“viral hives in adults -hives on face”

Stress rash often takes the form of hives, or welts. Hives can appear anywhere on the body. Areas affected by hives are generally red, raised, and swollen. These blotchy areas can be as small as a pencil tip or as large as a dinner plate.
The Food Standards Code requires that certain foods must be listed on the package of a food, or made known to the customer upon request. If you experience an allergic reaction to a known allergen not…
Dave, N. D., Xiang, L., Rehm, K. E., and Marshall, G. D. (2012, February 1). Stress and allergic diseases. Immunology And Allergy Clinics of North America, 31(1): 55–68. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3264048/
The cause of most cases of urticarial vasculitis is unknown. It may be associated with a number of diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren’s syndrome. Some cancers, including leukemias, colon and pancreatic, and infections like Hepatitis B and C can cause this form of vasculitis. So can some drugs, including antibiotics, ACE inhibitors used for treating high blood pressure, and certain diuretics.
Jump up ^ Chung, Man Cheung; Symons, Christine; Gilliam, Jane; Kaminski, Edward R. (2010). “The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality traits among patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria”. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 51 (1): 55–63. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.02.005. PMID 19932827.
Over half of all cases of chronic idiopathic hives are the result of an autoimmune trigger. Roughly 50% of patients with chronic urticaria spontaneously develop autoantibodies directed at the receptor FcεRI located on skin mast cells. Chronic stimulation of this receptor leads to chronic hives. Patients often have other autoimmune conditions, such as autoimmune thyroiditis, celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome or systemic lupus erythematosus.[6]
In a very small number of patients, severe, debilitating urticaria, associated possibly with airway angioedema, bronchospasm and hypotension, persists despite treatment with high-dose H1 anti-histamines; H2 anti-histamines and/or LTRA; corticosteroids; and, perhaps, dietary interventions. These patients usually have autoimmune urticaria and cyclosporin treatment has proved effective in about 65% of such patients in a randomized double-blind study [58]. Longer courses of cyclosporin may give a lengthier clinical response [59]; however, the optimum dose and length of treatment have not yet been established. Tacrolimus [60] and mycophenolate mofetil [61] have also been effective in open-label studies. Results of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in small numbers of patients have been variable [62,63]. The current recommendation from the clinical guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulin [64] is that intravenous immunoglobulin should not be used unless all other therapies have failed. If patients require immunomodulating therapies, referral to a specialist centre is recommended.
Researchers have identified many – but not all – of the factors that can cause hives. These include food and other substances you take, such as medications. Some people develop hives just by touching certain items. Some illnesses also cause hives. Here are a few of the most common causes:
The #1 best proven method of eliminating stress hives from your life forever is to remove ALL stress and tension from your life. Aside from that, the only other way is to take an OTC medication like OxyHives that has proven to get rid of hives within 1-2 hours. OxyHives has been around for over 10 years now and is effective without any of the harmful side effects other hives medications have. OxyHives recently received approval to sell their hives treatment over the counter and thus no longer requires a prescription. Please see our hives treatment page for more information.
Despite the reputation of hives being an “allergic” condition, there is often no obvious connection to any provoking substance. In this situation, random allergy testing is not usually helpful. If you know what is causing your hives, then avoiding the cause, if possible.
Jachiet M, Flageul B, Deroux A, Le Quellec A, Maurier F, Cordoliani F, et al. The clinical spectrum and therapeutic management of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis: data from a French nationwide study of fifty-seven patients. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Feb. 67(2):527-34. [View Abstract]
There is just not enough evidence to support using antihistamines and playing roulette with your patient’s health,” he said, noting that the degree of disability, both socially and occupationally, that accompanies chronic urticaria is on par with that of a patient awaiting triple coronary bypass.
a vascular reaction of the skin marked by transient appearance of slightly elevated patches (wheals) that are redder or paler than the surrounding skin and often attended by severe itching; the cause may be certain foods, infection, or emotional stress. (See Atlas 2, Plate D.) Called also hives. adj., adj urtica´rial.
I went in some hay and got the hives on the back of my legs so close together it looked like one big red/pink spot on the back of my legs so i took 2 cold rags and put them on the back of my legs for about 8-10 minutes and TOTALLY relieved itching.
Oral steroids (prednisone, [Medrol]) can help severe cases of hives in the short term, but their usefulness is limited by the fact that many cases of hives last too long for steroid use to be continued safely. Other treatments have been used for urticaria as well, including montelukast (Singulair), ultraviolet radiation, antifungal antibiotics, agents that suppress the immune system, and tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline [Elavil, Endep], nortriptyline [Pamelor, Aventyl], doxepin [Sinequan, Adapin]). Evidence to support the benefit of such treatments is sparse. In ordinary cases, they are rarely needed. A new treatment now indicated for chronic urticaria is the monthly subcutaneous injection of a monoclonal antibody, omalizumab (Xolair), directed against the IgE receptor on human mast cells.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.[1] They may also burn or sting.[2] Often the patches of rash move around.[2] Typically they last a few days and do not leave any long-lasting skin changes.[2] Fewer than 5% of cases last for more than six weeks.[2] The condition frequently recurs.[2]
The emotional impact of urticaria and its effect on quality of life should also be assessed. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and CU-Q2oL, a specific questionnaire for chronic urticaria, have been validated for chronic urticaria, where sleep disruption is a particular problem.
Jump up ^ Pacor ML, Di Lorenzo G, Corrocher R (2001). “Efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist in chronic urticaria. A double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of treatment with montelukast and cetirizine in patients with chronic urticaria with intolerance to food additive and/or acetylsalicylic acid”. Clin Exp Allergy. 31 (10): 1607–1614. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2001.01189.x. PMID 11678862.
Hives are very common and are not considered contagious. Although annoying, hives usually resolve on their own over a period of weeks and are rarely medically serious. Some hives may be caused by allergies to such things as foods, infections by different organisms, medications, food coloring, preservatives and insect stings or bites, and chemicals; but in the majority of cases, no specific cause is ever found. Although people may find it frustrating not to know what has caused their hives, maneuvers like changing diet, soap, detergent, and makeup are rarely helpful in preventing hives unless there is an excellent temporal relationship. Since hives most often are produced by an immune mechanism, the condition is not contagious. If infectious disease were the cause of hives in a particular person then it is possible, but not likely, that an infected contact could develop hives.
When a cause for hives can be found, it’s most likely an infection. Viral upper respiratory infections cause about 40% of hives rashes. Fortunately, these hives outbreaks resolve as the infection resolves. A chronic bacterial infection, especially sinusitis, may be the culprit if a case of hives is lingering.
Cases of urticaria and angioedema can be acute, lasting less than 6 weeks, or chronic, lasting more than 6 weeks. The length of symptoms can often be a clue as to the cause of the symptoms. For example, the most common cause of acute urticaria and angioedema in children is viral infections.
Pressure hives produces deep and painful local swelling. The swelling can occur immediately or several hours later. This type of urticaria can be triggered by prolonged sitting. It is also triggered but the wearing of tight clothing and consequently is seen in areas such as the waist/belt line, under elastic bands such as panties, socks or wristbands. Choosing appropriate clothing and/or taking regular breaks from sitting, usually controls pressure urticaria. If medication is needed, steroids are usually administered for a short time.
Acute urticaria is said to affect 10%-20% of the population at some time during life. It is not uncommon in childhood, but the greatest incidence appears to be in young adults (15%). Chronic urticaria occurs more frequently in mid-life, especially in women.
Hives can also develop as a result of sun or cold exposure, infections, excessive perspiration, and emotional stress. The reason why stress seems to precipitate an outbreak of hives in many people is not completely understood but is likely related to the known effects of stress on the immune system. In many cases, the cause of hives in a given individual cannot be identified.
Raynaud’s phenomenon Thromboangiitis obliterans Erythromelalgia Septic thrombophlebitis Arteriosclerosis obliterans Bier spots/Marshall–White syndrome Cholesterol embolus Reactive angioendotheliomatosis Trousseau’s syndrome
59. Vena GA, Cassano N, Colombo D, Peruzzi P, Pigatto P NEO-I-30 Study Group. Cyclosporine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:705–9. [PubMed]
Clinical Context:  Indomethacin is the only NSAID reported effective in urticarial vasculitis. It is rapidly absorbed; metabolism occurs in the liver by demethylation, deacetylation, and glucuronide conjugation. Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis.
Chronic urticaria and/or angioedema are hives or swelling that lasts more than 6 weeks. The cause is usually harder to find than in acute cases. The causes can be similar to those of acute urticaria but can also include your immune system, chronic infections, hormonal disorders, and tumors.

“heat hives treatment -“

Hive-like rashes commonly accompany viral illnesses, such as the common cold. They usually appear three to five days after the cold has started, and may even appear a few days after the cold has resolved.
Chronic hives can be a telltale sign of a larger problem, and extensive blood work may be necessary to pinpoint the underlying issue. Dr. Jaliman says patients with lupus, lymphoma, thyroid disease, hepatitis, or HIV may have hives as a symptom of their illness. Since these people tend to suffer from chronic hives, medications are the most reliable form of relief.
Jump up ^ Waldbott GL, Steinegger S. New observations in “Chizzola” Maculae. In: Proceedings of the Third International Clean Air Congress of the International Union of Air Pollution Prevention Association. October 8–12, I973, Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, Düsseldorf 1975 pp A63-A67
Goldsmith LA, et al., eds. Urticaria and angioedema. In: Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed April 25, 2017.
Challenge testing for physical urticarias may be appropriate [14]. For example, urticaria may be induced by applying ice to the forearm for a few minutes and then allowing the skin to re-warm, and dermographism may be induced by scratching the skin lightly. A skin biopsy should be taken, ideally from a ‘new’ lesion, if urticarial vasculitis is suspected (see below). The ASST is not performed routinely. It is less sensitive and specific than in vitro basophil histamine release assays [47] for the detection of histamine-releasing autoantibodies, but again these are not available routinely.
[Guideline] Magerl M, Borzova E, Gimrnez-Arnau A, Grattan CE, Lawlor F, Mathelier-Fusade P, et al. The definition and diagnostic testing of physical and cholinergic urticarias–EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/UNEV consensus panel recommendations. Allergy. 2009 Dec. 64(12):1715-21. [Medline].
Definitely! A stress rash can occur anytime you are feeling over stressed and anxious. Too much stress in your life will adversely affect your immune system which will cause it to start sending histamine to fight what is ailing you. Unfortunately, stress isn’t something that the immune system can “fight off”, so the end result is that you get stress induced hives. In essence, those itchy bumps all over your face, neck, chest, arms, legs and pretty much your whole body sometimes, are caused by stress. Learn what causes hives at http://www.hives.org/hives-causes.php
A. As was said before chronic urticaria is a symptom of many problems. I once took NSAIDs for knee pain and I started to itch myself. It took my doctor 3 weeks to understand that I was allergic to this specific drug. I also know that tomatoes can cause me an allergic reaction. Try to think is there anything new in your life? Tell it to the GP maybe he will be able to tell you if this is the reason for your symptoms.
57. Pacor ML, Di Lorenzo G, Corrocher R. Efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist in chronic urticaria. A double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of treatment with montelukast and cetirizine in patients with chronic urticaria with intolerance to food additive and/or acetylsalicylic acid. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:1607–14. [PubMed]
Tests are sometimes done when hives go on for long periods or when unusual symptoms are occurring around the same time. This is to exclude other diseases, which may appear as hives first and other conditions later. If hives are associated with high fever, bruising, bleeding into the skin, purple lumps that last for several days or sore joints a doctor’s appointment should be arranged promptly.
The most well tolerated initial treatment are the non-sedating antihistamines like fexofenadine, loratidine, and cetirizine. If these don’t eliminate the hives, a sedating-type of antihistamine (diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, cyproheptadine or doxepin) is added at night. High doses may be needed and this will cause sedation. Fortunately, most patients will become less affected by sedation after they have taken the drug regularly for a while.
Hives can be triggered by some food additives, including artificial colors, flavoring agents, and preservatives, according to research published in June 2013 in the Indian Journal of Dermatology. However, food intolerances that trigger hives can’t be tested as easily as typical food allergies, since their underlying mechanism is different. If you suspect that your diet may be a trigger for your hives, your doctor may prescribe an elimination diet, which, over a period of several weeks, will test for a food intolerance.
One study found that chronic urticaria can have the same negative impact as heart disease. It also found that 1 in 7 people with chronic urticaria had some sort of psychological or emotional problem, such as: 
First off, if you think you know what caused your hives, then avoid further contact or consumption with whatever it is. If you suspect that your hives are being caused by a particular food you’re eating or a certain pet you currently have in your home, then it is a good idea to get some allergy testing done. Allergy testing can reveal your hive triggers, which you can then avoid (as much as possible) and you can greatly prevent the likelihood of another undesirable hives rash. (15) Keeping a food diary can also help a hive sufferer to pinpoint any food allergies.
Angioedema is another skin allergy and is the name given to deeper swelling affecting the skin over the arms, legs, torso or face. It may also affect the tongue, mouth, throat and sometimes the upper airway. These swellings commonly last for more than 24hrs, and usually there is no itching. It is not possible to identify an underlying cause for angioedema in the vast majority of cases.
Urticaria is a skin condition commonly known as hives. It produces an itchy rash that tends to come and go and can last for a variable period of time. The condition can be acute (lasting less than 6 weeks) or chronic (lasting longer than 6 weeks). Most cases of urticaria have no known cause.

“urticaria exercise induced -multivariant”

This type of hives can occur right away, precisely after a pressure stimulus or as a deferred response to sustained pressure being enforced to the skin. In the deferred form, the hives only appear after about six hours from the initial application of pressure to the skin. Under normal circumstances, these hives are not the same as those witnessed with most urticariae. Instead, the protrusion in the affected areas is typically more spread out. The hives may last from eight hours to three days. The source of the pressure on the skin can happen from tight fitted clothing, belts, clothing with tough straps, walking, leaning against an object, standing, sitting on a hard surface, etc. The areas of the body most commonly affected are the hands, feet, trunk, abdomen, buttocks, legs and face. Although this appears to be very similar to dermatographism, the cardinal difference is that the swelled skin areas do not become visible quickly and tend to last much longer. This form of the skin disease is, however, rare.[citation needed]
Pressure hives produces deep and painful local swelling. The swelling can occur immediately or several hours later. This type of urticaria can be triggered by prolonged sitting. It is also triggered but the wearing of tight clothing and consequently is seen in areas such as the waist/belt line, under elastic bands such as panties, socks or wristbands. Choosing appropriate clothing and/or taking regular breaks from sitting, usually controls pressure urticaria. If medication is needed, steroids are usually administered for a short time.
Urticarial vasculitis is a variant of cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. It is characterised by inflamed and reddened patches or weals on the skin that appear to resemble urticaria, but when the skin is examined closely under a microscope, a vasculitis is found (inflamed blood vessels).
Localized cold urticaria, in which only certain areas of the body urticate with cold contact, has been reported after predisposing conditions such as cold injury; it has also been reported at sites of intracutaneous allergen injections, ragweed immunotherapy, or insect bites.
Yet another consideration is if you have an allergy to latex because a number of foods are known to produce a cross-reaction. Foods on this list include avocado, bananas, chestnuts, kiwi, and passion fruit.
Chronic idiopathic urticaria is the most common type of CU, comprising up to 90% of all cases of CU. It has been estimated that chronic idiopathic urticaria will affect between 0.6% to 5% of the population during their lifetime. Over half of all cases of chronic idiopathic urticaria are thought to be caused by an autoimmune mechanism. This is supported by the observation that 60% of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria will have a wheal and flare reaction to intradermal autologous serum injections in the autologous serum skin test (ASST). Approximately 50% of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria have IgG antibodies that are specific for the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI). These autoantibodies activate mast cells in the skin, circulating basophils, and the complement system.  Additional immunological abnormalities described to play a causative role in CU include IgG antibodies directed against IgE antibodies and the low affinity IgE receptor (FcεRII), antiendothelial antibodies, and complement C8 alpha-gamma (C8α-γ) deficiency.
The overall prognosis in Urticarial Vasculitis depends on the severity of the disease and the amount of damage that has been done to organs, especially the lungs. The main risk to patients appears to be Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
In every medical reference, you would see them listing stress as one of the potential causes that can trigger hives or angioedema. Studies of groups of people suffering with different levels of urticaria have proven that stress can worsen hives and that it’s possible to get urticaria induced by stress.
Heat-induced urticaria:This is a common form of chronic urticaria (5-7%). It appears as small wheals (1-2 mm in diameter), with large areas of flares around it. It frequently involves the skin of the neck and chest. It is associated with increased body temperature, e.g., after exercise, hot showers and emotional stimuli.
The typical lesion is a central itchy white papule or plaque due to swelling of the surface of the skin (weal or wheal). This is surrounded by an erythematous flare. The lesions are variable in size and shape and may be associated with swelling of the soft tissues of the eyelids, lips and tongue (angio-oedema).
Food allergies that cause hives can include anything that you’re allergic to. The most common suspects are milk, nuts, peanuts, and shellfish. Less common allergies such as cheese, chocolate, eggs, garlic, melons, pork, spices, strawberries, and tomatoes may also be responsible.
Hives are welts on the skin that often itch. These welts can appear on any part of the skin. Hives vary in size from as small as a pen tip to as large as a dinner plate. They may connect to form even larger welts.
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Chronic urticaria and angioedema can affect other internal organs such as the lungs, muscles, and gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms include muscle soreness, shortness of breath, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Skin examination should note the presence and distribution of urticarial lesions as well as any cutaneous ulceration, hyperpigmentation, small papules, or jaundice. Urticarial lesions usually appear well-demarcated transient swellings involving the dermis. These swellings are typically red and vary in size from pinprick to covering wide areas. Some lesions can be very large. In other cases, smaller urticarial lesions may become confluent. However, skin lesions also may be absent at the time of the visit. Maneuvers to evoke physical urticaria can be done during the examination, including exposure to vibration (tuning fork), warmth (tuning fork held under warm water), cold (stethoscope or chilled tuning fork), water, or pressure (lightly scratching an unaffected area with a fingernail).
The stress and anxiety bought on by an attack of hives can be countered with herbal teas such as peppermint or chamomile tea. These teas also have sedative properties and can help soothe the pain and itching symptoms of hives. Other stress busting activities like yoga and meditation can also help.
This treatment is sometimes used in patients with severe vasculitis where antibodies in the blood are thought to be important in causing the disease. The treatment involves removing antibodies from the blood using a machine and returning the “cleaned” blood back to the patient. The treatment may necessitate giving blood products to the patient including plasma, albumin or immunoglobulin. It may also involve giving drugs to thin the blood and prevent it clotting in the machine.
That said, no two people respond to stressful events in the same way either. What may be a source of emotional excitement for you may cause fear for a friend. For instance, you may love to skydive on your weekend while your best friend cringes even thinking about flying in an airplane. That’s because we all perceive and respond to stressors differently. Again, it’s the inappropriate responses that influence your health and may influence your allergy symptoms.
Stress is your body’s response to situations, inside and out, which interfere with the normal balance in your life. Virtually all of the body’s systems — digestive, cardiovascular, immune, and nervous system — make adjustments in response to stress.
If any features of anaphylaxis (eg, hypotension, respiratory distress, stridor, gastrointestinal distress, swallowing problems, joint swelling, joint pain) are present, immediate medical intervention should occur. (See Physical Examination.)
Hives appear when histamine and other compounds are released from cells called mast cells, which are normally found in the skin. Histamine causes fluid to leak from the local blood vessels, leading to swelling in the skin.
The skin reaction usually becomes evident soon after the scratching, and disappears within 30 minutes. Dermatographism is the most common form of a subset of chronic hives, acknowledged as “physical hives”.[citation needed]
Cases of urticaria and angioedema can be acute, lasting less than 6 weeks, or chronic, lasting more than 6 weeks. The length of symptoms can often be a clue as to the cause of the symptoms. For example, the most common cause of acute urticaria and angioedema in children is viral infections.
Sometimes, a skin biopsy or blood tests are done to confirm that you had an allergic reaction, and to test for the substance that caused the allergic response. However, specific allergy testing is not useful in most cases of hives.
Allergic reactions, chemicals in foods, insect stings, sunlight, and medicines can make your body release a chemical called histamine. Histamine sometimes makes blood plasma leak out of small blood vessels in the skin, causing hives or angioedema.
When my son came in contact with caterpillars he would break out in giant hives all over his body. THANK GOD FOR THE SASAFRASS TREE!!! I would make him a cup of tea and within 30 minutes the hives disappeared completely when Benadryl never did. Can be bought at your local grocers.
There is just not enough evidence to support using antihistamines and playing roulette with your patient’s health,” he said, noting that the degree of disability, both socially and occupationally, that accompanies chronic urticaria is on par with that of a patient awaiting triple coronary bypass.
Drugs that have caused allergic reactions evidenced as hives include codeine, dextroamphetamine,[7] aspirin, ibuprofen, penicillin, clotrimazole, trichazole, sulfonamides, anticonvulsants, cefaclor, piracetam, vaccines, and antidiabetic drugs. The antidiabetic sulphonylurea glimepiride, in particular, has been documented to induce allergic reactions manifesting as hives. Drug-induced hives has been known to have an effect on severe cardiorespiratory failure.[medical citation needed]
No. Seriously, stress is a mental state. And we treat mental problems with mind treatment, not with supplements. This advice, unfortunately, fails to find and explain the real cause of your stress problem.
If your stress hives are accompanied by swelling of any part of the throat or face (see hives on face) that results in restricted breathing, seek treatment immediately from your nearest emergency room. Stress is bad enough, dying from not being able to get air into your lungs is a horrible way to go.
The band also won five prestigious Swedish Grammis for Tyrannosaurus Hives at the 23rd annual Swedish Grammis Awards, presented on 7 February 2005 for “Artist of the Year”; “Rock Group of the Year”; “Album of the Year”; “Producer of the Year” (with collaborator, Pelle Gunnerfeldt); and “Walk Idiot Walk” took home the MTV “Best Music Video” prize.[7][8]

“cholinergic urticaria treatment viral hives”

Certain foods or beverages, such as spoiled fish (scombroidosis), aged cheeses, or red wine, can contain histidine, which is closely related to histamine. These foods are often listed as causes of urticaria in the literature, but experimental evidence is scarce.
The rash appears rapidly, usually within a few minutes of sweating, and can last from 30 minutes to an hour or more before fading away. The mean duration is around 80 minutes. Typical signs and symptoms of the rash include:
Though we may not fight wild animals anymore, there are still “wild animals” facing us daily in the form of arguments, a phone that won’t stop ringing, and perpetually full in-boxes. Now when you add miserable allergy symptoms, you’ve got a recipe for disaster — unless you take time to do something for stress relief.
Urticarial vasculitis (also known as “chronic urticaria as a manifestation of venulitis”, “hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome”, “hypocomplementemic vasculitis” and “unusual lupus-like syndrome”)[1] is a skin condition characterized by fixed urticarial lesions that appear histologically as a vasculitis.[2]:834
Sil A, Tripathi SK, Chaudhuri A, Das NK, Hazra A, Bagchi C, et al. Olopatadine versus levocetirizine in chronic urticaria: an observer-blind, randomized, controlled trial of effectiveness and safety. J Dermatolog Treat. 2012 Nov 19. [Medline].
The medical term for hives is urticaria (ur-tih-CARE-ee-uh). When large welts occur deeper under the skin, the medical term is angioedema (an-gee-oh-eh-dee-ma). This can occur with hives, and often causes the eyelids and lips to swell.
Check CH50, C3, C4, Clq, and antibodies to Clq in urticarial vasculitis patients. If these test results are positive, evaluate renal function and urinalysis to check for the effects of vasculitis on the kidneys.
While avoiding these triggers could prevent hives from returning, Dr. Li says your doctor may be able to provide an antihistamine that could solve a weather- or temperature-based problem. That way, you can enjoy a hike on a sunny summer day or hold a cold can of beer on the weekend without worrying about a potential hives outbreak.
Acute hives can appear at any age, but they are most commonly seen in young adults. The rash has very itchy red areas with white raised central circles that resemble mosquito bites. If the welts grow very large, spreading and joining together or swelling downward deep into body tissue, then they are known as giant hives or angioedema. Angioedema is painful and unsightly, but it is not as itchy. With angioedema the eruptions become large enough to cause swelling of the eyelids, tongue, mouth, hands or feet. In severe cases, hives can be accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty in breathing, difficulty swallowing, digestive upsets and fever. Hives can occur internally to produce swelling of internal organs. .
If you have chronic stress or are experiencing symptoms that interfere with your life, or are causing frequent outbreaks of hives, it might be beneficial to talk to your doctor about medical treatments for stress. There are also a number of lifestyle changes you can make to help reduce overall stress.
My rash ravaged my body after the prednisone ended and I drank a glass of wine…. Big mistake. I thought it was poison ivy but nothing helps. I’m getting it yearly and it follows the nerve paths so if you have some helpful guidance I will check it out.
Hives, also known as urticaria, are a type of skin rash that are the result of an allergic reaction to a substance, called an allergen, in the environment. Although the cause of hives is not always known, they are often a response to the body releasing histamines, which it does when you have an allergic reaction to food, medicine, or other allergens. Histamine is also sometimes the body’s response to infections, stress, sunlight, and changes in temperature. Hives typically manifest as small, swollen, itchy, red areas on the skin that may occur singularly or in clusters. Left untreated, hives usually fade within a few hours, but new ones may appear in their place.[1] If you want to try to cure your hives at home, there are many different natural remedies to treat your hives.
Drugs that block histamine-1 (H1) receptors (antihistamines) are the primary treatment for urticaria. The use of both H1 and H2 receptor blockers has been recommended but has not been proven more effective. Patients should avoid identified allergens. Doxepin, calcium channel blockers, or immunosuppresive drugs may be needed for symptoms that are not well controlled with antihistamines. Known triggers of urticaria should be avoided.
The prognosis in acute urticaria is excellent, with most cases resolving within days. Acute urticaria usually can be controlled using only symptomatic treatment with antihistamines. If a known triggering factor is present, avoidance is the most effective therapy. Acute urticaria causes discomfort, but it does not cause mortality, unless it is associated with angioedema involving the upper airways. [25, 26, 27] If a patient continues to be exposed to a known trigger, the condition may become chronic.
Keep taking your allergy medications. While that may not sound like a stress-relief strategy, it might surprise you. Stress may cause anxiety and depression, says Marshall, and depressed individuals are less compliant with their medications. So stay on track!
Acute urticaria caused by SIgE against food protein antigens is often identified easily by the patient, particularly as there may be oral symptoms as the food is eaten and as repeated exposure to the foodstuff may lead to progressively more severe reactions, with angioedema and systemic symptoms [2,3]. However, it may be more difficult to identify the causative antigen if this is a contaminant in the food, such as a mould [4] or storage mite [5], or if there is an unexpected ingredient in the foodstuff and a detailed list of ingredients is lacking.
In patients with very severe acute urticaria, associated possibly with angioedema or systemic symptoms, a short course of oral steroids is indicated. Dose and duration of the treatment is determined by the patient’s weight and clinical response. Prolonged courses of oral steroids for chronic urticaria should be avoided whenever possible, and if long-term steroid treatment is considered necessary, the patient should be followed-up regularly and prescribed prophylactic treatment against steroid-induced osteoporosis at an early stage [56]. Oral steroids may be needed for urticarial vasculitis (see below) or severe delayed pressure urticaria.
Urticaria predominantly affects adult females and up to 20% of the population sometime in their life.  It presents as a diffusely raised itchy wheal and flare reaction which migrates over the skin surface. All forms of Urticaria may occur in association with deeper skin swelling or angioedema and equally, angioedema may occur in isolation with no apparent urticaria (when Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) due to a deficiency of the C1 Esterase inhibitor enzyme should be suspected).
68. Diav-Citrin O, Shechtman S, Aharonovich A, et al. Pregnancy outcome after gestational exposure to loratadine or antihistamines: a prospective controlled cohort study. J Allergy Clin Imunol. 2003;111:1239–43. [PubMed]
urticaria pigmento´sa  the most common form of mastocytosis, characterized by small, reddish brown macules or papules that occur mainly on the trunk and tend to urtication upon mild mechanical trauma or chemical irritation.
The clinical history should indicate if a vasculitic process is likely, with the lesions lasting for several days, instead of hours, and being painful or burning, instead of itchy. Patients should be asked about drug treatment and joint, gastrointestinal and pulmonary symptoms. Examination may show purpura or hyperpigmentation at the sites of earlier lesions and, possibly, signs of an associated underlying disease such as SLE. Investigations which may be relevant include skin biopsy to confirm the diagnosis; FBC and ESR; renal and liver function tests; urine analysis; complement C3 and C4 levels and anti-C1q antibodies; ANA and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) (often positive for Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B if the patient has Sjögren’s syndrome); hepatitis, Borrelia or Epstein–Barr virus serology; immunoglobulins and protein electrophoresis and cryoglobulins and chest X-ray (CXR) and pulmonary function tests if symptoms suggest lung involvement. [Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are rarely found in urticarial vasculitis and if ANCA testing is positive an alternative diagnosis such as Wegener’s granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis should be considered.]
Jump up ^ Tebbe, Beate; Geilen, Christoph C.; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Bojarski, Christian; Radenhausen, Michael; Orfanos, Constantin E. (1996). “Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic urticaria”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 34 (4): 685–6. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(96)80086-7. PMID 8601663.
Natural hives treatment can come in the form of a calming oatmeal bath. Simply a cup or two of uncooked oats into a stocking or cheesecloth. Tie it up with a rubber band so the oats can’t leak out. Put the oats under the running water as your bath fills up. Your bath will be infused with oatmeal’s skin-calming goodness. Oats are known for their ability to calm skin inflammation, thanks to their naturally high salicylic acid content. Taking an oatmeal bath for hives can help calm these unwanted eruptions for both adults and children. Just make sure the water is warm — not too hot or too cold — since temperature extremes can just make hives worse. (17)
Individual lesions are typically transient. They come and go within a few minutes to hours and precise questioning may be needed to establish this. If there is uncertainty about how long each lesion lasts, a line drawn around one lesion will demonstrate any change when inspected the following day. Individual weals may join to form large patches.
Insect venoms, animal danders and/or saliva, penicillin, protease enzymes in biological detergents [6] and latex proteins are other common causes of IgE-mediated urticaria, which again are often identified by the patient. Patients who are latex-protein allergic may also react to a wide variety of foods [7] (Table 2) because of cross-reactivity between the latex protein antigens and food antigens or, if they are highly sensitized, they may develop symptoms after eating foodstuffs which have been handled by workers wearing latex gloves [8].
Patients with urticarial vasculitis present with an urticarial eruption, often accompanied by a painful or burning sensation. Lesions are generalized wheals or erythematous plaques, occasionally with central clearing, lasting for more than 24 hours in a fixed location (in contrast to urticaria, which resolves in minutes to hours or migrates continually). Petechiae may be noted within the lesions, and they may resolve with ecchymoses or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Patients may have photosensitivity, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, angioedema (40%), fever, abdominal pain, dyspnea, and pleural and pericardial effusions.[4] Most cases of urticarial vasculitis are idiopathic.
In some people hives are caused by physical triggers, including cold (such as cold air, water or ice), heat, sunlight (solar), vibration, rubbing or scratching of the skin (dermatographism) and delayed pressure (such as after carrying heavy bags.  In other people, exercise (sweating), stress, alcohol, spicy food or coffee may cause symptoms.
Eczema is a general term for many types dermatitis (skin inflammation). Atopic dermatitis is the most common of the many types of eczema. Other types of eczema include: contact eczema, allergic contact eczema, seborrheic eczema, nummular eczema, stasis dermatitis, and. dyshidrotic eczema.
Clinical Context:  Although prednisone is most effective, adverse effect profiles preclude it from use as a first-line agent. Consider it only after failure of antihistamines, indomethacin, colchicine, dapsone, or hydroxychloroquine. Its effect on urticarial vasculitis likely is mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect. This class of medications decreases capillary permeability and inhibits the mitotic rate of lymphocytes.
Allergic reactions, particularly to foods and medications, are another common cause of acute hives. Allergies only cause about 5 percent to 10 percent of chronic hives cases. Pet allergies are usually to blame; pollen, mold, and dust mite allergies cause chronic hives only in rare instances.
The immune system normally protects us by making antibodies against foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses. These antibodies are called IgG and are often referred to as gammaglobulins. Usually, IgG is not formed to any normal body tissue but occasionally, by error, this does happen. If antibody binds to normal tissues it can cause damage to the body or create other disease symptoms. Rheumatoid arthritis is a good example of an autoimmune disease. Antibodies that react with body tissues are felt to contribute to joint swelling and pain. Many other common diseases are caused by autoimmunity such as juvenile diabetes and low thyroid disease.
In so many words, stress hives are caused by excessive stress. When you’re stressed out, your immune system is thrown off a little bit. In an effort to try to “fix” the problem (stress), your immune system sends out histamine. It’s as if your body becomes allergic to stress.Since histamine can’t cure stress, it causes your body to develop hives instead.
Acute urticaria is nearly always due to some defined exposure to a drug or physical stimulus or an acute infectious illness. However, the trigger is not always clear from the history, particularly because allergy may develop without warning to a previously tolerated substance.
Chronic urticaria (ordinary urticaria)[32] is defined as the presence of evanescent wheals which persist for greater than six weeks.[31] Some of the more severe chronic cases have lasted more than 20 years. A survey indicated chronic urticaria lasted a year or more in more than 50% of sufferers and 20 years or more in 20% of them.[33]

“hives on face -stress urticaria”

Try coleus forskohlii. Coleus forskohlii is a plant native to Southeast Asia that is used in Ayurvedic medicine. Studies have shown that it reduces the histamine and leukotriene release from mast cells when you get hives.[23]
The symptoms of a stress rash include red bumps and swollen areas on your skin that seem to appear randomly. Quite often, they are incredibly itchy and can also have a prickly or burning sensation when touched. Don’t scratch them! Don’t be surprised if your stress rash appears on your face, neck and chest, as that is where I get mine. Others get them on their arms and legs. Stress hives can be as small as a pencil eraser or as BIG as a dinner plate! Often the smaller hives meld with the bigger hives to make one big messy outbreak that looks absolutely terrible. However, with the right over the counter medication, like OxyHives, you’ll be able to get rid of them in no time.
Urticaria may be caused by other immediate hypersensitivity allergic reactions to an ingested, inhaled, or percutaneously inoculated substance (eg, latex, stinging insects, occupational exposures). See the following image.
Angioedema is a similar skin issue to hives, but it usually last longer than hives. Swelling is under the skin instead of on the surface. With angioedema, a person typically has deep swelling around the eyes and lips and, sometimes, of the genitals, hands and feet. In rare cases, angioedema of the throat, tongue, or lungs can block the airways, making it hard to breathe. This can be life threatening. (23)
Clinical Context:  Although prednisone is most effective, adverse effect profiles preclude it from use as a first-line agent. Consider it only after failure of antihistamines, indomethacin, colchicine, dapsone, or hydroxychloroquine. Its effect on urticarial vasculitis likely is mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect. This class of medications decreases capillary permeability and inhibits the mitotic rate of lymphocytes.
To calm hives and help them vanish that much quicker, make sure you’re not using any products on your body that will only make the inflammation and itching worse. You don’t want to be using anything harsh on your body right now. This includes soaps and other body care products, as well as the detergent you use on your clothing. Opt for natural products free of unhealthy synthetic fragrances and other aggravating ingredients. Another simple way to calm hives is to take a cool bath or shower. You can also use a cool compress on the hives to help relieve any itching. (16)
Another possible explanation for your stress hives is that due to your weakened immune system, your skin is reacting to irritants that it never had problems with before: cold, heat, soaps, shampoos, lotions, laundry detergents, certain fabrics, sunlight, etc. In fact, there are even doctors that specialize in stress hives, known as psychodermatologists. These specialists work with skin illnesses and stress, and strongly feel that emotions that have not been properly dealt with can induce a rash in patients and that these deep seated emotions are the major cause of chronic hives.
EU sometimes occurs only when someone exercises within 30 minutes of eating particular foods, such as wheat or shellfish. For these individuals, exercising alone or eating the injuring food without exercising produces no symptoms. EU can be diagnosed by having the patient exercise and then observing the symptoms. This method must be used with caution and only with the appropriate resuscitative measures at hand. EU can be differentiated from cholinergic urticaria by the hot water immersion test. In this test, the patient is immersed in water at 43 °C (109.4 °F). Someone with EU will not develop hives, while a person with cholinergic urticaria will develop the characteristic small hives, especially on the neck and chest.[citation needed]
a vascular reaction of the skin that is commonly immunologically based or may be due to direct exposure to a chemical. Marked by transient appearance of slightly elevated patches (wheals) which are redder or paler than the surrounding skin and often attended by severe itching; called also hives. The wheals may be in very large numbers, mostly over the body, 0.5 to 2 inches in diameter and there is no discontinuity of the epithelium. Called also nettle rash.
Hives frequently occur following an infection or as a result of an allergic reaction such as to medication, insect bites, or food.[2] Psychological stress, cold temperature, or vibration may also be a trigger.[1][2] In half of cases the cause remains unknown.[2] Risk factors include having conditions such as hay fever or asthma.[3] Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance. Patch testing may be useful to determine the allergy.[2]
The overall prognosis in Urticarial Vasculitis depends on the severity of the disease and the amount of damage that has been done to organs, especially the lungs. The main risk to patients appears to be Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
Urticarial vasculitis (also known as “chronic urticaria as a manifestation of venulitis”, “hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome”, “hypocomplementemic vasculitis” and “unusual lupus-like syndrome”)[1] is a skin condition characterized by fixed urticarial lesions that appear histologically as a vasculitis.[2]:834
If your hives last more than a month or if they recur over time, see an allergist, who will take a history and perform a thorough physical exam to determine the cause of your symptoms. A skin test and challenge test may also be needed to identify triggers.
Topical therapies for hives are available but are generally ineffective. They include creams and lotions which help numb nerve endings and reduce itching. Some ingredients which can accomplish this are camphor, menthol, diphenhydramine, and pramoxine. Many of these topical preparations require no prescription. Cortisone-containing creams (steroids), even strong ones requiring a prescription, are not very helpful in controlling the itch of hives.
The Food Standards Code requires that certain foods must be listed on the package of a food, or made known to the customer upon request. If you experience an allergic reaction to a known allergen not…
Question on Papular Urticaria: Is Urticaria & Papuller Urticaria the same? My 15 yr old sis is suffering from Papullar Urticaria since 2 yrs. We tried all medication including Allopathic (also Steroids), homeopathy. But no improvement. Pls suggest a remed
Jump up ^ Kaplan AP (2009). “What the first 10,000 patients with chronic urticaria have taught me: a personal journey”. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 123 (3): 713–717. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.10.050. PMID 19081615.
Urticaria due to the direct effects of physical forces on the skin. Cold temperature (cold urticaria), pressure (pressure urticaria), ultraviolet radiation (solar urticaria), and scratching (dermographism) are some causes of physical urticaria.
Sometimes hives go away on their own without treatment. Otherwise, hives can generally be treated at home. The most common treatment for hives is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine. Antihistamines can relieve symptoms like itching. You can find a great selection of OTC antihistamines here.
There are numerous possible causes of hives, as they occur when a chemical called histamine is released in the skin. This can happen as a result of allergies, insect bites or stings, infections, exposure to certain chemicals, sunlight, heat or cold, and in response to some medications (often antibiotics or painkillers). 
The presence of systemic symptoms could mean the urticarial rash is not ordinary urticaria,” he said, suggesting that vasculitis, Schitzler’s syndrome, adult-onset Still’s disease, an autoinflammatory syndrome, or urticarial dermatitis could be at play.
Glucocorticoids are often the treatment of choice. However, given their long-term adverse effect profiles, they are used only for significant cutaneous disease or systemic involvement. For long-term treatment, a combination of prednisone and another medication may be required.
Other forms of chronic urticaria include the physical urticarias, in which the rash is triggered by stimuli such as heat, cold, sunlight, pressure, and vibration. It is important to note that many forms of urticaria get worse with heat (such as from hot baths, exercise or wearing too much clothing) and pressure (such as around tight waistbands from clothing).
Omalizumab, or Xolair, is an injectable drug that blocks immunoglobin E, a substance that plays a role in allergic responses. It can reduce symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria, a type of hives of unknown origin that can last for months or years.
To diagnose chronic hives the doctor will first make sure that the hives are not caused by infection or an underlying disease state. However, in the evaluation of patients with chronic urticaria, it is their history which is the most important diagnosis tool. The physician will look for clues regarding drug or chemical exposure, changes in dietary habits, changes in personal habits, alterations in residence or place of employment. She/he will also look for a pattern such as: Is there a relationship to eating? Does the patient wake-up with hives? Are they as likely to occur at home as at work/school? Are weekends or weekdays different in any way? The physician will often place a patient with chronic on a diet to see if elimination of the hive-trigger will bring relief. It is important to see a doctor before going on an elimination diet. Systemic diseases should be ruled out with this appointment. Sometimes these diseases can cause hives that are painful or burning in nature.
The cold type of urticaria is caused by exposure of the skin to extreme cold, damp and windy conditions; it occurs in two forms. The rare form is hereditary and becomes evident as hives all over the body 9 to 18 hours after cold exposure. The common form of cold urticaria demonstrates itself with the rapid onset of hives on the face, neck, or hands after exposure to cold. Cold urticaria is common and lasts for an average of five to six years. The population most affected is young adults, between 18 and 25 years old. Many people with the condition also suffer from dermographism and cholinergic hives.[citation needed]
Small daily stressors like being late for work typically don’t cause you to break out. Otherwise you’d see a bunch of rash ridden people running around. People generally get stress hives from events like:
Steven A Conrad, MD, PhD Chief, Department of Emergency Medicine; Chief, Multidisciplinary Critical Care Service, Professor, Department of Emergency and Internal Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
In many cases, a single attack of hives is due to an infection or virus and these go away within a few days to a few weeks. Some people get repeated attacks that occur as an allergic reaction to a variety of things (foods, most commonly nuts, chocolate, fish, tomatoes, eggs, fresh berries and milk, insect stings, and medications). In this case, they usually break out within a few hours of the exposure. Usually, the patients figure out the cause by themselves, and they never bother coming to a doctor.
No. Seriously, stress is a mental state. And we treat mental problems with mind treatment, not with supplements. This advice, unfortunately, fails to find and explain the real cause of your stress problem.
Regardless of what causes your hives, most people find that OxyHives eliminates their hives symptoms and outbreaks faster than any other medication on the market. Please see our treatment options page for more information.
In this study 5 persons reported with lice and fleas (same species of parasites had been collected from the pigeons nest) and all of them had itching in their head and allergic urticarial reaction, Haag wackermagel (2004) has reported concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months.
A food allergy attack can last for quite a while as the allergen remains within your system and this increases the severity of the reaction. Drink plenty of fluids such as fresh fruit and vegetable juices as this will help to get rid of the allergen and reduce the recovery period.
Vital signs should note the presence of bradycardia or tachycardia and tachypnea. General examination should immediately seek any signs of respiratory distress and also note cachexia, jaundice, or agitation.

“cure urticaria +what can you do for hives”

If hives are making it difficult to sleep, then it may be necessary to see a physician. This would be especially important if you are taking nonprescription antihistamines. If your hives last longer than two months, it is also likely you will benefit from visiting a physician.
Chronic idiopathic urticaria is the most common type of CU, comprising up to 90% of all cases of CU. It has been estimated that chronic idiopathic urticaria will affect between 0.6% to 5% of the population during their lifetime. Over half of all cases of chronic idiopathic urticaria are thought to be caused by an autoimmune mechanism. This is supported by the observation that 60% of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria will have a wheal and flare reaction to intradermal autologous serum injections in the autologous serum skin test (ASST). Approximately 50% of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria have IgG antibodies that are specific for the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI). These autoantibodies activate mast cells in the skin, circulating basophils, and the complement system.  Additional immunological abnormalities described to play a causative role in CU include IgG antibodies directed against IgE antibodies and the low affinity IgE receptor (FcεRII), antiendothelial antibodies, and complement C8 alpha-gamma (C8α-γ) deficiency.
This is termed scombroid food poisoning. Ingestion of free histamine released by bacterial decay in fish flesh may result in a rapid-onset, allergic-type symptom complex which includes hives. However, the hives produced by scombroid is reported not to include wheals.[21]
42. Sabroe RA, Grattan CE, Francis DM, Barr RM, Kobza BA, Greaves MW. The autologous serum skin test: a screening test for autoantibodies in chronic idiopathic urticaria. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140:446–52. [PubMed]
Angioedema is a related condition (also from allergic and nonallergic causes), though fluid leakage is from much deeper blood vessels in the subcutaneous or submucosal layers. Individual hives that are painful, last more than 24 hours, or leave a bruise as they heal are more likely to be a more serious condition called urticarial vasculitis. Hives caused by stroking the skin (often linear in appearance) are due to a benign condition called dermatographic urticaria.
It is not clear from the question if the patient had febrile non-hemolytic reaction or urticarial reaction, since fever is described as the sign and symptom, while the patient had continuation of blood transfusion following medication with Benadryl (antihistaminic), which is usually given for an urticarial reaction.
Angioedema is swelling of the deeper tissue that sometimes occurs with hives. Like hives, angioedema can occur on any part of the body. When it occurs around the mouth or throat, the symptoms can be severe, including airway blockage.
Greenberger PA. Chronic urticaria: new management options. World Allergy Organ J. 2014 Nov 5;7(1):31. doi: 10.1186/1939-4551-7-31. eCollection 2014. Review. PubMed PMID: 25383135; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4223736.
For some, the culprit is obvious—they’ll eat a peanut butter cookie, for example, and immediately break out in a rash. For others, it’s not so cut and dry; symptoms can take several hours to develop. Either way, make an appointment with your doctor if you suspect you have a food allergy. Dr. Jaliman says you’ll likely be put on an elimination diet where you reintroduce one potentially triggering food every week. “Let’s say you’re not eating any of the hives foods and then you add back shellfish and you get the hives again. Then you can pretty much figure it out,” Dr. Jaliman says. After you determine the culprit, nix it from your diet to prevent mild symptoms from becoming chronic. Dr. Jaliman says you’ll likely be prescribed an EpiPen—if you accidentally ingest a trigger food, you could get hives in your throat, which can be dangerous. 
In every medical reference, you would see them listing stress as one of the potential causes that can trigger hives or angioedema. Studies of groups of people suffering with different levels of urticaria have proven that stress can worsen hives and that it’s possible to get urticaria induced by stress.
Urticaria, also known as hives, is an outbreak of swollen, pale red bumps or plaques (wheals) on the skin that appear suddenly — either as a result of the body’s adverse reaction to certain allergens, or for unknown reasons.
Drugs that can cause hives and angioedema include aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen, high blood pressure drugs (ACE inhibitors), or painkillers such as codeine.
Rosacea is another common skin condition. Depending on the type, it often causes small, red, sometimes pus-filled bumps to form on the skin. The skin can thicken in these areas. The rash typically covers the cheeks, nose, and forehead. But it can involve other areas of the face. These bumps may appear for weeks to months before disappearing and appearing again at a later time.
Other drugs such as Colchicine, Warfarin, Nifedipine, Dapsone, Methotrexate and Sulfasalazine have been used with some success reported in chronic urticaria. Auto-immune thyroid disease with associated urticaria may respond to oral Thyroxine supplementation even if normal thyroid function. Immune suppressive therapy such as Cyclosporin is effective but can cause serious side effects such as kidney damage and uncontrolled hypertension.  Oral Sodium Cromoglycate may benefit Food related Exercise induced Urticaria. Stress (public speaking, examinations, exercise and arguments) may trigger Cholinergic Urticaria and Propranolol will reduce symptoms.
Use rutin supplements. A number of herbs and supplements have natural anti-inflammatory activity. Rutin is a natural bioflavonoid found in citrus fruits and buckwheat. It can function to reduce inflammation and swelling by limiting the leakage from blood vessels.[15][16]
If these agents fail, colchicine, hydroxychloroquine, or dapsone may be effective. If all other treatment modalities have failed or if the patient has systemic involvement, consider initiating treatment with glucocorticoids. If the patient requires long-term treatment with corticosteroids, consider every-other-day dosing of the steroid or the addition of azathioprine as a steroid-reducing agent. Response to newer agents, including mycophenolate mofetil[20, 21] and rituximab, has been reported in the literature. Rituximab-based treatment can provide higher response rates compared with corticosteroids and conventional immunosuppressive agents, which supports its use in relapsing, refractory, or severe disease.[12]
When an allergic reaction occurs, the body releases a protein called histamine. When histamine is released, the tiny blood vessels known as capillaries leak fluid. The fluid accumulates in skin and causes a rash.
An easy natural cure for hives is to soak a ball of cotton wool in milk of magnesia and apply the lotion all over the rash. Milk of magnesia has alkaline properties that help in soothing the skin and reducing the pain as well. In place of milk of magnesia, you can apply vitamin E oil for the same results. Repeat this process at least twice to three times a day.
Hives, also known as urticaria, affects about 20 percent of people at some time during their lives. It can be triggered by many substances or situations and usually starts as an itchy patch of skin that turns into swollen red welts. The itching may be mild to severe. Scratching, alcoholic beverages, exercise and emotional stress may worsen the itching.
Urticaria results from the release of histamine, bradykinin, leukotriene C4, prostaglandin D2, and other vasoactive substances from mast cells and basophils in the dermis. These substances cause extravasation of fluid into the dermis, leading to the urticarial lesion. The intense pruritus of urticaria is a result of histamine released into the dermis. Histamine is the ligand for two membrane-bound receptors, the H1 and H2 receptors, which are present on many cell types. The activation of the H1 histamine receptors on endothelial and smooth muscle cells leads to increased capillary permeability. The activation of the H2 histamine receptors leads to arteriolar and venule vasodilation. [14, 15]
Winter is not exactly the most popular season, and with good reason for those who live with chronic hives: The cold can trigger a flare-up in some. Besides the weather, other cold-related triggers include chilly foods and swimming pools. For people who are allergic to the cold, full-body immersion in a swimming pool, in particular, can trigger a severe reaction that involves not just hives but allergic shock (anaphylaxis) and loss of consciousness.
If your GP thinks that it’s caused by an allergic reaction, you may be referred to an allergy clinic for an allergy test. However, if you’ve had urticaria most days for more than 6 weeks, it’s unlikely to be the result of an allergy.
Steven A Conrad, MD, PhD Chief, Department of Emergency Medicine; Chief, Multidisciplinary Critical Care Service, Professor, Department of Emergency and Internal Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Urticaria (or ‘hives’ or ‘nettle rash’) consists of blancheable, erythematous, oedematous papules or ‘weals’ (Fig. 1). These weals vary in size from 1 mm to many centimetres –‘giant urticaria’, and are usually intensely itchy. They are caused by vasoactive mediators, predominantly histamine, released from mast cells. In the vast majority of cases the weals are transient, lasting for only a few hours in any one place, but with new weals appearing in other places. This means that most urticarial rashes ‘move’ around the body – a useful pointer from the clinical history that the rash is urticarial. Urticaria is to be distinguished from ‘angioedema’, which is well-demarcated swelling, occurring within deep skin structures or in subcutaneous tissue (Fig. 2) and caused mainly by bradykinin production. Angioedema is not itchy, but may be painful. In about 50% of patients urticaria occurs alone; in about 40% of patients urticaria occurs with angioedema and in about 10% of patients angioedema occurs alone [1]. The aetiology of isolated angioedema is very often different from that of urticaria or urticaria with angioedema. The topic of isolated angioedema is to be reviewed in a further article in this series.
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Text: “Skin Conditions: Hives (Urticaria and Angioedema)”,- WebMD Medical Reference provided in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic,”Understanding Hives- Treatment”, – WebMD Medical Reference, “Allergic Reaction”- WebMD Medical Reference from eMedicineHealth

“autoimmune urticaria -hives treatment for adults”

Clinical examination may reveal urticaria, dermographism or angioedema or signs of a connective tissue disease or urticarial vasculitis, but it is often normal. Similarly, investigations are very often normal, particularly if there is a long history of urticaria, with no obvious triggering factors and if the patient is clinically well. Recent guidelines from the British Association of Dermatologists [44] and the British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology [45] suggest that investigations are not needed in all patients; however, individual patients may be reassured by a series of normal results. Depending on the clinical history, tests may include: full blood count (FBC) and differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), routine biochemistry, glucose, thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), immunoglobulins and protein electrophoresis, complement C3 and C4, cryoglobulins, SIgE tests, serology for infections, stool sample for ova, cysts and parasites and urine analysis (for evidence of infection or renal vasculitis). Further investigations may, of course, be required if the initial screening tests are abnormal. For example, the presence of a normochromic, normocytic anaemia, lymphopaenia and strongly positive ANA would prompt further investigations for SLE.
An unusual, but well-recognized non-IgE-mediated, food-related cause of urticaria is histamine poisoning, which occurs if food containing a very high content of histamine is eaten. The best-known example is ‘scombroid poisoning’ which is due to ingestion of scombroid fish (spiny-finned fish of the mackerel genus), such as tuna, mackerel and swordfish, which has not been stored properly and in which bacteria have decarboxylated histidine to produce histamine. (Ingestion of spoiled non-scombroid fish including herring, sardines and anchovies may also cause histamine poisoning.) Symptoms usually begin within 1 h of ingestion of the fish and patients develop urticaria and gastrointestinal symptoms. In severe cases there may be bronchospasm and hypotension [12,13].
Urticaria develops when histamine is released into the small blood vessels (capillaries). The capillaries dilate which causes a welt, and fluid oozes into the surrounding tissue, causing swelling. Histamine also causes intense itching. adam.about.net
If Aspirin & Salicylate intolerance is suspected then all forms of Salicylate including toothpaste, muscle rubs and peppermints should also be avoided. Aspirin sensitive individuals tolerate the newer Cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors or COX-2 anti-inflammatory (NSAI) medications such as Celecoxib and Meloxicam.
If you tend to break out in hives after eating shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, milk, and berries, then you may have a food allergy, says Debra Jaliman, MD, a New York City-based dermatologist and the author of Skin Rules.  
Food allergies that cause hives can include anything that you’re allergic to. The most common suspects are milk, nuts, peanuts, and shellfish. Less common allergies such as cheese, chocolate, eggs, garlic, melons, pork, spices, strawberries, and tomatoes may also be responsible.
Could you be allergic to your own sweat? Yes, says Dr. Anand. Although the cause of hives triggered by exercise is sometimes thought to be an increase of body heat, what actually triggers hives when you work out is sweat. Does that mean you should skip exercise if you have chronic hives? Not necessarily. Talk to your doctor if you suspect this may be one of your triggers — he or she may recommend taking a dose of antihistamine just before you exercise to help prevent a flare-up.
Hives frequently occur following an infection or a result of an allergic reaction such as to medication, insect bites, or food.[2] Psychological stress, cold temperature, or vibration may also be a trigger.[1][2] In half of cases the cause remains unknown.[2] Risk factors include having conditions such as hay fever or asthma.[3] Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance. Patch testing may be useful to determine the allergy.[2]
What we do know: hives, also known as urticaria, can appear anywhere on the body, including your face, torso, arms, legs, and even inside your mouth and ears. They may range in size from as tiny as a pencil tip to as large as a dinner plate. Hives typically crop up when you have an allergic reaction to a substance—pet dander, pollen, latex—triggering your body to release histamine and other chemicals into your blood. That’s what causes the itching, swelling, and other symptoms.  
Eileen Bailey is a freelance health writer. She is the author of Idiot’s Guide to Adult ADHD, Idiot’s Guide to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Essential Guide to Overcoming Obsessive Love and Essential Guide to Asperger’s Syndrome. She can be found on twitter @eileenmbaileyand on Facebook at eileenmbailey.
Significant amounts of most anti-histamines are secreted in breast milk, but cetirizine and loratidine are secreted at lower levels and therefore these drugs are recommended if anti-histamine treatment is necessary in a woman who is breast feeding. The lowest possible cumulative dose should be used. Chlorphenamine has been reported to cause poor feeding and drowsiness and should be avoided.
The Hives were featured in a Finish Line commercial performing “Tick Tick Boom”, as well as a Nike commercial featuring the song “Return The Favour”. “Tick Tick Boom” was also used in many different advertisements including: the 2007 season of the NFL Network, commercials for the CBS series Jericho, and the USA series Burn Notice, as well as the films Jumper (2008), MacGruber, and Get Smart, and was also the official theme song for WWE Survivor Series 2007. The Hives song “Try It Again” was featured in the trailer for the US film Get Him to the Greek.

“treatment of urticaria _chronic urticaria natural treatment”

Rubbing or scratching (simple dermographism). This is the most frequent cause of physical urticaria. Symptoms appear within a few minutes in the place that was rubbed or scratched and typically last less than an hour.
Allergic reactions to foods such as nuts, seafood (including fish), chocolate, berries and milk common causes of ordinary hives. Viral infections, insect bites and medications can also cause ordinary hives.
The cold type of urticaria is caused by exposure of the skin to extreme cold, damp and windy conditions; it occurs in two forms. The rare form is hereditary and becomes evident as hives all over the body 9 to 18 hours after cold exposure. The common form of cold urticaria demonstrates itself with the rapid onset of hives on the face, neck, or hands after exposure to cold. Cold urticaria is common and lasts for an average of five to six years. The population most affected is young adults, between 18 and 25 years old. Many people with the condition also suffer from dermographism and cholinergic hives.[citation needed]
What we are referring to is allergens, or substances that cause the body to react in the form of an allergic reaction. This reaction can take many forms from fever, to swelling, stuffy nose, and depending on the severity of the allergy, possible even death. However, for this purpose of this article, we are going to focus on one of the most common reactions to allergens, and that is hives.
Stress hives symptoms include red bumps and swollen areas on your skin that seem to appear almost out of nowhere. They are typically quite itchy and have been known to cause a prickly or burning sensation – especially if touched. Stress hives can appear on any part of your body (face, feet, arms, etc.) and can vary in size from as small as the eraser on a pencil to as large as a dinner plate. Stress hives, like a typical hives rash, have been known to spread from place to place, and smaller areas of hives can blend together to create larger areas known as plaques. These stress hives symptoms can easily be treated with the right over the counter medication.
Generally speaking, acute hives that occur as a result of eating certain foods appear within a few minutes to a few hours of eating the food. Reactions to medications may occur after the first dose, or not until it has been taken for a week or two.
The hallmark red raised welts of hives sometimes have a pale center, can appear in clusters, and can change shape and location in a matter of hours. They can be from a few millimeters wide to as big as a dinner plate, and can itch, sting, or cause a burning sensation.
If your hives case lasts less than 6 weeks it is called acute urticaria, and if it lasts longer than 6 weeks it is called chronic urticaria. In the latter cases, it is harder to figure out the cause of the hives. Up to 80% of all chronic urticaria cases are idiopathic in nature, meaning that the allergen is unknown.
Clinical Context:  Azathioprine is a purine precursor that affects the formation of adenine and guanine. This results in impaired DNA synthesis in immunocompetent cells such as lymphocytes, which are dividing rapidly during an inflammatory process. Azathioprine has a slow onset of action; it is rarely used as monotherapy.
Urticaria and Glutamine: i am suffering from urticaria for the last 6 months & i want to take Glutamine as a food supplement now . is it safe to consume glutamine while u hve problem of urticaria . will glutamine react with the allergy of urticaria?
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Some sources recommend supplements such as quercetin and evening primrose oil, and vitamin C, D and others. It is important to speak to a doctor before using supplements, as these can trigger adverse reactions.
Leukotrienes are released from mast cells along with histamine. The medications, montelukast and zafirlukast block leukotriene receptors and can be used as add on treatment or in isolation for patients with CU. It is important to note that these medications may be more beneficial for patients with NSAID induced CU.[42][43]
Anti-inflammation medications. Oral corticosteroids, such as prednisone, can help lessen swelling, redness and itching. These are generally for short-term control of severe hives or angioedema because they can cause serious side effects if taken for a long time.
Stress rash often takes the form of hives, or welts. Hives can appear anywhere on the body. Areas affected by hives are generally red, raised, and swollen. These blotchy areas can be as small as a pencil tip or as large as a dinner plate.
Angioedema is a related condition (also from allergic and nonallergic causes), though fluid leakage is from much deeper blood vessels in the subcutaneous or submucosal layers. Individual hives that are painful, last more than 24 hours, or leave a bruise as they heal are more likely to be a more serious condition called urticarial vasculitis. Hives caused by stroking the skin (often linear in appearance) are due to a benign condition called dermatographic urticaria.
Quercetin and evening primrose are two supplements for hives that will calm and get rid of your hives faster. (19) Quercetin is a natural antihistamine and an anti-inflammatory. Test tube studies have revealed that quercetin prevents immune cells from releasing histamines, which cause allergic reactions like hives. (20) Other studies have also shown that quercetin, a natural medicine and phytochemical, is as effective at fighting allergies as some prescription medications, all with little to no side effects. (21) Other supplement recommendations include vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D and fish oil. (22)

“urticaria que es -urtica urens”

Stress rash often takes the form of hives, or welts. Hives can appear anywhere on the body. Areas affected by hives are generally red, raised, and swollen. These blotchy areas can be as small as a pencil tip or as large as a dinner plate.
Early lesions show a perivascular neutrophilic infiltrate involving postcapillary venules. Leukocytoclasis is present, expansion of the vessel wall occurs, and the endothelium is intact. Eosinophils may be noted early. Fibrin deposition and extravasation of red blood cells ensue.
Codeine and other opiate-derived medications can cause degranulation of mast cells by stimulation of opiate receptors. Urticaria and angioedema can result from agents that alter the metabolism of arachidonic acid, such as aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These responses to NSAIDs have the potential to be fulminant with generalized hives and swelling. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), drugs used to treat hypertension, (eg, Captopril) can cause recurrent episodes of angioedema, but urticarial skin lesions are not observed. Because ACE normally inactivates bradykinin, the angioedema is thought to be due to elevated bradykinin levels causing dilation and leaking of vessels in deep layers of the skin. This is the most common cause of angioedema seen in emergency rooms. Tongue, throat and laryngeal swelling can be extremely severe and intubation may be necessary. The swelling resembles that seen in hereditary or acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency where bradykinin is also the mediator of swelling.
Unfortunately, stress and allergies go hand in hand, says Los Angeles-based ear, nose, and throat doctor, Murray Grossan, MD. Once the allergy season is full-blown, the combination of miserable allergy symptoms, nights of fitful sleep, and fatigue, definitely leave you in need of stress relief.
There are two types of hives – short-lived (acute) and long-term (chronic). Neither is typically life-threatening, though any swelling in the throat or any other symptom that restricts breathing requires immediate emergency care.
The very best way to get rid of stress hives is to remove as much stress from your life as possible. There are so many effective ways to reduce stress on a daily basis. Find what works best for you and make it a part of your routine. Exercise is always one of my stress boosters. Other great ideas for stress hives treatment, and hives treatment in general, include yoga, massage, journaling and prayer.
Physically induced hives and/or swelling share the common property of being induced by environmental factors such as a change in temperature or by direct stimulation of the skin by pressure, stroking, vibration, or light.
Urticaria develops when histamine is released into the small blood (capillaries). The capillaries dilate which causes a welt, and fluid oozes into the surrounding tissue, causing swelling. Histamine also causes intense itching. adam.about.net
Make a pineapple compress. Bromelain is an enzyme found in pineapples and can help reduce the swelling of hives. Crush some pineapple, either canned or fresh, and place it on a thin cotton towel. Pull the four corners of the towel together and tie them off with a rubber band. Place the damp, pineapple filled towel over the hives.
Hives are welts on the skin that often itch. These welts can appear on any part of the skin. Hives vary in size from as small as a pen tip to as large as a dinner plate. They may connect to form even larger welts.
Heat-induced urticaria:This is a common form of chronic urticaria (5-7%). It appears as small wheals (1-2 mm in diameter), with large areas of flares around it. It frequently involves the skin of the neck and chest. It is associated with increased body temperature, e.g., after exercise, hot showers and emotional stimuli.
It’s important that you talk to your doctor about your experience with CIU, sharing details about your symptoms. Think about your condition and write down what you are going through. In close partnership, you and your doctor can manage your disease together.
Unusual, recurrent, or persistent cases warrant further evaluation. Referral for allergy skin testing should be done, and routine laboratory tests should consist of CBC, blood chemistries, liver function tests, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Further testing should be guided by symptoms and signs (eg, of autoimmune disorders) and any abnormalities on the screening tests (eg, hepatitis serologies and ultrasonography for abnormal liver function tests; ova and parasites for eosinophilia; cryoglobulin titer for elevated liver function tests or elevated creatinine; thyroid autoantibodies for abnormal TSH).
Hives are a very itchy rash usually caused by an allergic reaction. Hives look like raised pink spots with pale centers on the skin. The spots range from 1/2 inch to several inches wide (hives often look like mosquito bites). The spots may be different shapes. The spots rapidly and repeatedly change in location, size, and shape. Giant hives are called angioedema. This can cause large swelling beneath the skin, especially of the face.
Italiano: Curare l’Orticaria in Maniera Naturale, Español: tratar la urticaria naturalmente, Português: Tratar a Urticária Naturalmente, Français: traiter l’urticaire naturellement, 中文: 自然地治疗荨麻疹, Русский: лечить крапивницу природными средствами, Deutsch: Nesselausschlag natürlich behandeln, Čeština: Jak vyléčit kopřivku přírodními metodami, Nederlands: Netelroos op natuurlijke wijze behandelen, العربية: علاج الشرى بعلاجات طبيعية, हिन्दी: शीतपित्त (urticaria या hives) का इलाज प्राकृतिक रूप से करें, Tiếng Việt: Trị chứng Phát Ban, 한국어: 두드러기 자연치유하는 법, ไทย: รักษาลมพิษตามธรรมชาติ
Patients with urticarial vasculitis present with an urticarial eruption, often accompanied by a painful or burning sensation. Lesions are generalized wheals or erythematous plaques, occasionally with central clearing, lasting for more than 24 hours in a fixed location (in contrast to urticaria, which resolves in minutes to hours or migrates continually). Petechiae may be noted within the lesions, and they may resolve with ecchymoses or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Patients may have photosensitivity, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, angioedema (40%), fever, abdominal pain, dyspnea, and pleural and pericardial effusions.[4] Most cases of urticarial vasculitis are idiopathic.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Jafilan, L; James, C (December 2015). “Urticaria and Allergy-Mediated Conditions”. Primary care. 42 (4): 473–83. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2015.08.002. PMID 26612369.
Food allergies that cause hives can include anything that you’re allergic to. The most common suspects are milk, nuts, peanuts, and shellfish. Less common allergies such as cheese, chocolate, eggs, garlic, melons, pork, spices, strawberries, and tomatoes may also be responsible.
11. Bosso JV, Simon RA. Urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis provoked by food additives. In: Metcalfe DD, Sampson HA, Simon RA, editors. Food allergy: adverse reactions to foods and food additives. 2nd. Cambridge: Blackwell Science; 1997. pp. 397–409.
If you have already been diagnosed with CIU, know that you are not alone. In the U.S., around 1.5 million people suffer from this form of chronic hives. Women are twice as likely to get CIU, and most cases appear between the ages of 20 and 40.
There are no routine diagnostic tests in chronic spontaneous urticaria apart from blood count and C-reactive protein (CBC, CRP), but investigations may be undertaken if an underlying disorder is suspected.
The Hives are a Swedish rock band that rose to prominence in the early 2000s during the garage rock revival. Their mainstream success came with the release of the album Veni Vidi Vicious, containing the anthem “Hate to Say I Told You So”. The band have been acclaimed by music critics as one of the best live rock bands in current music.[1][2]
I have heard of him before, but after watching the documentary “Last Days of Left Eye” I was turned on to the full story about Dr. Okaben He is a man who has the Cure for AIDS, Cancer, Sickle Cell, Herpes,warts,lupus, Diabetes and every kind of illness, through a whole foods vegetarian diet and natural herbs, what he calls Electric Foods. He never went to school, college or medical school but has thousands of testimonials of healing people with HIV and AIDS, Cancer and several other illnesses. Lisa “Left Eye” Lopes of TLC was cured of Herpes by him and she was so moved by his knowledge that she went on to spread the word about him in every way she could. She also opened a Cultural/Healing Center for Children in Honduras before she passed away tragically. This all inspired me that i had to contact Dr. Okaben, because i was having herpes which could not be cure but was only managed, when i contacted Dr. Okaben, he sent me some herbs which i took, and now i can tell you, i have be totally cured of Herpes, Please if you have any form of illness especially STD,hemorrhoids,Infertility,HIV etc. you can contact him on. Name: Dr. Okaben Email: dr.okabenherbalspell@gmail.com PHONE/WHATS APP : +(2349029519146)
Jáuregui I, Ortiz de Frutos FJ, Ferrer M, Giménez-Arnau A, Sastre J, Bartra J, Labrador M, Silvestre JF, Valero A. Assessment of severity and quality of life in chronic urticaria. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2014;24(2):80-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 24834770.
[Guideline] Magerl M, Borzova E, Giménez-Arnau A, Grattan CE, Lawlor F, Mathelier-Fusade P, et al. The definition and diagnostic testing of physical and cholinergic urticarias–EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/UNEV consensus panel recommendations. Allergy. 2009 Dec. 64(12):1715-21. [Medline].
Systemic cold urticaria yields severe generalized hive formation resulting from systemic cold challenge occurring over covered or uncovered parts of the body. Symptoms are unrelated to exercise or other activities, and the ice-cube test is negative.
Once it has been discovered that the anti-IgE Fc-receptor antibody is present in a patient’s blood, it is no longer necessary to look for any other cause for hives. Why this autoantibody triggers hives only intermittently is unknown. Many people with this autoantibody feel that their hives are more likely to occur when they are stressed. Some women feel that hormonal changes that occur just prior to their menstrual periods also trigger their hives. Some medications, especially aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil), or naproxsen (Aleve) are also more likely to trigger hives. However, Tylenol (acetominophen) does not usually trigger hives or swelling.
The most important part of the investigation of a patient with urticaria is to take a detailed history [43]. This should include structured questions about the many possible clinical causes of urticaria (see above); the frequency, timing and duration of attacks; whether the patient has developed more severe allergic symptoms such as angioedema or wheezing in association with the urticaria; and whether there are any symptoms suggestive of an underlying medical condition such as a connective tissue disease and/or urticarial vasculitis. Photographs may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and patients may have compiled a symptom diary, which is sometimes useful when trying to identify possible triggers for the rash.
Urticaria is the medical name for hives. These are welts; pink swellings that come up on any part of the skin. They itch and each individual hive lasts a few hours before fading away, leaving no trace. New hives appear as old areas fade. They can be pea sized or join to cover broad areas of the body. While the itch can be intense, the skin is usually not scabbed or broken. In some people the hives burn or sting.
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Stress is one cause that acute and chronic hives share. You may not feel particularly stressed, but your body may, especially if you are very busy. Keep in mind that life stressors may be either positive or negative. Your approaching wedding day may be as much to blame as trouble at work, for instance.
According to the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology, about half the cases of chronic idiopathic hives are due to immune systems that attack the body’s own tissues (also known as autoimmunity). Thyroid disease is the most commonly reported autoimmune condition in people with chronic hives, followed by rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. A study published in September 2013 in the European Journal of Dermatology found that celiac disease is also associated with chronic hives.
Urticaria is also known as ‘nettle rash’ or ‘hives’. This condition consists of wheals – spots or patches of raised red or white skin – each of which usually clears away in a few hours to be replaced by other fresh wheals. Urticaria is very common and affects one in five people at some point in their lives.  The more common type of urticaria rash (hives) lasts up to 24 hours, produces larger wheals and may not completely clear for several days.  It sometimes occurs together with swelling of various parts of the body (angioedema) – typically the face, hands and feet, although anywhere may be affected.

“allergic reaction welts |hives on torso”

Additionally, inflammatory diseases like rheumatic fever can affect the skin, as can pemphigoid, a rare rash that appears during pregnancy. A rare disorder, mastocytosis involves the mast cells, which are connected to allergies. Hives may also be caused by amyloidosis, polycythemia vera (bone marrow), or cholecystitis (gallbladder).
The symptoms of urticaria are often very obvious and this often has a negative impact on one’s social life. This in turn can cause a great deal of distress and anxiety which would only serve to aggravate the condition. You can consult your doctor for detailed advice on how to cure urticaria symptoms such as itching and inflammation. There are also several home remedies for hives that can be used to treat the condition as well as reduce the severity of the symptoms. While there is little supporting research to back up most of these home treatments, some of them are extremely effective. Treatment results could vary greatly however, and in some cases certain remedies may be ineffective. Exercise caution when using any these home treatments. These are some of the most effective home remedies for urticaria:
Significant amounts of most anti-histamines are secreted in breast milk, but cetirizine and loratidine are secreted at lower levels and therefore these drugs are recommended if anti-histamine treatment is necessary in a woman who is breast feeding. The lowest possible cumulative dose should be used. Chlorphenamine has been reported to cause poor feeding and drowsiness and should be avoided.
In Chronic Urticaria it is far more difficult to identify a specific cause and the actual trigger in over 50% of cases remains unknown (Spontaneous Urticaria).  We call this urticaria due to unknown cause Chronic “Idiopathic” Urticaria (CIU) or Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria (CSU). Chronic Urticaria may be triggered by generalised illnesses such as autoimmune thyroid disease, collagen joint and vascular disease, chronic parasitic infections, chronic sinusitis, urinary infections, Helicobacter pylori and chronic dental infections. About one third of cases are due to auto-antibodies directed against IgE or the Mast Cell IgE receptor.  Sometimes food additives and preservatives (Benzoate, Sulphites and Artificial dyes) can continuously trigger chronic urticaria, but true food allergy is unlikely to cause Chronic Urticaria.
Some patients can have both urticaria and angioedema, occurring simultaneously or separately. Approximately 50% of patients have both urticaria and angioedema, whereas 40% have urticaria alone, and 10% have angioedema alone. [24] Hereditary angioedema (C1 inhibitor deficiency) accounts for only 0.4% of cases of angioedema but is associated with a high mortality rate.
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Other common causes are food, medication, chemicals such as acetone, a polymer such as latex, an viral, fungal, or bacterial infection, pet hair or dander, plants, and physical stimuli such as pressure, temperature, and sun exposure.[5]
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For some, the culprit is obvious—they’ll eat a peanut butter cookie, for example, and immediately break out in a rash. For others, it’s not so cut and dry; symptoms can take several hours to develop. Either way, make an appointment with your doctor if you suspect you have a food allergy. Dr. Jaliman says you’ll likely be put on an elimination diet where you reintroduce one potentially triggering food every week. “Let’s say you’re not eating any of the hives foods and then you add back shellfish and you get the hives again. Then you can pretty much figure it out,” Dr. Jaliman says. After you determine the culprit, nix it from your diet to prevent mild symptoms from becoming chronic. Dr. Jaliman says you’ll likely be prescribed an EpiPen—if you accidentally ingest a trigger food, you could get hives in your throat, which can be dangerous. 
Acupuncture may help treat hives, but a systematic review published in 2016 concluded that “Acupuncture might be effective and safe for chronic urticaria in relieving symptoms, based on a low level of evidence.” The authors called for further studies to confirm findings.
Where possible, identify and treat the cause. Nonspecific aggravating factors should be minimised, such as overheating, stress, alcohol, caffeine and medication likely to cause urticaria (eg, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors). Topical anti-pruritic agents such as calamine lotion or topical menthol 1% in aqueous cream may help ease symptoms.
Diagnosis is based on characteristic patches in the skin. Sometimes a biopsy is ordered to show inflammation in the skin and damage of small blood vessels with white blood cells. Since it’s often associated with a number of different diseases, it’s often necessary to do other tests and exams to rule out underlying conditions like lupus erythematosus or cancer. Tests of vital organs may also be indicated, especially when the blood levels of complement are low.
The prognosis in acute urticaria is excellent, with most cases resolving within days. Acute urticaria usually can be controlled using only symptomatic treatment with antihistamines. If a known triggering factor is present, avoidance is the most effective therapy. Acute urticaria causes discomfort, but it does not cause mortality, unless it is associated with angioedema involving the upper airways. [25, 26, 27] If a patient continues to be exposed to a known trigger, the condition may become chronic.
Benadryl (diphenhydramine) is the most commonly used drug for hives, and is available without a prescription. The main side effect of this drug is drowsiness in some people. Other antihistamines (for example, store brands of any drug for hay fever) will also help. When you give Benadryl, give it 3 to 4 times a day until the hives are gone for 12 hours. Use the dosage given on the product.
Allergies to foods and soaps or detergents are often the first things that come to mind. While many people try to avoid these suspected triggers, they frequently find that it doesn’t help. You might be surprised to know that while allergies may be the problem, other causes are more common.
Your dermatologist may call this type of hives fixed, which means not moving. Fixed hives may happen when a person takes a certain medicine (fixed drug eruption) or gets too much sunlight (fixed solar urticaria).
In addition, it appears that a large percentage of people without an obvious trigger for chronic hives may actually have an autoimmune disease. With these conditions, the immune system attacks healthy tissue, including the skin. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and dermatitis herpetiformis (associated with celiac disease) are among those that may cause hives.
A complete patient history is the basis for treatment. In the history, ask for time of onset of the lesions; duration of the lesions (eg, >24 h); whether lesions are painful or burning, rather than pruritic; and the history of resolution with purpura or hyperpigmentation. Inquire about the patient’s medications, fever, arthralgia, dyspnea, abdominal pain, and symptoms of angioedema. Omalizumab has produced mixed results.[18, 19]
37. Sabroe RA, Fiebiger E, Francis DM, et al. Classification of anti-FcepsilonRI and anti-IgE autoantibodies in chronic idiopathic urticaria and correlation with disease severity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110:492–9. [PubMed]
Treatment guidelines for the management of chronic hives have been published.[37][38] According to the 2014 American practice parameters, treatment involves a step wise approach. Step 1 consists of second generation, H1 receptor blocking antihistamines. Systemic glucocorticoids can also be used for episodes of severe disease but should not be used for long term due to their long list of side effects. Step 2 consists of increasing the dose of the current antihistamine, adding other antihistamines, or adding a leukotriene receptor antagonist such as montelukast. Step 3 consists of adding or replacing the current treatment with hydroxyzine or doxepin. If the individual doesn’t respond to steps 1–3 then they are considered to have refractory symptoms. At this point, anti-inflammatory medications (dapsone, sulfasalazine), immunosuppressants (cyclosporin, sirolimus) or other medications like omalizumab can be used. These options are explained in more detail below.