching and irritation, they can target your body’s histamine response, which is what causes hives to appear.
Chronic hives may be treated with antihistamines or a combination of medications. When antihistamines don’t provide relief, oral corticosteroids may be prescribed. A biologic drug, omalizumab (Xolair), is also approved to treat chronic hives in those at least 12 years of age.
Urticaria, or hives, are red bumps that suddenly appear on your skin. Do hives itch? Yes, hives can be itchy. They can also sting or burn. What do hives look like? The appearance of hives can vary depending on the person and the cause. Hives often appear as swollen, pale or dark red bumps that are either tiny. They also can be larger and interconnected, forming welts. Sometimes the welts can merge together forming larger plaques. These plaques be as large as a dinner plate in size! (3)

“multivariable -urticaria viral”

Dave, N. D., Xiang, L., Rehm, K. E., and Marshall, G. D. (2012, February 1). Stress and allergic diseases. Immunology And Allergy Clinics of North America, 31(1): 55–68. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3264048/
Angioedema is swelling in the deeper layers of a person’s skin. It’s often severe and is caused by a build-up of fluid. The symptoms of angioedema can affect any part of the body, but usually affect the:
If hives occur with swelling of the tongue or throat, difficulty breathing or low blood pressure, anaphylaxis should be suspected. Urgent administration of adrenaline and medical assessment is required. Information about anaphylaxis is available on the ASCIA website www.allergy.org.au/anaphylaxis
Chronic hives can go on for months and years. They can interfere with sleep, work and other activities. The following precautions may help prevent or soothe the recurring skin reactions of chronic hives:
Acute urticaria is said to affect 10%-20% of the population at some time during life. It is not uncommon in childhood, but the greatest incidence appears to be in young adults (15%). Chronic urticaria occurs more frequently in mid-life, especially in women.
Up to 20% of people will develop hives at some time during their life.  In most cases, hives are not due to allergy. Underneath the lining of the skin and other body organs (including the stomach, lungs, nose and eyes) are mast cells. Mast cells contain chemicals including histamine. When these are released into the skin they irritate nerve endings to cause local itch and irritation and make local blood vessels expand and leak fluid, triggering redness and swelling.
[Guideline] American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Consultation and referral guidelines citing the evidence: how the allergist-immunologist can help. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Feb. 117(2 Suppl Consultation):S495-523. [Medline].
I have suffered for 2 years, intense itching from head to foot. After trying few types of medicines, finally homeopathy could cure me. Please make sure, the homeopath must be really well qualified to diagnose root cause. I strongly recommend homeopathy for urticaria.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria and angioedema is diagnosed when hives and swelling are present for more than six weeks and when it has been determined that an apparent protracted episode of urticaria is not the result of recurrent episodes of acute urticaria.
Researchers have identified many – but not all – of the factors that can cause hives. These include food and other substances you take, such as medications. Some people develop hives just by touching certain items. Some illnesses also cause hives. Here are a few of the most common causes:
Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the low flow of blood through the arteries and veins. Some of the symptoms of low blood pressure include:
To do a skin patch test, simply apply a small amount of the product to an unaffected area of skin. If you can, apply to the inside of your forearm. If you don’t experience any irritation within 24 hours, it should be safe to apply to any hives.
[Guideline] Magerl M, Borzova E, Giménez-Arnau A, Grattan CE, Lawlor F, Mathelier-Fusade P, et al. The definition and diagnostic testing of physical and cholinergic urticarias–EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/UNEV consensus panel recommendations. Allergy. 2009 Dec. 64(12):1715-21. [Medline].
If you experience swelling of the lips or face, trouble breathing, or wheezing, you should seek immediate medical attention. These can be life-threatening complications, and you will likely need a shot of epinephrine for treatment.
This nonsteroidal treatment option is taken orally. These drugs should be used only after steroid treatment and antihistamines have been unsuccessful. Common side effects are headache, stomach upset, cough, and a low fever.
I am very prone to hives and no certain trigger can be identified. I found a remedy in my Great-Grandmother’s cookbook. 1 teaspoon Cream of Tartar in a juice glass of water. Drink before breakfast. This normally calms my hives.
Use rutin supplements. A number of herbs and supplements have natural anti-inflammatory activity. Rutin is a natural bioflavonoid found in citrus fruits and buckwheat. It can function to reduce inflammation and swelling by limiting the leakage from blood vessels.[15][16]
Your doctor may prescribe a cream or antihistamines to help with the itching. Good skin care is essential for prevention of an infection. For isolated or minor infected lesions, an antiseptic e.g. betadine can be applied. However, antibiotics may be necessary for severe or extensive infection.
If you have already been diagnosed with CIU, know that you are not alone. In the U.S., around 1.5 million people suffer from this form of chronic hives. Women are twice as likely to get CIU, and most cases appear between the ages of 20 and 40.
When you have an allergic reaction to a substance, your body releases histamine and other chemicals into the blood. This causes itching, swelling, and other symptoms. Hives are a common reaction. People with other allergies, such as hay fever, often get hives.
For chronic hives, the doctor suggest a non-sedating (non-drowsy) prescription or over-the-counter antihistamine to be taken every day. Not everyone responds to the same medications, though, so it’s important to work with a doctor to find the right one for your child.
Urticaria due to the direct effects of physical forces on the skin. Cold temperature (cold urticaria), pressure (pressure urticaria), ultraviolet radiation (solar urticaria), and scratching (dermographism) are some causes of physical urticaria.
Stress rash often takes the form of hives, or welts. Hives can appear anywhere on the body. Areas affected by hives are generally red, raised, and swollen. These blotchy areas can be as small as a pencil tip or as large as a dinner plate.
As with adults, any potential triggering factors should be identified and, if possible, avoided. Non-sedating H1 anti-histamines are the first-line medical treatment. All these drugs are licensed for children over 12. Age restrictions and dosage vary for the different drugs in younger children. Cetirizine, desloratidine, levocetirizine and loratidine are all available as syrups, with desloratidine being licensed for the youngest age group (1–5 years). In children under 1 year, only the sedating H1 anti-histamines chlorphenamine and hydroxyzine are licensed. High-dose treatment, or a combination of two different non-sedating H1 anti-histamines, or a combination of a non-sedating H1 anti-histamine in the morning, with a sedating H1 anti-histamine at night may be needed. If symptoms are still not well controlled, an H2 receptor antagonist and/or a LTRA may be tried. Montelukast is licensed for prophylaxis of asthma in children from 6 months of age and is available as granules and as a chewable tablet for younger children as well as in a standard tablet format. Zafirlukast is licensed for prophylaxis of asthma in children from 12 years of age and is available only in a standard tablet format. Finally, if high-dose H1 anti-histamines, H2 receptor antagonists and LTRA are ineffective, oral steroids may be needed; however, even oral steroids may be ineffective if the child has severe physical urticaria. Referral to a specialist centre is suggested if the child has very severe symptoms.
In brief, the crucial role of C1q in the pathway is its importance as the first protein to start the complement cascade (which ends in the destruction of the invading bacteria or virus), and its ability to link the two important arms of the immune system – the innate immune system: a broad defence system; and the adaptive immune system: the strong immune response capable of remembering previous infections, allowing fast response against recurrent infections, meaning that people with a normal immune system don’t continually catch the same cold or same strain of flu repeatedly.[5]
Hives, also known as urticaria, affects about 20 percent of people at some time during their lives. It can be triggered by many substances or situations and usually starts as an itchy patch of skin that turns into swollen red welts.
This is variable. Most cases of idiopathic urticaria resolve over a period of six months but a minority can persist for many years. Some remit and then relapse. 50% of cases of chronic urticaria have resolved within 3-5 years. At least 20% of chronic urticaria patients requiring referral to secondary care are still symptomatic 10 years after first presentation. Factors associated with lasting duration include severe symptoms, associated angio-oedema and positive antithyroid antibodies.
This type of hives can occur right away, precisely after a pressure stimulus or as a deferred response to sustained pressure being enforced to the skin. In the deferred form, the hives only appear after about six hours from the initial application of pressure to the skin. Under normal circumstances, these hives are not the same as those witnessed with most urticariae. Instead, the protrusion in the affected areas is typically more spread out. The hives may last from eight hours to three days. The source of the pressure on the skin can happen from tight fitted clothing, belts, clothing with tough straps, walking, leaning against an object, standing, sitting on a hard surface, etc. The areas of the body most commonly affected are the hands, feet, trunk, abdomen, buttocks, legs and face. Although this appears to be very similar to dermatographism, the cardinal difference is that the swelled skin areas do not become visible quickly and tend to last much longer. This form of the skin disease is, however, rare.[citation needed]
Ongoing hives lasting days at a time are almost never allergic in origin, with the exception of some cases of allergy to medicines. Stress is a very rarely the cause of hives but may make the symptoms worse. 

“urticaria pressure -hives allergy treatment”

Antihistamine medications are a mainstay in the treatment of hives, as they block the action of histamine, the chemical responsible for hives. Non-drowsy antihistamines are available over the counter or your doctor may recommend a daily antihistamine so that the cumulative effects of the drug can manage symptoms of allergies, like hives, before they appear. 
The prognosis in acute urticaria is excellent, with most cases resolving within days. Acute urticaria usually can be controlled using only symptomatic treatment with antihistamines. If a known triggering factor is present, avoidance is the most effective therapy. Acute urticaria discomfort, but it does not cause mortality, unless it is associated with angioedema involving the upper airways. [25, 26, 27] If a patient continues to be exposed to a known trigger, the condition may become chronic.
Psychological stress exacerbates chronic urticaria through a variety of mechanisms, including heightened basophil response to corticotrophin releasing factor and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and a derangement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (Dyke SM, Carey BS, Kaminski ER. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38(1):86-92).
All songwriting except covers on the band’s albums are credited to “Randy Fitzsimmons”. The band claim Fitzsimmons is an honorary “sixth Hive,” who along with writing their music, discovered and manages the band. Randy Fitzsimmons is a registered pseudonym for Niklas Almqvist [25].
An allergic reaction marked by multiple discrete swellings on the skin (wheals) that are intensely itchy and last up to 24 hr. The wheals appear primarily on the chest, back, extremities, face, or scalp. Synonym: hives See: illustration; allergy; angioedema
Although rosacea can affect anyone, it’s most common in middle-aged women who have fair skin. There’s no cure for rosacea, so treatments focus on management techniques. This includes wearing a broad-spectrum sunscreen and moisturizing frequently.
She’ll also ask about the foods you eat and if you have pets, to see if an allergy is to blame. She may check for other illnesses or conditions that could be causing the hives, like an overactive or underactive thyroid.
Mast cells are the cells in the skin and mucous membranes that contain histamine. Release of histamine causes the allergic symptoms of hives and angioedema (swelling of large areas of the body). Itching is a common symptom when histamine is released. Anti-histamines are often prescribed to help control this symptom.
Beyond allergic reactions, some medications are also associated with chronic hives. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most notable, so your reaction could be due to something as common as aspirin. Antibiotics, codeine, morphine, and radiocontrast dye are also known to be triggers.
Whenever possible, drug treatment should be avoided during pregnancy. Fortunately, chronic urticaria often improves in pregnancy; however, if symptoms are very severe and treatment is considered absolutely necessary, either chlorphenamine or loratidine may be prescribed. Data from several thousand women who had taken either chlorphenamine or loratidine in pregnancy, including data from several hundred who took anti-histamines during the first trimester [67,68], showed no increase in the incidence of fetal malformations. The lowest dose which controls symptoms should be used and the possibility of adverse effects should be discussed and documented. There is less clinical experience with cetirizine and therefore cetirizine is not recommended in pregnancy. Hydroxyzine is the only anti-histamine which is specifically contraindicated in pregnancy in the summary of product characteristics.
Identification of causative allergens, from the clinical history and blood testing for specific IgE antibodies, will enable the individual with urticaria and angioedema to avoid pathogenic allergens. Where a reaction to medication has been implicated, for example, NSAID’s or antibiotics, the physician should identify alternative drug groups for future treatment, and if possible perform skin testing with antibiotics to confirm or refute the diagnosis of specific antibiotic allergy. Acute attacks of urticaria or angioedema can be treated with H1 antihistamines. Treatment with 1% menthol in aqueous cream may suppress itching. As wheals can occur where tight clothing is in contact with the skin, loose clothing should be recommended. Itching is worse in warm conditions, and a cool temperature, particularly in the bedroom, is recommended. If urticaria and angioedema have occurred during a systemic anaphylaxis reaction, the patient should be prescribed an auto-injector of epinephrine to carry. Very often an episode of urticaria occurs without any explanation or lasting clinical significance, and without any risk of recurrence. Patients unresponsive to antihistamines can be treated with a tapering course of corticosteroid.  
Urticaria (chronic, acute, or both) affects 15-25% of the population at some time in their lives. [22] The incidence of acute urticaria is higher in people with atopy, [22] and the condition occurs most commonly in children and young adults. [23]
Chronic hives may be treated with antihistamines or a combination of medications. When antihistamines don’t provide relief, oral corticosteroids may be prescribed. A biologic drug, omalizumab (Xolair), is also approved to treat chronic hives in those at least 12 years of age.
This chronic condition can also make your skin red and itchy. Although it’s most common in children, it can occur at any age. It generally starts as small, raised bumps. These bumps may leak fluid if scratched. The rash can form thickened areas of skin over a larger area, called plaques.
Jump up ^ Champion, R. H.; Roberts, S. O. B.; Carpenter, R. G.; Roger, J. H. (1969). “Urticaria and Angio-Oedema”. British Journal of Dermatology. 81 (8): 588–97. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1969.tb16041.x. PMID 5801331.
Urticarial vasculitis is a variant of cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. It is characterised by inflamed and reddened patches or weals on the skin that appear to resemble urticaria, but when the skin is examined closely under a microscope, a vasculitis is found (inflamed blood vessels).
Acute and chronic urticaria can result in severely impaired quality of life from pruritus and associated sleeplessness, as well as anxiety and depression. The depression can be severe enough to lead to suicide in rare cases. Additionally, many of the diseases associated with chronic urticaria may cause significant morbidity and mortality.
Other potential triggers of chronic hives include heat and aggravating your skin by scratching it or putting pressure on it (for example, by wearing tight clothes or sitting on a hard surface). Keeping a diary in which you record when and where your symptoms developed or worsened can help you and your doctor find clues and pinpoint your triggers, says Anand. But if even that doesn’t help, don’t lose heart: For most people, even chronic hives whose cause is unknown gradually disappear on their own over time.
Hives are very common. They usually go away on their own, but if you have a serious case, you might need medicine or a shot. In rare cases, hives can cause a dangerous swelling in your airways, making it hard to breathe – which is a medical emergency.
Swelling of deeper layers of the skin, angioedema, commonly accompanies urticaria (click for picture). This swelling often results from the same inflammatory processes that cause hives. The redness that is seen surrounding superficial lesions is not observed, though the swelling is readily appreciated. Angioedema generally occurs on the extremities and digits as well as areas of the head, neck, face, and in men, genitalia. It is often described as being painful or burning.
How long do hives last? Mild hives can appear suddenly and be completely gone a few minutes later. Other times, hives can last for hours and even several weeks to months. Acute episodes of urticaria last for six weeks or less. Hives that last for six weeks or less are acute hives. Those that remain for more than six weeks are chronic hives. It’s nice to know that the majority of hives cases don’t last longer than 24 hours. (4)
A highly effective (but expensive) treatment now recommended by the American FDA and British NICE guidelines for use as the preferred third line add-on treatment of Chronic Urticaria unresponsive to high dose antihistamines, includes subcutaneous injections of 300mg Omalizumab (Xolair) once a month for 6 months.  Recent studies on this monoclonal antibody (previously only used in asthma) show that once initial control is gained (after one month), the dose may be halved to maintain control for the 6 month induction period which can result in total remission of the Urticaria. However at least 40% will relapse after withdrawal of Omalizumab.  (Zuberbier et al, EAACI Guidelines urticaria, Allergy 69(7) 2014)
Underlying medical conditions. Hives and angioedema also occasionally occur in response to blood transfusions, immune system disorders such as lupus, some types of cancer such as lymphoma, certain thyroid conditions, and infections with bacteria or viruses such as hepatitis, HIV, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus.
An eruption of itching wheals, collquially called hives, usually of systemic origin; it may be due to a state of hypersensitivity to foods or drugs, foci of infection, physical agents (heat, cold, light, friction), or psychic stimuli.
If you are experiencing CIU, a specialist may ask you to recount symptoms during the course of an extended period to help confirm your diagnosis. While not life-threatening, CIU can cause severe itch and visible hives. During doctor visits, you can also be asked to describe your CIU symptoms.
It was during the promotion of Veni Vidi Vicious and Your New Favourite Band that the Hives signed a record deal with Universal Music, reportedly worth $50 million. This led to a dispute between the Hives and Burning Heart, who claimed that the Hives were still contracted to them for one more album.
Environmental Factors:  Exposure to pollen, dust, fungi, sudden changes in temperature, and even extreme temperatures are some of the triggers of acute urticaria. Some people may experience allergic reactions to high humidity levels.
Some people find it relaxing to engage in a hobby, others find spending time with a pet, drawing, painting or writing is helpful. Experiment with different activities, paying attention to how you feel after participating. Then, make sure to include time each day for those activities that make you feel more relaxed.
Dermatographism: This is the ability to ‘write on the skin’. If the skin is stroked firmly with a solid object a characteristic wheal and flare reaction occurs. You would be able to read what was “written” on the skin for a prolonged period of time.

“chronic urticaria pictures _remedios para la urticaria”

Methods of stress relief may include taking a much-deserved vacation, starting a hobby as a distraction from stress, practicing meditation and mindfulness, and exercising. If stress-relieving activities don’t help to reduce your hives, treatment with oral antihistamines will likely help. You can also work with your doctor or a psychologist to address specific causes of stress and develop coping mechanisms.
Hives are very common and are not considered contagious. Although annoying, hives usually resolve on their own over a period of weeks and are rarely medically serious. Some hives may be caused by allergies to such things as foods, infections by different organisms, medications, food coloring, preservatives and insect stings or bites, and chemicals; but in the majority of cases, no specific cause is ever found. Although people may find it frustrating not to know what has caused their hives, maneuvers like changing diet, soap, detergent, and makeup are rarely helpful in preventing hives unless there is an excellent temporal relationship. Since hives most often are produced by an immune mechanism, the condition is not contagious. If an infectious disease were the cause of hives in a particular person then it is possible, but not likely, that an infected contact could develop hives.
Papular urticaria is rare in the first year of life. It is most common in children between the ages of 2 and 7 years, but may occur in adults. The incidence decreases with age, presumably because one gets less sensitive with each bite. Papular urticaria is frequently seasonal, especially in temperate climates where they are worst in the summer. However, it can occur throughout the year.
Hives can be caused from allergens as well as physical and environmental factors such as stress, heat, sunlight or water. Untreated, the symptoms can last from a couple hours up to six weeks. As we’ll see throughout this article, many skin disorders share these causes and triggers, so close attention to detail is key when figuring out the mystery of your skin disorder.
Angioedema is a reaction similar to urticaria except there is no redness or itchiness and that it occurs in deeper tissue and is characterised by asymmetrical swelling of tissue. Angioedema is frequently associated with urticaria but the two may occur independently. Itoccurs in around 1 in 3 people with urticaria. Angioedema is not always itchy and can sometimes be painful.
Hives are red and sometimes itchy bumps on your skin. An allergic reaction to a drug or food usually causes them. Allergic reactions cause your body to release chemicals that can make your skin swell up in hives. People who have other allergies are more likely to get hives than other people. Other causes include infections and stress.
Another common form of physically induced hives is called cholinergic urticaria. This produces hundreds of small, itchy bumps. These occur within 15 minutes of exercise or physical exertion and are usually gone before a doctor can examine them. This form of hives happens more often in young people.
Individual lesions of acute urticaria can appear at different locations and fade without scarring, often in a matter of hours. The development of urticaria can be an isolated event without systemic reaction or it can be a prelude to the development of an anaphylactic reaction. Although urticaria results from transient extravasation of plasma into the dermis, angioedema is the subcutaneous extension of urticaria that results in deep swelling within subcutaneous/submucosal tissues and is associated with pain.
Cholinergic urticaria (CU) is one of the physical urticaria which is provoked during sweating events such as exercise, bathing, staying in a heated environment, or emotional stress. The hives produced are typically smaller than classic hives and are generally shorter-lasting.[13][14]
This treatment is sometimes used in patients with severe vasculitis where antibodies in the blood are thought to be important in causing the disease. The treatment involves removing antibodies from the blood using a machine and returning the “cleaned” blood back to the patient. The treatment may necessitate giving blood products to the patient including plasma, albumin or immunoglobulin. It may also involve giving drugs to thin the blood and prevent it clotting in the machine.
Approximately 50% of adults [37] and children [38,39] with chronic urticaria have histamine-releasing autoantibodies. These are IgG autoantibodies directed against the α subunit of the IgE receptor on mast cells (and basophils) or, more rarely, against IgE bound to mast cells (or basophils). These autoantibodies cause mast cell degranulation via activation of the classical complement pathway [40,41]. They may be demonstrable by the autologous serum skin test (ASST), in which intradermal injection of autologous serum causes a weal and flare response [42]; however, the ASST is not performed routinely in clinic and clinically, therefore, these patients are very often classified as having idiopathic urticaria. Patients with autoimmune urticaria frequently have associated angioedema and the urticaria tends to run a more chronic course.
In many cases, mild hives won’t need treatment and will go away on their own. If a definite trigger is found, avoiding it is part of the treatment. If the hives feel itchy, the doctor may recommend an antihistamine medicine to block the release of histamine in the bloodstream and prevent breakouts.
The intense itching can become unbearable to the point where the individual may inadvertently cause damage to the skin by scratching at the affected areas. The condition can be disturbing to parents who have never experienced it themselves, but observe it in their children. Although you may find yourself exasperated as your child continues to scratch at skin, despite your warnings against doing so, you need to keep your calm. The intense itching can be unbearable, and even adults find it near impossible to restrain themselves. Instead of admonishing your child, , make sure that you take steps to minimize the discomfort and try to distract a child with hives so that they do not scratch the rash. In severe cases, the individual may also have a fever and may suffer from digestive distress. In most cases, the rash subsides for a couple of hours or even days before it returns. Other severe urticaria symptoms include periodic flushing, headaches, dizziness, respiratory problems, fluid retention, tongue or facial swelling and hypotension. Medical attention is essential, as if neglected, severe cases of utricaria can even cause asphyxiation, resulting in death. There are several ongoing research programs to understand the exact causes of this condition in order to increase the effectiveness of existing treatment methods.
Angioedema is a similar skin issue to hives, but it usually last longer than hives. Swelling is under the skin instead of on the surface. With angioedema, a person typically has deep swelling around the eyes and lips and, sometimes, of the genitals, hands and feet. In rare cases, angioedema of the throat, tongue, or lungs can block the airways, making it hard to breathe. This can be life threatening. (23)
Make a pineapple compress. Bromelain is an enzyme found in pineapples and can help reduce the swelling of hives. Crush some pineapple, either canned or fresh, and place it on a thin cotton towel. Pull the four corners of the towel together and tie them off with a rubber band. Place the damp, pineapple filled towel over the hives.
a vascular reaction of the skin that is commonly immunologically based or may be due to direct exposure to a chemical. Marked by transient appearance of slightly elevated patches (wheals) which are redder or paler than the surrounding skin and often attended by severe itching; called also hives. The wheals may be in very large numbers, mostly over the body, 0.5 to 2 inches in diameter and there is no discontinuity of the epithelium. Called also nettle rash.
It is estimated that 20% of all people will develop urticaria at some point in their lives. Hives are more common in women than in men. One hallmark of hives are their tendency to change size rapidly and to move around, disappearing in one place and reappearing in other places, often in a matter of hours. An individual hive usually lasts no longer than 24 hours. An outbreak that looks impressive, even alarming, first thing in the morning can be completely gone by noon, only to be back in full force later in the day. Very few skin diseases occur and then resolve so rapidly. Therefore, even if you have no evidence of hives to show the doctor when you get to the office for examination, the diagnosis can be established based upon the accurate recounting of your symptoms and signs. Because hives fluctuate so much and so fast, it is helpful to bring along a photograph of what the outbreak looked like at its most severe point.
When you’re stressed, it isn’t uncommon to experience a flare-up related to an existing skin condition. This is because your body releases extra chemicals, like neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, when you’re stressed. These chemicals can change how your body responds to various functions. This change in response can cause inflammation, sensitivity, and other discomfort to the skin.
If home and natural remedies aren’t enough to help your hives, over-the-counter (OTC) treatments may be your best bet. Not only can OTC options relieve itching and irritation, they can target your body’s histamine response, which is what causes hives to appear.
Gregory J Raugi, MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of Washington at Seattle School of Medicine; Chief, Dermatology Section, Primary and Specialty Care Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center of Seattle
The goal of treating most cases of ordinary acute urticaria is to relieve symptoms while the condition goes away by itself. The most commonly used oral treatments are antihistamines, which help oppose the effects of the histamine leaked by mast cells. The main side effect of antihistamines is drowsiness.
Urticaria due to the direct effects of physical forces on the skin. Cold temperature (cold urticaria), pressure (pressure urticaria), ultraviolet radiation (solar urticaria), and scratching (dermographism) are some causes of physical urticaria.
Hi everyone, I’m 39 years old male and I contacted the virus in 2004. I did get bad outbreaks for a while, and used to take valtrax. I hated that medicine, so i stopped it however was having outbreaks several times a year. VERY PAINFUL. A year ago I decided to search for the herpes cure, because I too believe there is one somewhere in this world. I came across zeolite (which i tried but did not cure me) and the H2O2 protocol (ingesting 35% food grade hydrogen peroxide for 30 days, per the books written by people claiming their tests came back negative). I could only do 13 days of that because the taste of the h2o2 was making me sick. So needless to say, that did not help either. As of the past 6 months,until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor from Africa who prepares herbal cure to cure all kind of diseases and virus including ALS, MND,HIV,Epilepsy, Leukemia, Asthma, Cancer, Gonorrhea etc, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contact this herbal doctor via his email, he prepared an herpes herbal portion and sent it to me via courier service, when i received this herbal portion, he gave me step by step instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was cured of this deadly disease within 7 days, I could not walk or talk understandably before but after i took the herbal cure as he instructed i regained strength in my bones and i could talk properly unlike before, I am now free from the deadly virus, all thanks to Dr. Contact this great herbal doctor via his email drnogaduherbalist@gmail.com
Psoriasis is a buildup of too many skin cells that form silvery, scaly patches on the body. It’s caused by inflammation, which can be fueled by stress. That’s why people with psoriasis often get flare-ups when they’re tense.
Avoid anything you think might have caused the hives. For hives triggered by pollen or animal contact, take a cool shower or bath. For localized hives, wash the allergic substance of the skin with soap and water. Localized hives usually disappear in a few hours and don’t need Benadryl. Avoid heat or rubbing, which makes hives worse.
As the demand for dermatologic services continues to grow, so does the use of non-physician clinicians in dermatology. Are you currently employing mid-level providers, or do you have plans to? Please tell us in this quick poll.
If you have chronic stress or are experiencing symptoms that interfere with your life, or are causing frequent outbreaks of hives, it might be beneficial to talk to your doctor about medical treatments for stress. There are also a number of lifestyle changes you can make to help reduce overall stress.
Urticaria, commonly known as hives, is a distressing disorder affecting up to 20 percent of the population at some point in their lives. The swelling that sometimes accompanies urticaria, called angioedema, can lead to swelling of the face, hands and feet.

“hives itch relief -urticaria water”

Eileen Bailey is a freelance health writer. She is the author of What Went Right: Reframe Your Thinking for a Happier Now, Idiot’s Guide to Adult ADHD, Idiot’s Guide to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Essential Guide to Overcoming Obsessive Love, and Essential Guide to Asperger’s Syndrome. She can be found on Twitter @eileenmbailey and on Facebook at eileenmbailey.
C1q is an integral component within the complement pathway – a complicated cascade of protein interactions, culminating in an immune response against a broad variety of pathogens. The anti-C1q antibodies found in patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis activate C1q, which instigates activation of the entire complement pathway. Consequently, levels of all complement proteins become low.
If any features of anaphylaxis (eg, hypotension, respiratory distress, stridor, gastrointestinal distress, swallowing problems, joint swelling, joint pain) are present, immediate medical intervention should occur. (See Physical Examination.)
This process is caused by several mechanisms. The type I allergic IgE response is initiated by antigen-mediated IgE immune complexes that bind and cross-link Fc receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, thus causing degranulation with histamine release. The type II allergic response is mediated by cytotoxic T cells, causing deposits of immunoglobulins, complement, and fibrin around blood vessels. This leads to urticarial vasculitis. The type III immune-complex disease is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases that cause urticaria. [15]
The Hives were featured in a Finish Line commercial performing “Tick Tick Boom”, as well as a Nike commercial featuring the song “Return The Favour”. “Tick Tick Boom” was also used in many different advertisements including: the 2007 season of the NFL Network, commercials for the CBS series Jericho, and the USA series Burn Notice, as well as the films Jumper (2008), MacGruber, and Get Smart, and was also the official theme song for WWE Survivor Series 2007. The Hives song “Try It Again” was featured in the trailer for the US film Get Him to the Greek.
The goal of treating most cases of ordinary acute urticaria is to relieve symptoms while the condition goes away by itself. The most commonly used oral treatments are antihistamines, which help oppose the effects of the histamine leaked by mast cells. The main side effect of antihistamines is drowsiness.
If you are experiencing hives, don’t know the cause and they have lasted at least six weeks or more, talk to a specialist to see if you have chronic idiopathic urticaria. There may be medicines they can prescribe to help you manage your condition.
Eczema is a general term for many types dermatitis (skin inflammation). Atopic dermatitis is the most common of the many types of eczema. Other types of eczema include: contact eczema, allergic contact eczema, seborrheic eczema, nummular eczema, stasis dermatitis, and. dyshidrotic eczema.
Lasting for minutes, days or months, hives (also called wheals, welts or urticaria) are large, itchy red bumps on the skin, and generally are worsened by scratching.Hives lasting for a period of 6 weeks or longer is referred to as chronic urticaria.
Allergic reactions, particularly to foods and medications, are another common cause of acute hives. Allergies only cause about 5 percent to 10 percent of chronic hives cases. Pet allergies are usually to blame; pollen, mold, and dust mite allergies cause chronic hives only in rare instances.
Relax. While it is not known exactly how stress and hives are related, stress does seem to put a person at higher risk for having hives. Reduce your stress levels by trying to relax. Take time out of you schedule everyday to take part in relaxing activities, such as a leisurely walk, reading a book, gardening, or watching a movie.
Chronic hives can lead to discomfort, distress, and possibly depression. Stress, too, can aggravate hives, creating a vicious cycle. Patients who experience symptoms of depression should speak to a doctor.
“Sometimes, it’s just a matter of planting a seed that somatic symptoms respond to stress reduction techniques that can motivate a patient to pursue treatment,” Dr. Howard says. “This can also lead to diagnosis and treatment of previously unidentified psychiatric comorbidities such as mood and anxiety disorders.
Evidence of systemic autoimmune disease, including hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism (autoimmune thyroiditis); hepatitis, renal failure, and polyarthritis (cryoglobulinemia); malar rash, serositis, and polyarthritis (SLE); dry eyes and dry mouth (Sjögren syndrome); cutaneous ulcers or hypopigmented lesions after resolution of urticaria (urticarial vasculitis)
Chronic hives can go on for months and years. They can interfere with sleep, work and other activities. The following precautions may help prevent or soothe the recurring skin reactions of chronic hives:
I found that my urticaria arose whenever i ate a particular type of chocolate. This was small chocolate chips found in Biscuits like Hide & Seek / Choconut etc and also when i ate ‘Selbourne’ chocolate. This appears to also happen when i have indigestion problem and i eat this chocolate. Never happens when i eat other chocolates. I get relief by applying a little Axe Oil or PakFahYeow
The weals are commonly 1-2 cm across but can vary in size. There may be just a few but sometimes many develop over various parts of the body. Sometimes weals next to each other join together to form larger ones. The weals can be any shape but are often circular. As a weal fades, the surrounding flare remains for a while. This makes the affected area of skin look blotchy and red. The blotches then fade gradually and the skin returns to normal.
“My hope is that we will be able to move towards a more integrated approach to treating patients which incorporates attention to the multifactorial nature of so many dermatologic conditions, both in their etiology as well as the experience of living with these conditions, whether it is chronic urticaria, psoriasis, acne or delusions of parasitosis,” she says.
13. Gellert GA, Ralls J, Brown C, Huston J, Merryman R. Scombroid fish poisoning underreporting and prevention among non-commercial recreational fishers. West J Med. 1992;157:645–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
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My name is Mr. Manishkumar Mishra. I have started treatment of Urticaria for my child Mast Kartik Mishra(5 years age) PIN 33099. I started the treatment on 8 th August 2017, since then day by day with the medicines he is feeeling better nowadays. I have observed that there is very good improvement in Urticaria since last 2 months. I did not see any rash of urticaria.
The overall prognosis in Urticarial Vasculitis depends on the severity of the disease and the amount of damage that has been done to organs, especially the lungs. The main risk to patients appears to be Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

“urticaria def +urticaria allergy”

Antihistamines: The once-daily non-sedating antihistamines are the mainstay of current urticaria treatment, but quadrupling the normal recommended dose is often necessary to obtain symptom control (for example Cetirizine 10 to 30mg, Loratadine 10 to 30mg or Fexofenadine 180 to 540mg).  Once the urticaria is controlled, the dose can slowly be reduced.  Older sedating antihistamines such as Chlorpheniramine, Diphenhidramine or Hydroxyzine may help at night with sleep disturbance from itching.  Tolerance to antihistamines can develop and it may help to periodically rotate through different antihistamines. Ketotifen may be effective in children with its antihistamine and mast cell stabilising properties. If it is necessary to use antihistamines in pregnancy, Chlorpheniramine although sedating, is safest. Stomach ulcer treating Histamine H2 blockers such as Ranitidine or Cimetidine offer additive antihistamine effective if used with conventional antihistamine medication.
In other words, when a person is stressed, any inflammatory reactions are likely to be more severe in a person who is susceptible to a reaction. In this way, hives, or urticaria, can be linked to stress.
Histamine is the ligand for 2 membrane-bound receptors, the H1 and H2 receptors, which are present on many cell types. The activation of the H1 histamine receptors on endothelial and smooth muscle cells leads to increased capillary permeability. The activation of the H2 histamine receptors leads to arteriolar and venule vasodilation. [3, 4, 5] This process is caused by several mechanisms as follows:
If you have chronic stress or are experiencing symptoms that interfere with your life, or are causing frequent outbreaks of hives, it might be beneficial to talk to your doctor about medical treatments for stress. There are also a number of lifestyle changes you can make to help reduce overall stress.
Chronic or recurrent urticaria (>6 wk) – Basic laboratory studies should include complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and antinuclear antibody (ANA) [4]
Di Campli C, Gasbarrini A, Nucera E, Franceschi F, Ojetti V, Sanz Torre E, et al. Beneficial effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on idiopathic chronic urticaria. Dig Dis Sci. 1998 Jun. 43(6):1226-9. [Medline].
The Hives have released five studio albums: Barely Legal (1997), Veni Vidi Vicious (2000), Tyrannosaurus Hives (2004), The Black and White Album (2007) and Lex Hives (2012). They have one compilation album, Your New Favourite Band (2001) and they have issued a live DVD, Tussles in Brussels The Black and White Album has been their most successful as of December 2017.
There are many patterns of hives with different underlying causes. In order to cope with urticaria, it is important to understand exactly which form of urticaria exists because the treatment is directly affected by the diagnosis. It is important to note that there are other skin conditions due to allergy, one of the most common being eczema or dermatitis. Moreover, allergic skin conditions are common and plague people the world over, but not all skin problems are allergic in origin. See a qualified medical physician for diagnosis and treatment.
Diseases and medications can also cause low blood pressure. When the flow of blood is too low to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to vital organs such as the brain, heart, and kidneys; the organs do not function normally and may be permanently damaged.
Urticaria results from the release of histamine, bradykinin, kallikrein, and other vasoactive substances from mast cells and basophils in the superficial dermis, resulting in intradermal edema caused by capillary and venous vasodilation and occasionally caused by leukocyte infiltration.
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^ Jump up to: a b Tarbox, James A.; Gutta, Ravi C.; Radojicic, Cristine; Lang, David M. (2011). “Utility of routine laboratory testing in management of chronic urticaria/angioedema”. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 107 (3): 239–43. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2011.06.008. PMID 21875543.
52. Bleehen SS, Thomas SE, Greaves MW, et al. Cimetidine and chlorpheniramine in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a multi-centre randomized double-blind study. Br J Dermatol. 1987;117:81–8. [PubMed]
Next, if any obvious triggering factors have been identified from the history these should be eliminated, wherever possible. For example, specific food triggers should be excluded from the diet; treatment with aspirin, NSAIDS and codeine should be stopped; physical triggers such as coldand heat should be avoided whenever possible; and clinical thyroid disease or underlying infection treated. Anti-pruritic, cooling skin lotions such as calamine lotion or 1% menthol in aqueous cream may help to relieve itching.
Diagnosis is based on characteristic patches in the skin. Sometimes a biopsy is ordered to show inflammation in the skin and damage of small blood vessels with white blood cells. Since it’s often associated with a number of different diseases, it’s often necessary to do other tests and exams to rule out underlying conditions like lupus erythematosus or cancer. Tests of vital organs may also be indicated, especially when the blood levels of complement are low.
There is a lot that we still do not understand about urticaria causes although we do know that there are certain triggers and certain reactions that could cause the symptoms associated with utricaria to flare up. The absence of any well defined or clear cause of urticaria does to a large extent limit our ability to deal with the problem. The point to note is that urticaria is not always caused through or because of an allergy and there is no definitive urticaria cure. Non–allergic causes are connected to auto- immunity, to hormone interplay to stress factors, and more. These are some of the more common urticaria causes or triggers:
Unfortunately, stress and allergies go hand in hand, says Los Angeles-based ear, nose, and throat doctor, Murray Grossan, MD. Once the allergy season is full-blown, the combination of miserable allergy symptoms, nights of fitful sleep, and fatigue, definitely leave you in need of stress relief.
However, says Anand, “we don’t know if the disease causes urticaria or if the person’s propensity to have an autoimmune reaction causes it. But if we don’t find any triggers when we test for allergens, then we look for an underlying infection or autoimmune disease.” Anand adds that treatment for that condition can help clear the hives.
Relax. While it is not known exactly how stress and hives are related, stress does seem to put a person at higher risk for having hives. Reduce your stress levels by trying to relax. Take time out of you schedule everyday to take part in relaxing activities, such as a leisurely walk, reading a book, gardening, or watching a movie.
42. Sabroe RA, Grattan CE, Francis DM, Barr RM, Kobza BA, Greaves MW. The autologous serum skin test: a screening test for autoantibodies in chronic idiopathic urticaria. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140:446–52. [PubMed]
It can be hard to figure out what causes chronic urticaria, though it’s sometimes linked to an immune system illness, like lupus. Other times, medications, food, insects, or an infection can trigger an outbreak. Often, though, doctors don’t know what causes chronic hives.
Angioedema is different. The swelling happens under the skin, not on the surface. It’s marked by deep swelling around the eyes and lips and sometimes of the genitals, hands, and feet. It generally lasts longer than hives, but the swelling usually goes away in less than 24 hours. It’s rare, but angioedema of the throat, tongue, or lungs can block your airways, making it hard to breathe.
When we’re exposed to a stressful situation, our bodies prepare for confrontation. This “fight or flight” response is controlled by our hormones and nervous system and dates back to prehistory, as we prepared to fight or flee our stressor.
This antibiotic is available topically and as an oral medication. This medication can treat inflammation caused by hives or other skin conditions caused by bacterial infection. It’s important to take all antibiotics prescribed.

“chronic urticaria _what cures hives”

When it comes to allergens, however, hives are not the only reaction one can expect. Angioedema is a condition similar to hives, but instead of on the surface; the swellings occurs deep beneath the skins surface. Angioedema is usually characterized by deep swelling around the eyes and lips and possible the genitals, hands and feet. This reaction normally last a little longer then hives do, but the swelling will usually subside after 24 hours.
Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Hives (Chronic Urticaria) article more useful, or one of our other health articles.
Another possible explanation for your stress hives is that due to your weakened immune system, your skin is reacting to irritants that it never had problems with before: cold, heat, soaps, shampoos, lotions, laundry detergents, certain fabrics, sunlight, etc. In fact, there are even doctors that specialize in stress hives, known as psychodermatologists. These specialists work with skin illnesses and stress, and strongly feel that emotions that have not been properly dealt with can induce a rash in patients and that these deep seated emotions are the major cause of chronic hives.
“Chronic idiopathic hives are itchy red welts that persist for at least six weeks and have no known cause,” says Miriam Anand, MD, an allergist with Allergy Associates and Asthma in Tempe, Arizona. The condition is marked by periods of exacerbation and remission, and for many who have it, the hives may persist for more than five years.
Zuberbier T, et al. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Global Allergy and Asthma European Network, European Dermatology Forum, World Allergy Organization. The EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO Guideline for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and management of urticaria: the 2013 revision and update. Allergy. 2014 Jul. 69 (7):868-87. [Medline].
Urticaria occurs when a trigger causes high levels of histamine and other chemical messengers to be released in the skin.These substances cause the blood vessels in the affected area of skin to open up (often resulting in redness or pinkness) and become leaky. This extra fluid in the tissues causes swelling and itchiness.
Making a paste of baking soda and water can help to calm hives and also prevent new ones from popping up. Baking soda is known as nahcolite, which is part of the natural mineral natron. Natron contains large amounts of sodium bicarbonate. It has been used since ancient times as a soother and cleanser. Mix a teaspoon of baking soda with some cold water to create a paste and then rub it on the affected area. Let it dry completely before washing it off. You can do this a few times a day, if needed. Relief is typically immediate from this easy hives treatment.
Drugs: antibiotics like penicillin, vaccinations, anti –inflammatory drugs like aspirin and contraceptive pills are just some of the many drugs that can cause an allergic reaction. Animals treated with penicillin secrete a small amount of the drug in their milk, and sensitive individuals may experience a reaction after consuming this milk.
Chronic infections such as viral hepatitis, sinus infections (sinusitis), and urinary tract infections can cause chronic hives. An infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacteria commonly connected with stomach ulcers, is also associated with chronic hives. 
“This subset — about 30 percent of patients who have been diagnosed with idiopathic urticaria — is the group in which we most often look to psychological factors for an explanation,” she says. “Many dermatologists will agree that it is not uncommon to see chronic idiopathic urticaria arising after a major life stressor, or for patients who are most impaired by urticaria to be those with more limited stress management skills.”
Chronic hives don’t put you at any sudden risk of a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis). If you do experience hives as part of a serious allergic reaction, seek emergency care. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include dizziness, trouble breathing, and swelling of your lips, eyelids and tongue.
Bluestein HM, Hoover TA, Banerji AS, Camargo CA Jr, Reshef A, Herscu P. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema in a community hospital emergency department. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009 Dec. 103(6):502-7. [Medline].
/ur·ti·ca·ria/ (ur″tĭ-kar´e-ah) hives; a vascular reaction of the upper dermis marked by transient appearance of slightly elevated patches (wheals) which are redder or paler than the surrounding skin and often attended by severe itching; the exciting cause may be certain foods or drugs, infection, or emotional stress.urticar´ial
Acute urticaria can result from “non-specific” stimulation of mast cells, when there is degranulation of mast cells in the absence of a defined allergen. An example is exposure to certain radiocontrast media which changes the osmolality of the in which the mast cell resides and can result in degranulation. Patients who develop acute urticarial eruptions can have other accompanying manifestations of a systemic anaphylactic reaction such as wheezing, laryngeal edema, cramps, diarrhea, and hypotension.
A number of drugs, such as aspirin, NSAIDs, opiates, succinylcholine, and certain antibiotics (eg, polymyxin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, vancomycin, some beta-lactams) can cause urticaria by a nonallergic mechanism rather than by IgE-mediated hypersensitivity.
In some patients pressure on the skin may cause histamine release and a ‘weal and flare’ response, a condition known as dermographism (Fig. 3). There may also be a delayed response to pressure, with urticaria and/or angioedema developing several hours after a pressure stimulus [21].
Kai AC, Flohr C, Grattan CE. Improvement in quality of life impairment followed by relapse with 6-monthly periodic administration of omalizumab for severe treatment-refractory chronic urticaria and urticarial vasculitis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2014 Apr 23. [Medline].
Vital signs should note the presence of bradycardia or tachycardia and tachypnea. General examination should immediately seek any signs of respiratory distress and also note cachexia, jaundice, or agitation.
An allergy refers to a misguided reaction by our immune system in response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances. When these allergens come in contact with the body, it causes the immune system to develop an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to it. It is estimated that 50 million North Americans are affected by allergic conditions. The parts of the body that are prone to react to allergies include the eyes, nose, lungs, skin, and stomach. Common allergic disorders include hay fever, asthma, allergic eyes, allergic eczema, hives, and allergic shock.
Hives are welts on the skin that often itch. These welts can appear on any part of the skin. Hives vary in size from as small as a pen tip to as large as a dinner plate. They may connect to form even larger welts.
Pressure-induced urticaria typically occurs 4-6 hours after pressure has been applied. Patients may complain of swelling secondary to pressure with normal-appearing skin (i.e., no erythema or superficial infiltrating hive), so that the term angioedema is more appropriate. Others are predominantly urticarial and may or may not be associated with significant swelling. Symptoms occur about tight clothing; the hands may swell with activity such as hammering; foot swelling is common after walking in patients with normal heart function; and buttock swelling may be prominent after sitting for a few hours.
Widespread hives usually are a reaction to a viral infection. Less commonly they are an allergic reaction to a food, medicine or bee sting. Often the cause is not found (more than 30%). Hives on just one part of the body (localized) are usually due to skin contact with plants, pollen, food, or pet saliva. Localized hives are not an allergy and not caused by drugs, infections, or swallowed foods. Hives are not contagious.
So, in many patients with chronic hives, there is really no exposure (drug, food, insect, chemical) to blame for the urticaria. The patient must understand and accept this for their ideal management. Basically, all that needs to be done is treat the hives. The main treatment of hives is antihistamines, and they will work if they are used properly. Common reasons for lack of effectiveness of antihistamines are 1) the particular antihistamine used is not strong enough 2) the antihistamine is not used in a high enough dose 3) the antihistamines are not continued for a long enough period.