“urticaria definicion why do i have hives”

Hives are a skin rash condition known medically as urticaria. Hives are a type of skin allergy or rash that is caused by an allergen in most cases. Hives are raised welts on the skin’s surface that are generally circular with a pale center and red halo. These welts can be different sizes and shapes, and can be found on any part of the body. There are many types of hives, and hives causes vary based on the type of hives experienced.
A much rarer type of urticaria, known as urticaria vasculitis, can cause blood vessels inside the skin to become inflamed. In these cases, the weals last longer than 24 hours, are more painful, and can leave a bruise.
If home and natural remedies aren’t enough to help your hives, over-the-counter (OTC) treatments may be your best bet. Not only can OTC options relieve itching and irritation, they can target your body’s histamine response, which is what causes hives to appear.
To calm hives and help them vanish that much quicker, make sure you’re not using any products on your body that will only make the inflammation and itching worse. You don’t want to be using anything harsh on your body right now. This includes soaps and other body care products, as well as the detergent you use on your clothing. Opt for natural products free of unhealthy synthetic fragrances and other aggravating ingredients. Another simple way to calm hives is to take a cool bath or shower. You can also use a cool compress on the hives to help relieve any itching. (16)
Research shows that stress can play a major role in many physical and mental illnesses, including chronic idiopathic hives. “Stress can bring on and exacerbate chronic hives,” says Anand. “It’s not uncommon to see chronic idiopathic hives developing following a stressful period of time.” In several studies, people with chronic hives have been found to have higher levels of stress. Researchers have also found a link between post-traumatic stress disorder and hives. To lower stress, try relaxation techniques — for example, mindfulness meditation, which was found to lower the stress hormone cortisol in a study published in 2013 in the journal Health Psychology.
There are no routine diagnostic tests in chronic spontaneous urticaria apart from blood count and C-reactive protein (CBC, CRP), but investigations may be undertaken if an underlying disorder is suspected.
Interactions between the central nervous system and the immune system are complex and bidirectional, and there is evidence supporting an intimate structural and functional relationship between peripheral nerves and mast cells, as well as for the local secretion of mast cell influencing neuropeptides by nerves, Dr. Howard says. In the subset of patients who are termed stress responders, increased histamine release mediated by neuropeptides can be seen.
Practice positive affirmations. Positive affirmations are phrases you say to yourself to help reduce your stress and bring up your mood. When saying these, use the present tense and repeat as often as you can. Examples of positive affirmations are:
There is just not enough evidence to support using antihistamines and playing roulette with your patient’s health,” he said, noting that the degree of disability, both socially and occupationally, that accompanies chronic urticaria is on par with that of a patient awaiting triple coronary bypass.
How long do hives last? Mild hives can appear suddenly and be completely gone a few minutes later. Other times, hives can last for hours and even several weeks to months. Acute episodes of urticaria last for six weeks or less. Hives that last for six weeks or less are acute hives. Those that remain for more than six weeks are chronic hives. It’s nice to know that the majority of hives cases don’t last longer than 24 hours. (4)
Heat-induced urticaria:This is a common form of chronic urticaria (5-7%). It appears as small wheals (1-2 mm in diameter), with large areas of flares around it. It frequently involves the skin of the neck and chest. It is associated with increased body temperature, e.g., after exercise, hot showers and emotional stimuli.
Pressure or constriction. Delayed pressure urticaria can appear as red swelling six to eight hours after pressure (belts or constrictive clothing, for example) has been applied. Symptoms can also occur in parts of the body under constant pressure, such as the soles of the feet.
“I’ve seen kids break out in hives from having a temper tantrum,” Dr. Li says. “Certainly, stress that’s anxiety-related can cause more itching in patients who have hives and they start to have more hives as a result of itching and scratching the existing ones.”
It can be hard to figure out what causes chronic urticaria, though it’s sometimes linked to an immune system illness, like lupus. Other times, medications, food, insects, or an infection can trigger an outbreak. Often, though, doctors don’t know what causes chronic hives.
In 50% of patients with acute urticaria, a specific etiology can be identified. Brief episodes of urticaria can be associated with identifiable causes, and the method of exposure (ie, direct contact, oral or intravenous routes) is usually known. Urticaria is often associated with a recent infection.
Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody[9]. It is effective in 80% but requires monthly injections and relapse is common when it is stopped. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends omalizumab as an add-on treatment for refractory severe chronic spontaneous urticaria[10].
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are most commonly used for relief of mild to moderate pain. The basis behind the use of indomethacin is empiric. It used with some effectiveness on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease in several case reports.
Updated by: David L. Swanson, MD, Vice Chair of Medical Dermatology, Associate Professor of Dermatology, Mayo Medical School, Scottsdale, AZ. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The most important part of the investigation of a patient with urticaria is to take a detailed history [43]. This should include structured questions about the many possible clinical causes of urticaria (see above); the frequency, timing and duration of attacks; whether the patient has developed more severe allergic symptoms such as angioedema or wheezing in association with the urticaria; and whether there are any symptoms suggestive of an underlying medical condition such as a connective tissue disease and/or urticarial vasculitis. Photographs may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and patients may have compiled a symptom diary, which is sometimes useful when trying to identify possible triggers for the rash.
Hi everyone, I’m 39 years old male and I contacted the virus in 2004. I did get bad outbreaks for a while, and used to take valtrax. I hated that medicine, so i stopped it however was having outbreaks several times a year. VERY PAINFUL. A year ago I decided to search for the herpes cure, because I too believe there is one somewhere in this world. I came across zeolite (which i tried but did not cure me) and the H2O2 protocol (ingesting 35% food grade hydrogen peroxide for 30 days, per the books written by people claiming their tests came back negative). I could only do 13 days of that because the taste of the h2o2 was making me sick. So needless to say, that did not help either. As of the past 6 months,until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal doctor from Africa who prepares herbal cure to cure all kind of diseases and virus including ALS, MND,HIV,Epilepsy, Leukemia, Asthma, Cancer, Gonorrhea etc, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contact this herbal doctor via his email, he prepared an herpes herbal portion and sent it to me via courier service, when i received this herbal portion, he gave me step by step instructions on how to apply it, when i applied it as instructed, i was cured of this deadly disease within 7 days, I could not walk or talk understandably before but after i took the herbal cure as he instructed i regained strength in my bones and i could talk properly unlike before, I am now free from the deadly virus, all thanks to Dr. Contact this great herbal doctor via his email drnogaduherbalist@gmail.com
Severe reactions can be seen with exposure to cold water; swimming in cold water is the most common cause of a severe reaction. This can cause a massive discharge of histamine, resulting in low blood pressure, fainting, shock and even loss of life. Cold urticaria is diagnosed by dabbing an ice cube against the skin of the forearm for 1 to 5 minutes. A distinct hive should develop if a patient suffers cold urticaria. This is different from the normal redness that can be seen in people without cold urticaria. Patients with cold urticaria need to learn to protect themselves from a hasty drop in body temperature. Regular antihistamines are not generally efficacious. One particular antihistamine, cyproheptadine (Periactin), has been found to be useful. The tricyclic antidepressant doxepin has also been found to be an effective blocking agent of histamine discharge. Finally, a medication named ketotifen, which keeps mast cells from discharging histamine, has also been employed with widespread success.[citation needed]
Acute urticaria is nearly always due to some defined exposure to a drug or physical stimulus or an acute infectious illness. However, the trigger is not always clear from the history, particularly because allergy may develop without warning to a previously tolerated substance.
Okubo Y, Shigoka Y, Yamazaki M, Tsuboi R. Double dose of cetirizine hydrochloride is effective for patients with urticaria resistant: a prospective, randomized, non-blinded, comparative clinical study and assessment of quality of life. J Dermatolog Treat. 2013 Apr. 24(2):153-60. [Medline].
It occurs in both men and women, but appears to be more common in men than women. The condition tends to first appear in people aged between 10 and 30 years and persists for a number of years before it becomes less severe or goes away altogether. The natural course of cholinergic urticaria is quite variable, with most patients experiencing slow resolution over several years.
Definitely! A stress rash can occur anytime you are feeling over stressed and anxious. Too much stress in your life will adversely affect your immune system which will cause it to start sending histamine to fight what is ailing you. Unfortunately, stress isn’t something that the immune system can “fight off”, so the end result is that you get stress induced hives. In essence, those itchy bumps all over your face, neck, chest, arms, legs and pretty much your whole body sometimes, are caused by stress. Learn what causes hives at http://www.hives.org/hives-causes.php
Zuberbier T, et al. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Global Allergy and Asthma European Network, European Dermatology Forum, World Allergy Organization. The EAACI/GA(2) LEN/EDF/WAO Guideline for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and management of urticaria: the 2013 revision and update. Allergy. 2014 Jul. 69 (7):868-87. [Medline].
Acute urticaria can be divided into two general types, depending on the rate at which hive formation occurs and the length of time it is evident. One type produces lesions that last 1-2 hours and is typically encountered in physically induced hives. The inciting stimulus is present only briefly, and there is prompt mast cell degranulation. Biopsy of such lesions reveals little or no cellular infiltrate. The second type produces a prominent cellular infiltrate, and individual lesions can last as long as 36 hours. This type is encountered with food or drug reactions, delayed pressure urticaria, chronic spontaneous urticaria, and urticarial vasculitis  (click for picture).
Urticaria, commonly known as hives, is a distressing disorder affecting up to 20 percent of the population at some point in their lives. The swelling that sometimes accompanies urticaria, called angioedema, can lead to swelling of the face, hands and feet.
Benadryl (diphenhydramine) is the most commonly used drug for hives, and is available without a prescription. The main side effect of this drug is drowsiness in some people. Other antihistamines (for example, store brands of any drug for hay fever) will also help. When you give Benadryl, give it 3 to 4 times a day until the hives are gone for 12 hours. Use the dosage given on the product.
According to the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology, about half the cases of chronic idiopathic hives are due to immune systems that attack the body’s own tissues (also known as autoimmunity). Thyroid disease is the most commonly reported autoimmune condition in people with chronic hives, followed by rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. A study published in September 2013 in the European Journal of Dermatology found that celiac disease is also associated with chronic hives.
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A hive often goes away in 24 hours or less. New hives may appear as old ones fade, so hives may last for a few days or longer. A bout of hives usually lasts less than 6 weeks. These hives are called acute hives. If hives last more than 6 weeks, they are called chronic hives.
While avoiding these triggers could prevent hives from returning, Dr. Li says your doctor may be able to provide an antihistamine that could solve a weather- or temperature-based problem. That way, you can enjoy a hike on a sunny summer day or hold a cold can of beer on the weekend without worrying about a potential hives outbreak.
Regardless of what causes your hives, most people find that OxyHives eliminates their hives symptoms and outbreaks faster than any other medication on the market. Please see our treatment options page for more information.

“urticaria icd 10 code -chronic autoimmune urticaria”

It is typically diagnosed when chronic hives do not appear to be associated with any other systemic disease process, and are not due to one of the physically induced urticarias. Research during the past decade suggests an association with autoimmunity in 35-45% of patients. When severe, it can be resistant to therapy and there is a 40% incidence of accompanying angioedema. Angioedema may involve the face, lips, tongue, throat, or extremities but not the larynx. The remission rate is 65% within three years, 85% within five years and 98% within ten years. A form of angioedema in the absence of hives with no identifiable cause is termed idiopathic angioedema.
While avoiding these triggers could prevent hives from returning, Dr. Li says your doctor may be able to provide an antihistamine that could solve a weather- or temperature-based problem. That way, you can enjoy a hike on a sunny summer day or hold a cold can of beer on the weekend without worrying about a potential hives outbreak.
Also, if you have chronic hives, you may want to ask your doctor about getting tested for the antigen Heliobacter pylori, which is associated with chronic hives. In a study published in February 2015 in the journal Advances in Dermatology and Allergology, a third of chronic hives patients were also infected with H. pylori. What’s more, about 92 percent of those with both hives and H. pylori experienced a reduction in hive-related symptoms after their infection was treated.
Konstantinou GN, Asero R, Ferrer M, Knol EF, Maurer M, Raap U, et al. EAACI taskforce position paper: evidence for autoimmune urticaria and proposal for defining diagnostic criteria. Allergy. 2012 Nov 15. [Medline].
When a cause for hives can be found, it’s most likely an infection. Viral upper respiratory infections cause about 40% of hives rashes. Fortunately, these hives outbreaks resolve as the infection resolves. A chronic bacterial infection, especially sinusitis, may be the culprit if a case of hives is lingering.
It’s important that you talk to your doctor about your experience with CIU, sharing details about your symptoms. Think about your condition and write down what you are going through. In close partnership, you and your doctor can manage your disease together.
The majority of the time, a doctor will know that you have hives just by looking at your skin. To get to the root of your hives, a doctor also, hopefully, will  ask you about any recent life stressors, or exposure to possible or known allergens.  If a patient complains of itchiness, he or she will often recommend diphenhydramine. Common side effects of antihistamines include drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth/nose/throat, upset stomach, increased appetite and weight gain, thickening of mucus, vision changes and feeling nervous, excited or irritable. (12)
Hives, also known as urticaria, are a type of skin rash that are the result of an allergic reaction to a substance, called an allergen, in the environment. Although the cause of hives is not always known, they are often a response to the body releasing histamines, which it does when you have an allergic reaction to food, medicine, or other allergens. Histamine is also sometimes the body’s response to infections, stress, sunlight, and changes in temperature. Hives typically manifest as small, swollen, itchy, red areas on the skin that may occur singularly or in clusters. Left untreated, hives usually fade within a few hours, but new ones may appear in their place.[1] If you want to try to cure your hives at home, there are many different natural remedies to treat your hives.
Glucocorticoids are often the treatment of choice. However, given their long-term adverse effect profiles, they are used only for significant cutaneous disease or systemic involvement. For long-term treatment, a combination of prednisone and another medication may be required.
Examination of bedding and the children’s play areas for insects may provide a clue to the cause. If insects are found, they must be eliminated by insect repellant or fumigation, and pets should be washed. These bugs are usually not visible to the naked eye. Hanging the bedding in the hot sun may rid these of the bedbugs.
This is termed scombroid food poisoning. Ingestion of free histamine released by bacterial decay in fish flesh may result in a rapid-onset, allergic-type symptom complex which includes hives. However, the hives produced by scombroid is reported not to include wheals.[21]
Acute urticaria is most often a benign, self-limited skin disease. It usually occurs independently, but it may contribute to the more serious clinical manifestations of anaphylaxis: angioedema and anaphylactic shock. The etiologies of both acute and chronic urticaria are numerous (see Causes in Presentation). The etiologic agent is more likely to be identified in acute urticaria (40-60%) than in chronic urticaria (10-20%). The lesions of IgE-mediated urticaria usually last less than 24 hours and are often migratory, leaving no residual skin abnormalities. The lesions of urticarial vasculitis usually last longer, classically, but not always, longer than 24 hours. [8] They are both painful and pruritic and often leave purpuric and hyperpigmented lesions. [9] Unlike simple urticaria, urticarial vasculitis demonstrates leukocytoclastic vasculitis on histology. Like urticaria, it may occur with or without angioedema. It may be associated with systemic symptoms such as arthralgias and GI symptoms, which are more common in patients with low complement levels. Although it is most often idiopathic, it is more often associated with autoimmune diseases such as lupus and Sjögren syndrome, as well as viral infections, medications, and malignancy, when compared with classic urticaria. [13] If urticarial vasculitis is suspected, an autoimmune screen, including complement levels, should be included in the workup. Initial treatment options include antihistamines and NSAIDs.
This corticosteroid is taken orally. You should only use it for a short period of time as directed by your doctor. Corticosteroids can have side effects, especially if taken for extended periods of time. Side effects can include:
42. Sabroe RA, Grattan CE, Francis DM, Barr RM, Kobza BA, Greaves MW. The autologous serum skin test: a screening test for autoantibodies in chronic idiopathic urticaria. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140:446–52. [PubMed]
The rash appears rapidly, usually within a few minutes of sweating, and can last from 30 minutes to an hour or more before fading away. The mean duration is around 80 minutes. Typical signs and symptoms of the rash include:
“My hope is that we will be able to move towards a more integrated approach to treating patients which incorporates attention to the multifactorial nature of so many dermatologic conditions, both in their etiology as well as the experience of living with these conditions, whether it is chronic urticaria, psoriasis, acne or delusions of parasitosis,” she says.
Kalogeromitros D, Kempuraj D, Katsarou-Katsari A, Gregoriou S, Makris M, Boucher W, et al. Theophylline as “add-on” therapy in patients with delayed pressure urticaria: a prospective self-controlled study. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2005 Jul-Sep. 18(3):595-602. [Medline].
Javed Sheikh, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Clinical Director, Division of Allergy and Inflammation, Clinical Director, Center for Eosinophilic Disorders, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Urticaria. This is a close-up view of wheals with white-to-light-pink color centrally and peripheral erythema. These are the classic lesions of hives, or urticaria. Some hives are caused by allergies to such things as foods, medications, and insect stings, but the large majority of cases are not allergic, and no specific cause for them is ever found. It is characteristic that they are transient and highly pruritic. The goal of treating most cases of ordinary urticaria is to relieve symptoms while the condition goes away by itself.
See an allergist, who will try to look for triggers to your hives and may recommend medications to prevent the hives or reduce the severity of symptoms. Whether the treatment is available only by prescription or over the counter will depend on several factors, including how uncomfortable the hives are making you.
Mechanisms other than allergen-antibody interactions are known to cause histamine release from mast cells. Many drugs, for example morphine, can induce direct histamine release not involving any immunoglobulin molecule. Also, a diverse group of signaling substances, called neuropeptides, have been found to be involved in emotionally induced hives. Dominantly inherited cutaneous and neurocutaneous porphyrias (porphyria cutanea tarda, hereditary coproporphyria, variegate porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria) have been associated with solar urticaria. The occurrence of drug-induced solar urticaria may be associated with porphyrias. This may be caused by IgG binding, not IgE.
If you have already been diagnosed with CIU, know that you are not alone. In the U.S., around 1.5 million people suffer from this form of chronic hives. Women are twice as likely to get CIU, and most cases appear between the ages of 20 and 40.
Some medications, like morphine, codeine, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen [Advil]), cause the body to release histamine and produce urticaria through nonallergic mechanisms. People with urticaria should avoid these medications.
Abdominal examination should note any masses, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, or tenderness. Neurologic examination should note any tremor or hyperreflexia or hyporeflexia. Musculoskeletal examination should note the presence of any inflamed or deformed joints.
If home and natural remedies aren’t enough to help your hives, over-the-counter (OTC) treatments may be your best bet. Not only can OTC options relieve itching and irritation, they can your body’s histamine response, which is what causes hives to appear.
An objective trial of a low salicylate diet may be indicated in patients who give a clear history of having developed more severe urticaria, or even angioedema or bronchospasm, after taking aspirin or NSAIDs and, particularly, if the patient also responds to LTRA treatment [57]. It is important to explain to the patient that the diet should not become more troublesome than the urticarial symptoms themselves and it may be simpler for patients to take a regular dose of an anti-histamine, rather than continue on a strict exclusion diet.
Bleehen SS, Thomas SE, Greaves MW, Newton J, Kennedy CT, Hindley F, et al. Cimetidine and chlorpheniramine in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a multi-centre randomized double-blind study. Br J Dermatol. 1987 Jul. 117(1):81-8. [Medline].
Urticaria also may be accompanied by angioedema, which results from mast cell and basophil activation in the deeper dermis and subcutaneous tissues and manifests as edema of the face and lips, extremities, or genitals. Angioedema can occur in the bowel and present as colicky abdominal pain. Angioedema can be life-threatening if airway obstruction occurs because of laryngeal edema or tongue swelling.
When you’re all stressed out, your body releases hormones and other chemicals, including histamine, the powerful chemical that leads to allergy symptoms. While stress doesn’t actually cause allergies, it can make an allergic reaction worse by increasing the histamine in your bloodstream.
Stephen C Dreskin, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Clinical Immunology Society, and Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology
How do you get hives? Hives are not something you can “catch” from anyone. Rather, they are your body’s response to something it ingests or experiences. The cause of hives can be a certain food, drug, infection or stress. You might be surprised to learn that stress is one of the most common causes of acute hives, along with allergies and infectious causes. Hives can literally occur at any age and appear anywhere on the body. It is estimated that one in every five people will be affected by a hives outbreak at some point in his or her life. (2)
Delayed-pressure urticaria: Application of deep pressure to the skin produces swelling after 1-5 hours, like sitting on one spot for a prolonged period of time. The area will be deep and tender to touch.
Skin examination should note the presence and distribution of urticarial lesions as well as any cutaneous ulceration, hyperpigmentation, small papules, or jaundice. Urticarial lesions usually appear as well-demarcated transient swellings involving the dermis. These swellings are typically red and vary in size from pinprick to covering wide areas. Some lesions can be very large. In other cases, smaller urticarial lesions may become confluent. However, skin lesions also may be absent at the time of the visit. Maneuvers to evoke physical urticaria can be done during the examination, including exposure to vibration (tuning fork), warmth (tuning fork held under warm water), cold (stethoscope or chilled tuning fork), water, or pressure (lightly scratching an unaffected area with a fingernail).
This condition is usually acute and can cause a red, itchy rash to appear on the skin. You may also experience bumps or blisters, swelling, and tenderness. The exact cause of contact dermatitis varies from person to person, though it develops after coming into contact with something that triggers an allergic reaction on your skin.

“xolair for urticaria _causes of itchy hives”

This nonsteroidal treatment option is taken orally. These drugs should be used only after steroid treatment and antihistamines have been unsuccessful. Common side effects are headache, stomach upset, cough, and a low fever.
The next largest group of chronic hives is those with a physical trigger (cold, scratching, heat, etc.).  The smallest group is the one of most concern. A very small proportion of patient with chronic hives have an under-lying disease that can present as hives. That is why most allergists do a screening lab evaluation patients with chronic hives. Extensive and expensive evaluation is not necessary.
SOURCES: MedicineNet: “Stress.” American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI): “‘Tis the Season for Allergic Reactions.” AAAAI: “Triggers of Allergic Disease.” CDC: “Workplace Stress.” Murray Grossan, MD, Los Angeles. Gailen D. Marshall, MD, PhD, professor of medicine and pediatrics, University of Mississippi; director, division of clinical immunology and allergy, University of Mississippi Medical Center. William E. Berger, MD, MBA, professor of medicine, University of California; author, Allergies and Asthma for Dummies. WebMD Live Event Transcript: “Signs of Sinusitis.” Marshall G.D. Am Osteopath Assoc, May 2004; vol 104(5 Suppl 5): pp S1-6. Breathe Right Now by Laurence A. Smolley, MD, and Debra Fulghum Bruce PhD. Jabaaij L, vanHattum J, Vingerhoets AJJM, Oostveen FG, et al. Journal of Psychosom. Res. 1996; 41: 129-137.
This antibiotic is available topically and as an oral medication. This medication can treat inflammation caused by hives or other skin conditions caused by bacterial infection. It’s important to take all antibiotics prescribed.
Cases of urticaria and angioedema can be acute, lasting less than 6 weeks, or chronic, lasting more than 6 weeks. The length of symptoms can often be a clue as to the cause of the symptoms. For example, the most common cause of acute urticaria and angioedema in children is viral infections.
The first symptom of urticarial vasculitis is an urticarial eruption that is often painful or has a burning sensation. In some cases there may be pruritus. Lesions are red patches or plaques that may have a white centre, and petechiae may appear. They usually last for more than 24 hours in a fixed location, after which they will slowly resolve spontaneously. Ecchymoses or hyperpigmentation may occur in the healing process.
Urticaria, or hives, is a dermatologic condition that causes swollen, red bumps on the skin. Also known as weals, these bumps usually appear rapidly and can be anywhere on the body, causing your skin to itch, burn, or sting.
Asthma drugs with antihistamines. Medications that interfere with the action of leukotriene modifiers may be helpful when used with antihistamines. Examples are montelukast (Singulair) and zafirlukast (Accolate).
Hives resulting from physical causes, like pressure, cold, or sun exposure, are called physical hives. Heat urticaria or heat hives are caused by an increase in body temperature from things like hot showers or baths, spicy foods or exercise. Sometimes hives occur due to unknown causes. This is known as idiopathic urticaria. Hives can also become a chronic problem. (10)
Acupuncture may help treat hives, but a systematic review published in 2016 concluded that “Acupuncture might be effective and safe for chronic urticaria in relieving symptoms, based on a low level of evidence.” The authors called for further studies to confirm findings.
Hives, which is also called urticaria, is a very itchy rash. It is sometimes caused by an infection and sometimes by an allergy to something (such as some foods), but often no cause is found. Many people get hives at some time in their life, but only a few have major trouble with it.
So, we agreed that stress-induced urticaria is a logical thing; what is not logical is to treat stress with drugs. Drug companies don’t have any single interest in jeopardizing their business in order to tell you the truth. Nobody exactly knows how it happens, but instead, they give you medicine that they are completely aware won’t work for you.
Both urticaria and angioedema are a result of histamine and other chemicals released from mast cells in the skin and mucous membranes. This may occur through an allergic process or one in which mast cells release chemicals without IgE being involved.
Allergic reactions, particularly to foods and medications, are another common cause of acute hives. Allergies only cause about 5 percent to 10 percent of chronic hives cases. Pet allergies are usually to blame; pollen, mold, and dust mite allergies cause chronic hives only in rare instances.

“allergy hives _pictures of urticarial vasculitis”

It can be easy to mistake hives for other disorders because the allergy triggers can be difficult to find. Another problem with diagnosing hives is that the symptoms are relatively generic — red, itchy welts on your skin are a common symptom among many skin disorders.
This is a common disorder of unknown origin, whose subjects need not be atopic individuals; that is, they do not have an increased incidence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, or asthma compared to the incidence of these disorders in the absence of chronic urticaria although their IgE level, as a group, is higher than normal. Some patients are dermatographic, although this is usually of milder degree than is seen with the IgE-dependent dermatographism described earlier. The dermatographism may wax and wane, and the urticaria may vary from severe to mild or may intermittently subside. These individuals have a normal white-blood-cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and have no evidence of systemic disease. CSU does not appear to be an allergic reaction in the classic sense, because IgE antibody is not involved and no external allergen is needed to initiate or perpetuate the process. It differs from allergen-induced skin reactions or from physically induced urticaria (e.g., dermatographia or cold urticaria) in that histologic studies reveal a prominent cellular infiltrate around small venules, with an increased number of mast cells. External examination reveals hives with palpably elevated borders, sometimes varying greatly in size and/or shape but generally being rounded.
Lastly, some forms of urticaria and angioedema are related to other diseases, such as autoimmune diseases (for example, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis), certain cancers, chronic infections (for example, viral hepatitis, and some hereditary forms.
Hives can also be classified by the purported causative agent. Many different substances in the environment may cause hives, including medications, food and physical agents. In perhaps more than 50% of people with chronic hives of unknown cause, it is due to an autoimmune reaction.[6]
Hives can be triggered by some food additives, including artificial colors, flavoring agents, and preservatives, according to research published in June 2013 in the Indian Journal of Dermatology. However, food intolerances that trigger hives can’t be tested as easily as typical food allergies, since their underlying mechanism is different. If you suspect that your diet may be a trigger for hives, your doctor may prescribe an elimination diet, which, over a period of several weeks, will test for a food intolerance.
Some people react to anything that makes them hot or sweaty with hives. This can be sunlight, exercise, hot baths, blushing or anger. These are tiny intensely itchy hives with a big red blotch around them and are called cholinergic urticarial.
If you experience swelling of the lips or face, trouble breathing, or wheezing, you should seek immediate medical attention. These can be life-threatening complications, and you will likely need a shot of epinephrine for treatment.
Mallory Shiver, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, Arkansas Foundation for Skin Cancer, Christian Medical and Dental Associations
Topical therapies for hives are available but are generally ineffective. They include creams and lotions which help numb nerve endings and reduce itching. Some ingredients which can accomplish this are camphor, menthol, diphenhydramine, and pramoxine. Many of these topical preparations require no prescription. Cortisone-containing creams (steroids), even strong ones requiring a prescription, are not very helpful in controlling the itch of hives.
Idiopathic cold urticaria is characterized by the rapid onset of pruritus, erythema, and swelling after exposure to a cold stimulus. The location of the swelling is confined to those parts of the body that have been exposed. When suspected, an ice-cube test can be performed in which an ice cube is placed on the subject’s forearm for 4-5 minutes. A positive reaction leads to formation of a hive in the shape of the ice cube within 10 minutes after the stimulus is removed (click for picture). The time course of this reaction (i.e., cold challenge followed by hive formation as the area returns to body temperature) demonstrates that a two-step reaction has occurred in which exposure to cold is a prerequisite, but hive formation actually occurs as the temperature increases.

“severe hives _reasons for hives”

Clinical Context:  Hydroxyzine antagonizes H1 receptors in the periphery. It may suppress histamine activity in the subcortical region of the CNS. Hydroxyzine can be used for symptomatic control. The recommended antihistamine for pregnant patients is diphenhydramine. Hydroxyzine has been used safely in children.
If a specific urticarial trigger can be found, then avoiding that trigger is the most sensible course of action, but most often no underlying cause is ever found.  The main focus of treatment is trying to alleviate symptoms while the urticaria slowly “burns” itself out and eventually clears – a process that may take many months or even some years.
Hormonal causes via endocrine tumors or ovarian pathology are rare. Oral contraceptive use or changes in the menstrual cycle have been reported as a possible cause of urticaria: patients commonly report worsening of hives with the menstrual cycle. This may be hormonally mediated, and the cyclical use of analgesics should also be considered as a possible etiology.
Acute viral illnesses in children can be associated with urticarial eruptions which last a few weeks and then spontaneously subside. This typically accompanies symptoms of viral rhinitis, pharyngitis, or bronchitis. When such patients are given an antibiotic, the cause of the hives becomes less clear because a drug reaction becomes an alternative possibility. If penicillin or related antibiotics have been given it is worth performing skin testing for penicillin and/or cephalosporin allergy, rather than making an unsubstantiated assumption that the child is “penicillin allergic.” Hepatitis B, infectious mononucleosis (EB virus) and a large number of helminthic parasites may be associated with hives in all age groups.
Asthma drugs with antihistamines. Medications that interfere with the action of leukotriene modifiers may be helpful when used with antihistamines. Examples are montelukast (Singulair) and zafirlukast (Accolate).
Individuals who have urticaria due to aspirin may need to avoid foods that contain high levels of salicylates. As well as this, antihistamines are the mainstay of drug treatment for urticaria and angioedema. They may be taken just when required or regularly to prevent episodes occurring in chronic spontaneous urticaria.
The cause is usually insect bites of fleas or mites on cats and dogs. However, a cause may not be found. The human flea, bedbug, mosquito and dog louse can also cause urticaria, but the worldwide flea and bedbug being the most common causes.
TREATMENT FOR CHRONIC URTICARIA: I HAVE CHRONIC URTICARIA FOR 11 YEARS,I HAVE BEEN TO SEE EVERYONE AND NOTHING SEEMS TO WORK .THE ONLY TIME I WENT IS WHEN I WAS IN INTENSIVE CARE BUT I CANT SLEEP FOREVER! ANY SUGGESTIONS, YOURS ITCHINGLY LEE GILLOTT
Mast cells are the cells in the skin and mucous membranes that contain histamine. Release of histamine causes the allergic symptoms of hives and angioedema (swelling of large areas of the body). Itching is a common symptom when histamine is released. Anti-histamines are often prescribed to help control this symptom.
In rare cases, hives or angioedema can be early symptoms of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis requires immediate medical attention. If you suspect you are having  an anaphylactic reaction, seek urgent medical treatment. Without treatment, anaphylaxis can be deadly.
Diagnose hives. The diagnosis of hives is generally straightforward and requires only a visual examination. If you were unable to find the allergen causing your hives on your own, your doctor can run tests when you are diagnosed to determine what causes your hives. He or she does this by performing an allergy test that test for skin reactions to a variety of substances.
Abdominal examination should note any masses, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, or tenderness. Neurologic examination should note any tremor or hyperreflexia or hyporeflexia. Musculoskeletal examination should note the presence of any inflamed or deformed joints.
Other natural remedies for hives include applying aloe vera gel on the affected skin or making a paste with oatmeal and cornstarch and coating the rash with it. Keep this paste on for thirty minutes before washing it off with water. Lotions containing aloe vera as an ingredient are also effective.
Rosacea is another common skin condition. Depending on the type, it often causes small, red, sometimes pus-filled bumps to form on the skin. The skin can thicken in these areas. The rash typically covers the cheeks, nose, and forehead. But it can involve other areas of the face. These bumps may appear for weeks to months before disappearing and appearing again at a later time.
Fueyo-Casado A, Campos-Muñoz L, González-Guerra E, Pedraz-Muñoz J, Cortés-Toro JA, López-Bran E. Effectiveness of omalizumab in a case of urticarial vasculitis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2017 Mar 1. [View Abstract]
Hives are red, swollen, itchy bumps on the skin. Some people get them as part of an allergic reaction to food, medicine, or an insect sting. Others notice hives popping up on their skin on a more regular basis.
Harumi Jyonouchi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Medical Association, Clinical Immunology Society, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Mucosal Immunology, and Society for Pediatric Research
Antihistamines remain the mainstay of treatment. They must be taken on a regular basis, rather than as needed. Newer oral antihistamines often are preferred because of once-daily dosing and because some are less sedating. Appropriate choices include
Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody[9]. It is effective in 80% but requires monthly injections and relapse is common when it is stopped. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends omalizumab as an add-on treatment for refractory severe chronic spontaneous urticaria[10].
If warranted, obtain antinuclear antibody and lupus serologies. Anti-SSA and anti-SSB may be seen in patients with Sjögren syndrome. Test results for antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies are generally negative, and, if they are positive, the possibility of Wegener granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis should be considered.
Antihistamine medications are a mainstay in the treatment of hives, as they block the action of histamine, the chemical responsible for hives. Non-drowsy antihistamines are available over the counter or your doctor may recommend a daily antihistamine so that the cumulative effects of the drug can manage symptoms of allergies, like hives, before they appear. 

“articurial +chronic urticaria”

Okubo Y, Shigoka Y, Yamazaki M, Tsuboi R. Double dose of cetirizine hydrochloride is effective for patients with urticaria resistant: a prospective, randomized, non-blinded, comparative clinical study and assessment of quality of life. J Dermatolog Treat. 2013 Apr. 24(2):153-60. [Medline].
Dermatographic urticaria (also known as dermatographism or “skin writing”) is marked by the appearance of weals or welts on the skin as a result of scratching or firm stroking of the skin. Seen in 4–5% of the population, it is one of the most common types of urticaria,[11] in which the skin becomes raised and inflamed when stroked, scratched, rubbed, and sometimes even slapped.[12]
a vascular reaction of the skin marked by transient appearance of slightly elevated patches (wheals) that are redder or paler than the surrounding skin and often attended by severe itching; the cause may be certain foods, infection, or emotional stress. (See Atlas 2, Plate D.) Called also hives. adj., adj urtica´rial.
In addition to the skin lesions, patients with urticarial vasculitis may also develop systemic symptoms including photosensitivity, swollen lymph nodes, joint pain (50%), fever, abdominal pain (20%), difficulty breathing, and lung and kidney problems.
Take quercetin. Quercetin can also be effective in reducing inflammation and swelling. It is a flavonoid produced in the body rutin.[18][19] Eat more fruits and vegetables, such as apples, citrus fruits, onions, sage, parsley, dark cherries, grapes, blueberries, blackberries, and bilberries, to get more quercetin in your diet. You can also drink more tea and red wine or use more olive oil to increase your intake of it. You can take quercetin as a dietary supplement as well.[20]
We thank Dr Helen Griffiths (Royal Surrey County Hospital, Egerton Road, Guildford, Surrey, UK) for the use of Fig. 1, and Dr M. Yousuf Karim (Frimley Park Hospital, Portsmouth Road, Frimley, Camberley, Surrey, UK) for the use of Fig. 3.
It is estimated that urticaria will affect 25% of the population at some point in their lifetime. Chronic urticaria (CU) involves hives, typically occurring daily, for greater than 6 weeks duration. CU generally lasts 1 to 5 years, but can have a prolonged course beyond 5 years in roughly 14% of patients. Individuals affected by CU have reported emotional distress, feelings of isolation and fatigue in response to their condition, similar to findings in patients with ischemic heart disease. This underscores the importance of managing CU appropriately to minimize both physical and psychological impacts of this disease.
A wide variety of different infections, including hepatitis [26], infectious mononucleosis [27], Helicobacter pylori infection [28], dental infections, sinusitis and urinary tract infections, have all been implicated as causing urticaria. However, in adults seen in the clinic, the overall incidence of infection-related urticaria is low. In contrast, children commonly develop urticaria as a result of viral respiratory infections. This urticaria may be severe and may be associated with episodes of angioedema, but it usually resolves over a few weeks. Worldwide, parasitic infections are a common cause of urticaria and there is nearly always an associated eosinophilia.
Treatment depends on the extent of symptoms and organ involvement. When levels of complement are normal and there is no internal organ involvement or underlying disease, the symptoms may improve on their own or with minimal treatment. In this case, antihistamines or nonsteroidal drugs such as ibuprofen or naproxen may be helpful. For more severe cases, other drugs which affect the immune system may be needed, such as corticosteroids (prednisone, others), hydroxychloroquine, colchicine, dapsone; and chemotherapies like azathioprine or cyclophosphamide. Treatment may be intermittent, although it is not uncommon for patients to need treatment for several years.
Urticaria occurs when a trigger causes high levels of histamine and other chemical messengers to be released in the skin.These substances cause the blood vessels in the affected area of skin to open up (often resulting in redness or pinkness) and become leaky. This extra fluid in the tissues causes swelling and itchiness.
Jáuregui I, Ortiz de Frutos FJ, Ferrer M, Giménez-Arnau A, Sastre J, Bartra J, Labrador M, Silvestre JF, Valero A. Assessment of severity and quality of life in chronic urticaria. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2014;24(2):80-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 24834770.
Urticaria may be classified on the basis of underlying aetiology (see Table 1) or by a clinical classification. In most cases of chronic urticaria it will not be possible to identify the underlying cause, i.e. the rash is idiopathic; however, when seeing a patient, it is helpful to use a clinical classification, as this guides history-taking and ensures that in any one individual all possible triggers for the urticaria are identified. In some patients several factors may cause/worsen the rash.
Drugs that can cause hives and angioedema include aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen, high blood pressure drugs (ACE inhibitors), or painkillers such as codeine.
Kalogeromitros D, Kempuraj D, Katsarou-Katsari A, Gregoriou S, Makris M, Boucher W, et al. Theophylline as “add-on” therapy in patients with delayed pressure urticaria: a prospective self-controlled study. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2005 Jul-Sep. 18(3):595-602. [Medline].
Allergies to foods and soaps or detergents are often the first things that come to mind. While many people try to avoid these suspected triggers, they frequently find that it doesn’t help. You might be surprised to know that while allergies may be the problem, other causes are more common.
When an allergic reaction occurs, the body releases a protein called histamine. When histamine is released, the tiny blood vessels known as capillaries leak fluid. The fluid accumulates in the skin and causes a rash.
There are no routine diagnostic tests in chronic spontaneous urticaria apart from blood count and C-reactive protein (CBC, CRP), but investigations may be undertaken if an underlying disorder is suspected.
EU sometimes occurs only when someone exercises within 30 minutes of eating particular foods, such as wheat or shellfish. For these individuals, exercising alone or eating the injuring food without exercising produces no symptoms. EU can be diagnosed by having the patient exercise and then observing the symptoms. This method must be used with caution and only with the appropriate resuscitative measures at hand. EU can be differentiated from cholinergic urticaria by the hot water immersion test. In this test, the patient is immersed in water at 43 °C (109.4 °F). Someone with EU will not develop hives, while a person with cholinergic urticaria will develop the characteristic small hives, especially on the neck and chest.[citation needed]
As far as the physical symptoms, you’ll see red bumps and swelling of the skin. They can develop anywhere on your body and be any size. Some people get breakouts as small as a penny, others get stress hives the size of a dinner plate or larger. Urticaria also has a tendency to spread around your body when you leave it untreated which is why you shouldn’t ignore it.
This process is caused by several mechanisms. The type I allergic IgE response is initiated by antigen-mediated IgE immune complexes that bind and cross-link Fc receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, thus causing degranulation with histamine release. The type II allergic response is mediated by cytotoxic T cells, causing deposits of immunoglobulins, complement, and fibrin around blood vessels. This leads to urticarial vasculitis. The type III immune-complex disease is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases that cause urticaria. [15]
Many people have a sensitivity to latex which causes a contact dermatitis. The foods listed in the second table above contain chemicals that are similar enough to those found in latex that eating them can cause an allergic reaction. If you have a latex allergy, cross these foods off your shopping list.
Urticaria results from the release of histamine, bradykinin, kallikrein, and other vasoactive substances from mast cells and basophils in the superficial dermis, resulting in intradermal edema caused by capillary and venous vasodilation and occasionally caused by leukocyte infiltration.
The most well tolerated initial treatment are the non-sedating antihistamines like fexofenadine, loratidine, and cetirizine. If these don’t eliminate the hives, a sedating-type of antihistamine (diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, cyproheptadine or doxepin) is added at night. High doses may be needed and this will cause sedation. Fortunately, most patients will become less affected by sedation after they have taken the drug regularly for a while.

“treatment for chronic urticaria +treatment of cold urticaria”

If warranted, obtain antinuclear antibody and lupus serologies. Anti-SSA and anti-SSB may be seen in patients with Sjögren syndrome. Test results for antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies are generally negative, and, if they are positive, the possibility of Wegener granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis should be considered.
Skin biopsy in patients in whom vasculitis is suspected: the lesions last for more than 24 hours, are painful and usually heal by leaving hyperpigmentation on the area of the lesions in urticarial vasculitis (24).
Hives is caused by the release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation (cytokines) from cells in the skin. This process can be the result of an allergic or nonallergic reaction, differing in the eliciting mechanism of histamine release.[20]
If hives become a chronic or long-term problem, you should ask your physician for a referral to a specialist. An allergist can test you in order to determine, if possible, the cause of your allergic reaction. These allergy tests will cover foods, plants, chemicals, insects, and insect bites.
Acute urticaria, which is an allergic (IgE-mediated) reaction, is common in both children and adults. This type of urticaria is a self-limiting process that occurs when mast cells in the skin are activated, degranulate, and secrete histamine, leukotrienes, platelet activating factor (PAF), enzymes such as tryptase and chymase, cytokines, and chemotactic cytokines (chemokines). When an allergen (for example, a food) to which the person is allergic arrives via the bloodstream to mast cells in the skin, it binds to the IgE, and the mast cells become activated, and degranulate. Allergens that can result in acute urticaria include foods, drugs (particularly antibiotics such as penicillin), and venoms from bee, wasp, yellow jacket, hornet, or fire ants. Virtually any allergen that can be disseminated throughout the body, and to which there is an IgE response, has the potential to cause generalized urticaria.
The most common food allergies in adults are shellfish and nuts. The most common food allergies in children are shellfish, nuts, eggs, wheat, and soy. One study showed Balsam of Peru, which is in many processed foods, to be the most common cause of immediate contact urticaria.[8] A less common cause is exposure to certain bacteria, such as Streptococcus species or possibly Helicobacter pylori.[9]
Certain people can develop recurrent hives from sunlight, cold, pressure, vibration or exercise. These are called the physical urticarias. If hives develop from scratching or firmly rubbing the skin it is called dermatographism. It is the most common of the physical urticarias and it affects about 5 percent of the population. It doesn’t always itch. This condition sometimes also occurs along with other forms of hives.
Though we may not fight wild animals anymore, there are still “wild animals” facing us daily in the form of arguments, a phone that won’t stop ringing, and perpetually full in-boxes. Now when you add miserable allergy symptoms, you’ve got a recipe for disaster — unless you take time to do something for stress relief.
When hives are severe, some doctors may suggest a course of oral steroids. Some common side effects of oral steroids include acne, blurred vision, cataracts or glaucoma, easy bruising, difficulty sleeping, high blood pressure, increased appetite and weight gain, increased growth of body hair, insomnia, lower resistance to infection, muscle weakness, nervousness, osteoporosis, stomach irritation or bleeding, sudden mood swings, puffy face, water retention, swelling and worsening of diabetes. (13)
The main symptom of urticaria is a red, raised skin rash. They can appear anywhere on the body, including the face, hands, lips, tongue, throat or ears. Hives vary in size (from a pencil rubber to a dinner plate), and may join together to form larger areas known plaques.
Lastly, some forms of urticaria and angioedema are related to other diseases, such as autoimmune diseases (for example, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis), certain cancers, chronic infections (for example, viral hepatitis, and some hereditary forms.
Urticarial vasculitis (also known as “chronic urticaria as a manifestation of venulitis”, “hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome”, “hypocomplementemic vasculitis” and “unusual lupus-like syndrome”)[1] is a skin condition characterized by fixed urticarial lesions that appear histologically as a vasculitis.[2]:834
This is a common disorder of unknown origin, whose subjects need not be atopic individuals; that is, they do not have an increased incidence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, or asthma compared to the incidence of these disorders in the absence of chronic urticaria although their IgE level, as a group, is higher than normal. Some patients are dermatographic, although this is usually of milder degree than is seen with the IgE-dependent dermatographism described earlier. The dermatographism may wax and wane, and the urticaria may vary from severe to mild or may intermittently subside. These individuals have a normal white-blood-cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and have no evidence of systemic disease. CSU does not appear to be an allergic reaction in the classic sense, because IgE antibody is not involved and no external allergen is needed to initiate or perpetuate the process. It differs from allergen-induced skin reactions or from physically induced urticaria (e.g., dermatographia or cold urticaria) in that histologic studies reveal a prominent cellular infiltrate around small venules, with an increased number of mast cells. External examination reveals hives with palpably elevated borders, sometimes varying greatly in size and/or shape but generally being rounded.
Understanding the mechanisms of allergy is recent — just over the past 35 to 40 years, says Marshall, who is director of the division of clinical immunology and allergy at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. While allergic diseases have both genetic and environmental components there’s still so much about allergy we don’t know.
The most common foods that cause hives are nuts, chocolate, fish, tomatoes, eggs, fresh berries, and milk. Fresh foods cause hives more often than cooked foods. Certain food additives and preservatives may also be to blame.
Some sources recommend supplements such as quercetin and evening primrose oil, and vitamin C, D and others. It is important to speak to a doctor before using supplements, as these can trigger adverse reactions.
Acute hives can be triggered by a number of different factors. Common causes include respiratory infections (particularly in young children), contact with animals or plants, allergic reactions to foods or medication (particularly pain relievers and antibiotics), and sometimes, insect stings, heat or cold, stress, food additives or preservatives. 

“pronounce urticaria _urticarial rash”

This is a common disorder of unknown origin, whose subjects need not be atopic individuals; that is, they do not have an increased incidence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, or asthma compared to the incidence of these disorders in the absence of chronic urticaria although their IgE level, as a group, is higher than normal. Some patients are dermatographic, although this is usually of milder degree than is seen with the IgE-dependent dermatographism described earlier. The dermatographism may wax and wane, and the urticaria may vary from severe to mild or may intermittently subside. These individuals have a normal white-blood-cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and have no evidence of systemic disease. CSU does not appear to be an allergic reaction in the classic sense, because IgE antibody is not involved and no external allergen is needed to initiate or perpetuate the process. It differs from allergen-induced skin reactions or from physically induced urticaria (e.g., dermatographia or cold urticaria) in that histologic studies reveal a prominent cellular infiltrate around small venules, with an increased number of mast cells. External examination reveals hives with palpably elevated borders, sometimes varying greatly in size and/or shape but generally being rounded.
Research shows that up to 50% of people with CIU continue to have hives after treatment with antihistamines. Omalizumab, which is injected under the skin, has been shown to relieve the itch and clear hives in some people with CIU. In one research study, 36% of patients treated with omalizumab reported no itch and no hives after treatment.
Sometimes, a skin biopsy or blood tests are done to confirm that you had an allergic reaction, and to test for the substance that caused the allergic response. However, specific allergy testing is not useful in most cases of hives.
“I’ve seen kids break out in hives from having a temper tantrum,” Dr. Li says. “Certainly, stress that’s anxiety-related can cause more itching in patients who hives and they start to have more hives as a result of itching and scratching the existing ones.”
A trigger causes cells in the skin to release chemicals such as histamine. These chemicals cause fluid to leak from tiny blood vessels under the skin surface. The fluid pools to form weals. The chemicals also cause the blood vessels to open wide (dilate) which causes the flare around the weals. The trigger is not known or identified in about half of cases. Some known triggers include:
Jump up ^ Phan, NQ; Bernhard, JD; Luger, TA; Ständer, S (October 2010). “Antipruritic treatment with systemic μ-opioid receptor antagonists: a review”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 63 (4): 680–8. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2009.08.052. PMID 20462660.
In some patients pressure on the skin may cause histamine release and a ‘weal and flare’ response, a condition known as dermographism (Fig. 3). There may also be a delayed response to pressure, with urticaria and/or angioedema developing several hours after a pressure stimulus [21].
Acute urticaria, which is an allergic (IgE-mediated) reaction, is common in both children and adults. This type of urticaria is a self-limiting process that occurs when mast cells in the skin are activated, degranulate, and secrete histamine, leukotrienes, platelet activating factor (PAF), enzymes such as tryptase and chymase, cytokines, and chemotactic cytokines (chemokines). When an allergen (for example, a food) to which the person is allergic arrives via the bloodstream to mast cells in the skin, it binds to the IgE, and the mast cells become activated, and degranulate. Allergens that can result in acute urticaria include foods, drugs (particularly antibiotics such as penicillin), and venoms from bee, wasp, yellow jacket, hornet, or fire ants. Virtually any allergen that can be disseminated throughout the body, and to which there is an IgE response, has the potential to cause generalized urticaria.
Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head, Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School
Hives are an unpleasant inflammatory skin condition that 20 percent of the population will experience at some point in time. Thankfully, hives typically are  not serious. With some simple natural remedies, you can calm a hives outbreak on yourself or your child quite quickly. Inexpensive, common household items like oatmeal, witch hazel and baking soda are really effective at calming the itching and redness that usually accompany hives. If your child experiences hives, you should make sure you aren’t using any harsh body care products on his or her skin. You should also avoid hot baths and tight-fitting clothes. I hope that you won’t experience hives anytime soon, but if you do, a natural hives treatment will really come in handy.
In the overwhelming majority of cases it is not “something” causing the chronic hives, it is “nothing.” That is, in about 95% of chronic hives cases, the hives are “idiopathic” (a medical term that means there is no discernible cause). Because of those 5% of cases with a cause, it is worthwhile to see a physician to determine if any underlying disease is present (e.g. thyroid problems, liver problems, skin diseases, sinusitis) or if there is an allergic cause (i.e. a reaction to a drug, insect, food, etc.). This can be accomplished by a good history and physical, a few blood and urine tests and sometimes a skin biopsy. Some patients with chronic hives and elevated anti-thyroid antibodies in the blood improve when given thyroid supplement even if the thyroid function is normal.
An allergy refers to a misguided reaction by our immune system in response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances. When these allergens come in contact with the body, it causes the immune system to develop an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to it. It is estimated that 50 million North Americans are affected by allergic conditions. The parts of the body that are prone to react to allergies include the eyes, nose, lungs, skin, and stomach. Common allergic disorders include hay fever, asthma, allergic eyes, allergic eczema, hives, and allergic shock.
There are no routine diagnostic tests in chronic spontaneous urticaria apart from blood count and C-reactive protein (CBC, CRP), but investigations may be undertaken if an underlying disorder is suspected.
You may have a sensitivity to detergent, soap, clothing, perfumes and/or foods. Have you changed any daily habit in the last 16 months? New detergent or soap? Try using only natural detergents and soaps for a while to see if it helps. Wear only cotton or linen clothing. Keep a diet diary, writing down all the foods you eat — see if the itching gets worse after you eat certain foods.
Acute urticaria is nearly always due to some defined exposure to a drug or physical stimulus or an acute infectious illness. However, the trigger is not always clear from the history, particularly because allergy may develop without warning to a previously tolerated substance.
Your doctor will need to ask many questions in an attempt to find the possible cause of hives or angiodema. Since there are no specific tests for hives — or the associated swelling of angioedema — testing will depend on your medical history and a thorough exam by your primary care doctor or dermatologist.
This type of hives can occur right away, precisely after a pressure stimulus or as a deferred response to sustained pressure being enforced to the skin. In the deferred form, the hives only appear after about six hours from the initial application of pressure to the skin. Under normal circumstances, these hives are not the same as those witnessed with most urticariae. Instead, the protrusion in the affected areas is typically more spread out. The hives may last from eight hours to three days. The source of the pressure on the skin can happen from tight fitted clothing, belts, clothing with tough straps, walking, leaning against an object, standing, sitting on a hard surface, etc. The areas of the body most commonly affected are the hands, feet, trunk, abdomen, buttocks, legs and face. Although this appears to be very similar to dermatographism, the cardinal difference is that the swelled skin areas do not become visible quickly and tend to last much longer. This form of the skin disease is, however, rare.[citation needed]
In chronic cases, a physician may check various blood and urine tests, and other procedures such as X-rays to look for other causes. If a physical urticaria is suspected, special tests to mimic the physical stimulus may be performed, such as placing an ice cube on the skin to cause a hive to form in people with cold urticaria.
The following pictures are from other people that got a rash from stress. While a stress rash is very common, it is not an incurable condition. So if you are wondering “can anxiety cause a rash?” the answer is yes, and the solution is OxyHives. If none of these pictures look like your stress related rash, please keep in mind that everyone’s rash will look differently depending on various other factors.
This skin disease is common, and it often goes away on its own. It typically starts with a large patch of red, raised skin. This “mother patch” or “herald patch” may be surrounded by small red bumps, or “daughter patches,” that are typically oval in shape.
The cause of most cases of urticarial vasculitis is unknown. It may be associated with a number of diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren’s syndrome. Some cancers, including leukemias, colon and pancreatic, and infections like Hepatitis B and C can cause this form of vasculitis. So can some drugs, including antibiotics, ACE inhibitors used for treating high blood pressure, and certain diuretics.
The real secret behind stress is the social programming we have gotten since Day 1 of our existence. It’s not your fault. We were raised to go to school and have a job, make a family and have kids and then raise them to do the same. If you fail in one of these steps, you get stressed. You become depressed and anxious whenever you deal with the need for social approval, when you’re about to face a challenge that might change you or change your social status.
Patients with chronic urticaria that has failed to respond to maximum-dose second generation oral antihistamines taken for 4 weeks should be referred to a dermatologist, immunologist or medical allergy specialist.
New-onset episodes of urticaria can be associated with identifiable causes, and the method of exposure (ie, direct contact, oral or intravenous [IV] routes) can be deduced by taking a careful history. (See Etiology.)
When a small child gets hives, it’s almost always due to an allergy. Hives on a baby, or hives on a toddler, can be particularly disturbing. Many parents wonder how can you tell hives vs rash. There is a quick skin test called “wheal and flare” that can help confirm whether or not it’s hives. According to Jon McCullers, M.D., pediatrician-in-chief at Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital in Memphis, if your child has a big red patch on his or her skin and you see swelling (that’s the “wheal”), drag a fingernail over the area and if you see a brighter redness (“flare”) then it’s an allergic reaction. (11)
Chronic hives don’t put you at any sudden risk of a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis). But if you do experience hives as part of a serious allergic reaction, seek emergency care. Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include dizziness, trouble breathing, and swelling of your lips, eyelids and tongue.

“medicine for hives -what causes hives on face”

Chronic lung diseases hard to diagnose: Some of the chronic lung diseases are difficult to diagnose. Even the well-knowns conditions such as asthma or lung cancer often fail to be diagnosed early. Some of the chronic lung…read more »
There are many patterns of hives with different underlying causes. In order to cope with urticaria, it is important to understand exactly which form of urticaria exists because the treatment is directly affected by the diagnosis. It is important to note that there are other skin conditions due to allergy, one of the most common being eczema or dermatitis. Moreover, allergic skin conditions are common and plague people the world over, but not all skin problems are allergic in origin. See a qualified medical for diagnosis and treatment.
If these agents fail, colchicine, hydroxychloroquine, or dapsone may be effective. If all other treatment modalities have failed or if the patient has systemic involvement, consider initiating treatment with glucocorticoids. If the patient requires long-term treatment with corticosteroids, consider every-other-day dosing of the steroid or the addition of azathioprine as a steroid-reducing agent. Response to newer agents, including mycophenolate mofetil[20, 21] and rituximab, has been reported in the literature. Rituximab-based treatment can provide higher response rates compared with corticosteroids and conventional immunosuppressive agents, which supports its use in relapsing, refractory, or severe disease.[12]
If the urticaria remains unresponsive to high-dose H1 anti-histamines, H2 anti-histamine treatment, at standard dosage, may be added. This is an off-licence use of these drugs, but there is evidence that combined H1 and H2 anti-histamine treatment gives better symptom control than H1 anti-histamine treatment alone [52,53]. Unlike cimetidine, ranitidine does not inhibit oxidative hepatic drug metabolism and so has less potential to cause drug interactions.
The symptoms of a stress rash include red bumps and swollen areas on your skin that seem to appear randomly. Quite often, they are incredibly itchy and can also have a prickly or burning sensation when touched. Don’t scratch them! Don’t be surprised if your stress rash appears on your face, neck and chest, as that is where I get mine. Others get them on their arms and legs. Stress hives can be as small as a pencil eraser or as BIG as a dinner plate! Often the smaller hives meld with the bigger hives to make one big messy outbreak that looks absolutely terrible. However, with the right over the counter medication, like OxyHives, you’ll be able to get rid of them in no time.
However, says Anand, “we don’t know if the disease causes urticaria or if the person’s propensity to have an autoimmune reaction causes it. But if we don’t find any triggers when we test for allergens, then we look for an underlying infection or autoimmune disease.” Anand adds that treatment for that condition can help clear the hives.
Arora A, Wetter DA, Gonzalez-Santiago TM, Davis MD, Lohse CM. Incidence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, 1996 to 2010: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014 Nov. 89 (11):1515-24. [View Abstract]
What we do know: hives, also known as urticaria, can appear anywhere on the body, including your face, torso, arms, legs, and even inside your mouth and ears. They may range in size from as tiny as a pencil tip to as large as a dinner plate. Hives typically crop up when you have an allergic reaction to a substance—pet dander, pollen, latex—triggering your body to release histamine and other chemicals into your blood. That’s what causes the itching, swelling, and other symptoms.  
Special diets appear to have a limited role to play in the management of hives. Unfortunately, it is difficult to predict who will or will not respond to diet on the basis of history or allergy testing. A temporary elimination diet under close medical supervision, followed by challenges may be useful in a small number of cases. 
This list shows the foods that most often cause hives. But an allergy to foods is actually pretty rare, occurring in 1% of hives sufferers. Whether the food additives listed above actually cause hives is controversial. But many people think their hives are caused by food additives and want to try eliminating them.
Steven A Conrad, MD, PhD Chief, Department of Emergency Medicine; Chief, Multidisciplinary Critical Care Service, Professor, Department of Emergency and Internal Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

“urticaria fotos yurtici kargo takibi”

We classify Urticaria into Acute Urticaria when the rash duration is under 6 weeks and Chronic Urticaria when it persists for over 6 weeks. Physical Urticaria is due to an external physical trigger such as heat, cold, pressure or exercise (also called Inducible Urticaria). While Urticarial Vasculitis is a rare condition associated with underlying auto-immune connective tissue diseases which requires specialist referral.
Irinyi B, Széles G, Gyimesi E, Tumpek J, Herédi E, Dimitrios G, et al. Clinical and laboratory examinations in the subgroups of chronic urticaria. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007. 144(3):217-25. [Medline].
Steven A Conrad, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Critical Care Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Physicians, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Louisiana State Medical Society, Shock Society, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine
The common symptoms include a raised, bumpy red rash, with the bumps often looking more like normal skin colour, that is often quite itchy. The raised areas of skin are known as weals, which often fade after a few hours but can sometimes reappear elsewhere on the body.
If your symptoms worsen or last longer than a couple of days, see your doctor. They can identify the cause and provide you with medication to help relieve your symptoms. Understanding what caused the hives is key to preventing future outbreaks.
The most important part of the investigation of a patient with urticaria is to take a detailed history [43]. This should include structured questions about the many possible clinical causes of urticaria (see above); the frequency, timing and duration of attacks; whether the patient has developed more severe allergic symptoms such as angioedema or wheezing in association with the urticaria; and whether there are any symptoms suggestive of an underlying medical condition such as a connective tissue disease and/or urticarial vasculitis. Photographs may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and patients may have compiled a symptom diary, which is sometimes useful when trying to identify possible triggers for the rash.
In addition, it appears that a large percentage of people without an obvious trigger for chronic hives may actually have an autoimmune disease. With these conditions, the immune system attacks healthy tissue, including the skin. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and dermatitis herpetiformis (associated with celiac disease) are among those that may cause hives.
urticaria pigmentosa, juvenile urticaria pigmentosa present at birth or in the first few weeks of life, usually disappearing before puberty, taking the form of a single nodule or tumor or of a disseminated eruption of yellowish brown to yellowish red macules, plaques, or bullae.
If that doesn’t work, some doctors may try a short course of cortisone (steroids) to clear the hives completely. Then the patient can maintain the effect with the much safer antihistamines, since steroids have significant side effects if used long term.
Cold-induced urticaria: Urticaria occurs after exposure to cold, cold objects or cold water. The urticaria is usually localised to exposed areas but sudden total body exposure, as in swimming, may cause a drop in blood pressure and can rarely be fatal.
Sometimes hives go away on their own without treatment. Otherwise, hives can generally be treated at home. The most common treatment for hives is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine. Antihistamines can relieve symptoms like itching. You can find a great selection of OTC antihistamines here.
Mechanisms other than allergen-antibody interactions are known to cause histamine release from mast cells. Many drugs, for example morphine, can induce direct histamine release not involving any immunoglobulin molecule. Also, a diverse group of signaling substances, called neuropeptides, have been found to be involved in emotionally induced hives. Dominantly inherited cutaneous and neurocutaneous porphyrias (porphyria cutanea tarda, hereditary coproporphyria, variegate porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria) have been associated with solar urticaria. The occurrence of drug-induced solar urticaria may be associated with porphyrias. This may be caused by IgG binding, not IgE.
The Hives are a Swedish rock band that rose to prominence in the early 2000s during the garage rock revival. Their mainstream success came with the release of the album Veni Vidi Vicious, containing the anthem “Hate to Say I Told You So”. The band have been acclaimed by music critics as one of the best live rock bands in current music.[1][2]
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Curing a stress rash is actually pretty simple and doesn’t require any type of medical procedure. In fact, it’s as simple as reducing the amount of stress in your life. As you become less stressed, the hives will naturally go away. Read my post — 170 Stress Management Techniques — to help lower the amount of stress in your life.
Greenberger PA. Chronic urticaria: new management options. World Allergy Organ J. 2014 Nov 5;7(1):31. doi: 10.1186/1939-4551-7-31. eCollection 2014. Review. PubMed PMID: 25383135; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4223736.
Lancey RA, Schaefer OP, McCormick MJ. Coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement with cold cardioplegia in a patient with cold-induced urticaria. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Feb. 92(2):273-5. [Medline].
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Jafilan, L; James, C (December 2015). “Urticaria and Allergy-Mediated Conditions”. Primary care. 42 (4): 473–83. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2015.08.002. PMID 26612369.
It is not clear from the question if the patient had febrile non-hemolytic reaction or urticarial reaction, since fever is described as the sign and symptom, while the patient had continuation of blood transfusion following medication with Benadryl (antihistaminic), which is usually given for an urticarial reaction.
Psoriasis is a buildup of too many skin cells that form silvery, scaly patches on the body. It’s caused by inflammation, which can be fueled by stress. That’s why people with psoriasis often get flare-ups when they’re tense.
The most prominent symptom of urticaria is swelling of the surface of the skin. The pattern of the hives may get larger, spread out, or join together to alter the pattern as the condition progresses and spreads over a larger surface area. They may also disappear and reappear within a few minutes or within hours. If you press the center of a hive, it affects the entire hive, and it will turn white. An outbreak of hives generally escalates very rapidly and it is possible for the bumps to appear and spread over your skin within 30 minutes. This rapidity is considered to be one of the most characteristic of all urticaria symptoms. The raised patches of skin will be extremely itchy while the rest of your skin may be very sensitive. The welts caused by urticaria may be either pin point, or patch size in area and in some cases it can cause a secondary skin condition known as Angioedema. Single hives that cause much pain will last more than a day and leave bruise marks as they are likely to be a more serious condition known as urticarial vasculitis. Hives that are caused by friction will be linear in appearance and are of a benign condition and require little or no urticaria treatment apart from eliminating the source of friction.
Jump up ^ PhD, [edited by] Kathryn L. McCance, RN, PhD, Sue E. Huether, RN, PhD ; section editors, Valentina L. Brashers, MD, Neal S. Rote, (2014). Pathophysiology : the biologic basis for disease in adults and children (Seventh edition. ed.). Elsevier – Health Sciences Division. ISBN 9780323088541.
Codeine and other opiate-derived medications can cause degranulation of mast cells by stimulation of opiate receptors. Urticaria and angioedema can result from agents that alter the metabolism of arachidonic acid, such as aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These responses to NSAIDs have the potential to be fulminant with generalized hives and swelling. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), drugs used to treat hypertension, (eg, Captopril) can cause recurrent episodes of angioedema, but urticarial skin lesions are not observed. Because ACE normally inactivates bradykinin, the angioedema is thought to be due to elevated bradykinin levels causing dilation and leaking of vessels in deep layers of the skin. This is the most common cause of angioedema seen in emergency rooms. Tongue, throat and laryngeal swelling can be extremely severe and intubation may be necessary. The swelling resembles that seen in hereditary or acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency where bradykinin is also the mediator of swelling.
Hives can be caused by an allergic reaction to foods, drugs, insect bites, infections or substances which can cause other allergic reactions. However not all cases are caused by allergy; frequently they are caused by viruses. It can sometimes be extremely difficult to find the cause. Triggers include medications, food, viruses, latex, heat, cold and direct exposure to sun. If the cause is known, the trigger should be avoided.
Pronounced “ur-ti-kair-ee-uh,” this is the medical term for hives. Urticaria appear as red, itchy bumps or welts on the skin that can appear anywhere on the body. A red hive will turn pale when pressed in the center, which is called “blanching.” For every 10 people whose hives are chronic, at least seven of them have CIU.
The cause of chronic hives can rarely be determined.[28] In some cases regular extensive allergy testing over a long period of time is requested in hopes of getting new insight.[29][30] No evidence shows regular allergy testing results in identification of a problem or relief for people with chronic hives.[29][30] Regular allergy testing for people with chronic hives is not recommended.[28]
Lindsay Nixon has been writing since 2007. Her work has appeared in “Vegetarian Times,” “Women’s Health Magazine” and online for The Huffington Post. She is also a published author, lawyer and certified personal trainer. Nixon has two Bachelors of Arts in classics and communications from the College of Charleston and a Juris Doctor from the New England School of Law.
Cold urticaria is usually idiopathic, but it may occur patients with cold-dependent antibodies, such as cryoglobulins or cold agglutinins [15] and there is a very rare familial form of cold-induced urticaria which is dominantly inherited [16]. Patients develop itching, erythema and urticaria affecting that part of the body which has been exposed to cold. Symptoms may worsen as the exposed area is warmed. Total immersion in cold water can cause severe symptoms with hypotension and patients should be warned that swimming in cold water can be dangerous. Local heat-induced urticaria is rare [17]. Some unfortunate patients may develop urticaria on exposure to both heat and cold [18]. Generalized heat-induced urticaria or ‘cholinergic’ urticaria is caused by exercise, sweating and hot showers or baths. The term ‘cholinergic’ is used because sweat glands are innervated by cholinergic nerve fibres. The urticarial lesions are often small and intensely itchy. Very severe cholinergic urticaria may cause hypotension and therefore there may be some overlap with the clinical syndrome of exercise-induced anaphylaxis [19,20].
Jump up ^ Kozel MM, Mekkes JR, Bossuyt PM, Bos JD (2001). “Natural course of physical and chronic urticaria and angioedema in 220 patients”. J Am Acad Dermatol. 45 (3): 387–391. doi:10.1067/mjd.2001.116217. PMID 11511835.
Urticaria results from the release of histamine, bradykinin, kallikrein, and other vasoactive substances from mast cells and basophils in the superficial dermis, resulting in intradermal edema caused by capillary and venous vasodilation and occasionally caused by leukocyte infiltration.
In many cases, mild hives won’t need treatment and will go away on their own. If a definite trigger is found, avoiding it is part of the treatment. If the hives feel itchy, the doctor may recommend an antihistamine medicine to block the release of histamine in the bloodstream and prevent breakouts.
Immunotherapy: Allergy shots help only if a person has hives because of what they breathe. These people can be successfully desensitized. Cross reacting proteins from inhalants that are also found in foods can help drop the degree of reactivity to those foods.