“hives causes and treatment -chronic urticaria treatment”

Some sources recommend supplements such as quercetin and evening primrose oil, and vitamin C, D and others. It is important to speak to a doctor before using supplements, as these can trigger adverse reactions.
According to the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology, about half the cases of chronic idiopathic hives are due to immune systems that attack the body’s own tissues (also known as autoimmunity). Thyroid disease is the most commonly reported autoimmune condition in people with chronic hives, followed by rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. A study published in September 2013 in the European Journal of Dermatology found that celiac disease is also associated with chronic hives.
Saigal K, Valencia IC, Cohen J, Kerdel FA. Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis with angioedema, a rare presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus: rapid response to rituximab. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Nov. 49(5 Suppl):S283-5. [View Abstract]
Angioedema is a condition in which small blood vessels leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling. There is no known cure, but it may be possible to prevent the swelling with medications or occasionally diet. Allergy is a very rare cause of angioedema.
There are many patterns of hives with different underlying causes. In order to cope with urticaria, it is important to understand exactly which form of urticaria exists because the treatment is directly affected by the diagnosis. It is important to note that there are other skin conditions due to allergy, one of the most common being eczema or dermatitis. Moreover, allergic skin conditions are common and plague people the world over, but not all skin problems are allergic in origin. See a qualified medical physician for diagnosis and treatment.
59. Vena GA, Cassano N, Colombo D, Peruzzi P, Pigatto P NEO-I-30 Study Group. Cyclosporine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:705–9. [PubMed]
These red areas usually appear small, but can easily multiply and singular welts join together forming rashes. The area affected will be slightly elevated with a blanched center, especially when you press down your finger on the area of the rash. It is estimated that 20% of people will experience urticaria at some point in their lives. While it is common for the appearance of welts to form on the skin during an allergic reaction, it is also important to note that they can occur internally, which is why it is so important to speak to a doctor immediately, especially if you are unaware as to the cause of the reaction.
If the urticaria remains unresponsive to high-dose H1 anti-histamines, H2 anti-histamine treatment, at standard dosage, may be added. This is an off-licence use of these drugs, but there is evidence that combined H1 and H2 anti-histamine treatment gives better symptom control than H1 anti-histamine treatment alone [52,53]. Unlike cimetidine, ranitidine does not inhibit oxidative hepatic drug metabolism and so has less potential to cause drug interactions.
This page contains information about urticaria (hives) and other skin conditions such as angioedema. You can also find information about symptoms and treatment for urticaria and angioedema on our downloadable Factsheet area.
Biopsy of urticaria can be non-specific and difficult to interpret. The pathology shows oedema in the dermis and dilated blood vessels, with variable mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Vessel-wall damage indicates urticarial vasculitis.
Examination of bedding and the children’s play areas for insects may provide a clue to the cause. If insects are found, they must be eliminated by insect repellant or fumigation, and pets should be washed. These bugs are usually not visible to the naked eye. Hanging the bedding in the hot sun may rid these of the bedbugs.
Try deep breathing techniques. Deep breathing techniques have been shown to help reduce stress. Start by lying flat on your back. Use pillows under your knees and neck to make sure you are comfortable. Put your hands, palm down, on your stomach right below the rib cage. Place the fingers of your hands together so you can feel them separate and know you are doing the exercise correctly. Take a long, slow deep breath by expanding your belly, breathing like a baby breathes, meaning from the diaphragm. Your fingers should separate as they lie on your belly.
If you have chronic stress or are experiencing symptoms that interfere with your life, or are causing frequent outbreaks of hives, it might be beneficial to talk to your doctor about medical treatments for stress. There are also a number of lifestyle changes you can make to help reduce overall stress.
Up to 20% of people will develop hives at some time during their life.  In most cases, hives are not due to allergy. Underneath the lining of the skin and other body organs (including the stomach, lungs, nose and eyes) are mast cells. Mast cells contain chemicals including histamine. When these are released into the skin they irritate nerve endings to cause local itch and irritation and make local blood vessels expand and leak fluid, triggering redness and swelling.
Benadryl (diphenhydramine) is the most commonly used drug for hives, and is available without a prescription. The main side effect of this drug is drowsiness in some people. Other antihistamines (for example, store brands of any drug for hay fever) will also help. When you give Benadryl, give it 3 to 4 times a day until the hives are gone for 12 hours. Use the dosage given on the product.
Applying a cold compress to the affected areas of skin can offer some relief from pain and itching. Cooling the skin can decrease the swelling and reduce the histamine content in the bloodstream. Avoid hot baths and showers during an attack of hives as this dilates blood vessels and increases the skin flare up. Stay away from direct sunlight as well as this can aggravate a hives attack.

“food hive -hives on lips”

Oral glucocorticoids are effective in controlling symptoms of chronic hives however they have an extensive list of adverse effects such as adrenal suppression, weight gain, osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, etc. Therefore, their use should be limited to a couple of weeks. In addition, one study found that systemic glucocorticoids combined with antihistamines did not hasten the time to symptom control compared with antihistamines alone.[41]
The rash usually appears suddenly and can affect any area of skin. Small raised areas called weals (or wheals) develop on the skin. The weals look like mild blisters and they are itchy. Each weal is white or red and is usually surrounded by a small red area of skin, which is called a flare. The weal and flare rash of hives looks similar to the rash caused by a nettle sting.
Your doctor may prescribe a cream or antihistamines to help with the itching. Good skin care is essential for prevention of an infection. For isolated or minor infected lesions, an antiseptic e.g. betadine can be applied. However, antibiotics may be necessary for severe or extensive infection.
Sil A, Tripathi SK, Chaudhuri A, Das NK, Hazra A, Bagchi C, et al. Olopatadine versus levocetirizine in chronic urticaria: an observer-blind, randomized, controlled trial of effectiveness and safety. J Dermatolog Treat. 2012 Nov 19. [Medline].
Many parents wait to give the antihistamine until new hives have appeared. This means your child will become itchy again. The purpose of the medicine is to keep your child comfortable until the hives go away. Therefore, give the medicine regularly until you are sure the hives are completely gone.
Stephen C Dreskin, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, Clinical Immunology Society, and Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology
Image Source: Fitzpatrick’s Color Atlas & Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology Klaus Wolff, Richard Allen Johnson, Dick Suurmond Copyright 2005, 2001, 1997, 1993 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved.
Clinical Context:  Hydroxyzine antagonizes H1 receptors in the periphery. It may suppress histamine activity in the subcortical region of the CNS. Hydroxyzine can be used for symptomatic control. The recommended antihistamine for pregnant patients is diphenhydramine. Hydroxyzine has been used safely in children.
Some people find it relaxing to engage in a hobby, others find spending time with a pet, drawing, painting or writing is helpful. Experiment with different activities, paying attention to how you feel after participating. Then, make sure to include time each day for those activities that make you feel more relaxed.
Many antihistamines are available without prescription, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), taken in doses of milligrams, and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), taken in a dose of 4 milligrams. These can be taken up to three times a day, but because these medications can cause drowsiness, they are often taken at bedtime. Those who take them should be especially careful and be sure they are fully alert before driving or participating in other activities requiring mental concentration.
The rash appears rapidly, usually within a few minutes of sweating, and can last from 30 minutes to an hour or more before fading away. The mean duration is around 80 minutes. Typical signs and symptoms of the rash include:
Jump up ^ Tebbe, Beate; Geilen, Christoph C.; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Bojarski, Christian; Radenhausen, Michael; Orfanos, Constantin E. (1996). “Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic urticaria”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 34 (4): 685–6. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(96)80086-7. PMID 8601663.
Acute – if it develops suddenly and lasts less than six weeks. Most cases last 24-48 hours. In some cases the rash only lasts a few hours. About 1 in 6 people will have at least one bout of hives in their lives. It can affect anyone at any age. Some people have recurring bouts of acute hives.
Acute urticaria, which is an allergic (IgE-mediated) reaction, is common in both children and adults. This type of urticaria is a self-limiting process that occurs when mast cells in the skin are activated, degranulate, and secrete histamine, leukotrienes, platelet activating factor (PAF), enzymes such as tryptase and chymase, cytokines, and chemotactic cytokines (chemokines). When an allergen (for example, a food) to which the person is allergic arrives via the bloodstream to mast cells in the skin, it binds to the IgE, and the mast cells become activated, and degranulate. Allergens that can result in acute urticaria include foods, drugs (particularly antibiotics such as penicillin), and venoms from bee, wasp, yellow jacket, hornet, or fire ants. Virtually any allergen that can be disseminated throughout the body, and to which there is an IgE response, has the potential to cause generalized urticaria.
Pityriasis rosea typically fades without treatment in six to eight weeks. During this time, you can use an OTC anti-itch medication, like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) or cetirizine (Zyrtec) to ease your symptoms.
This document has been developed and peer reviewed by ASCIA members and is based on expert opinion and the available published literature at the time of review.  Information contained in this document is not intended to replace medical advice and any questions regarding a medical diagnosis or treatment should be directed to a medical practitioner. Development of this document is not funded by any commercial sources and is not influenced by commercial organisations.
Swellings, known as wheals, appear as a rash on the skin. They are usually pink or red, with an oval or round shape. They can range from a few millimeters to several inches across. They can be extremely itchy, and they have a red flare around them.
An unusual, but well-recognized non-IgE-mediated, food-related cause of urticaria is histamine poisoning, which occurs if food containing a very high content of histamine is eaten. The best-known example is ‘scombroid poisoning’ which is due to ingestion of scombroid fish (spiny-finned fish of the mackerel genus), such as tuna, mackerel and swordfish, which has not been stored properly and in which bacteria have decarboxylated histidine to produce histamine. (Ingestion of spoiled non-scombroid fish including herring, sardines and anchovies may also cause histamine poisoning.) Symptoms usually begin within 1 h of ingestion of the fish and patients develop urticaria and gastrointestinal symptoms. In severe cases there may be bronchospasm and hypotension [12,13].
NUV is diagnosed where a patient has the main symptoms of Urticarial Vasculitis combined with normal levels of C1q complements. NUV is generally the least severe form of Urticarial Vasculitis. It is less likely to be associated with any other symptoms.
Urticaria is a skin condition commonly known as hives. It produces an itchy rash that tends to come and go and can last for a variable period of time. The condition can be acute (lasting less than 6 weeks) or chronic (lasting longer than 6 weeks). Most cases of urticaria have no known cause.
Antileukotrienes (eg, montelukast), which may provide additional benefit in some selected patients when combined with an H1 antihistamine; there is little evidence that they are effective as monotherapy.
An eruption of itching wheals, usually of systemic origin; it may be due to a state of hypersensitivity to foods or drugs, foci of infection, physical agents (e.g., exercise, heat, cold, light, friction), or psychic stimuli.
Acute urticaria and/or angioedema are hives or swelling lasting less than 6 weeks. The most common causes are foods, medicines, latex, and infections. Insect bites or a disease may also be responsible.
Psoriasis is a buildup of too many skin cells that form silvery, scaly patches on the body. It’s caused by inflammation, which can be fueled by stress. That’s why people with psoriasis often get flare-ups when they’re tense.
However, says Anand, “we don’t know if the disease causes urticaria or if the person’s propensity to have an autoimmune reaction causes it. But if we don’t find any triggers when we test for allergens, then we look for an underlying infection or autoimmune disease.” Anand adds that treatment for that condition can help clear the hives.
As far as the physical symptoms, you’ll see red bumps and swelling of the skin. They can develop anywhere on your body and be any size. Some people get breakouts as small as a penny, others get stress hives the size of a dinner plate or larger. Urticaria also has a tendency to spread around your body when you leave it untreated which is why you shouldn’t ignore it.
Hives — also known as urticaria (ur-tih-KAR-e-uh) — is a skin reaction that causes itchy welts, which can range in size from small spots to large blotches several inches in diameter. Hives can be triggered by exposure to certain foods, medications or other substances.
Previous studies varied in their definitions of the condition. However, when a study in the United Kingdom used consistent criteria restricted to patients diagnosed with vasculitis by biopsy and with urticarial lesions of more than 3 months duration, 2.1% of 1310 patients with urticaria were found to have urticarial vasculitis.
Italiano: Curare l’Orticaria in Maniera Naturale, Español: tratar la urticaria naturalmente, Português: Tratar a Urticária Naturalmente, Français: traiter l’urticaire naturellement, 中文: 自然地治疗荨麻疹, Русский: лечить крапивницу природными средствами, Deutsch: Nesselausschlag natürlich behandeln, Čeština: Jak vyléčit kopřivku přírodními metodami, Nederlands: Netelroos op natuurlijke wijze behandelen, العربية: علاج الشرى بعلاجات طبيعية, हिन्दी: शीतपित्त (urticaria या hives) का इलाज प्राकृतिक रूप से करें, Tiếng Việt: Trị chứng Phát Ban, 한국어: 두드러기 자연치유하는 법, ไทย: รักษาลมพิษตามธรรมชาติ
Vicki Lawrence is no stranger to being quick on her feet and playing off improv lines on stage. But when she was diagnosed with this form of chronic hives without a known cause, she was caught off-guard.
“My allergist tested me for everything but we still couldn’t figure out a cause for the hives. It was so frustrating to keep searching for a cause. And as much as I was seeking answers, I wasn’t getting any, and wasn’t getting any relief either. Weeks passed, but the hives didn’t. Friends and family offered suggestions and their own explanations but they didn’t understand what I was going through.
Chronic hives may be treated with antihistamines or a combination of medications. When antihistamines don’t provide relief, oral corticosteroids may be prescribed. A biologic drug, omalizumab (Xolair), is also approved to treat chronic hives in those at least 12 years of age.
Clinical examination may reveal urticaria, dermographism or angioedema or signs of a connective tissue disease or urticarial vasculitis, but it is often normal. Similarly, investigations are very often normal, particularly if there is a long history of urticaria, with no obvious triggering factors and if the patient is clinically well. Recent guidelines from the British Association of Dermatologists [44] and the British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology [45] suggest that investigations are not needed in all patients; however, individual patients may be reassured by a series of normal results. Depending on the clinical history, tests may include: full blood count (FBC) and differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), routine biochemistry, glucose, thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), immunoglobulins and protein electrophoresis, complement C3 and C4, cryoglobulins, SIgE tests, serology for infections, stool sample for ova, cysts and parasites and urine analysis (for evidence of infection or renal vasculitis). Further investigations may, of course, be required if the initial screening tests are abnormal. For example, the presence of a normochromic, normocytic anaemia, lymphopaenia and strongly positive ANA would prompt further investigations for SLE.
EU sometimes occurs only when someone exercises within 30 minutes of eating particular foods, such as wheat or shellfish. For these individuals, exercising alone or eating the injuring food without exercising produces no symptoms. EU can be diagnosed by having the patient exercise and then observing the symptoms. This method must be used with caution and only with the appropriate resuscitative measures at hand. EU can be differentiated from cholinergic urticaria by the hot water immersion test. In this test, the patient is immersed in water at 43 °C (109.4 °F). Someone with EU will not develop hives, while a person with cholinergic urticaria will develop the characteristic small hives, especially on the neck and chest.[citation needed]

“cure for hives +hives all over body”

Chronic urticaria and/or angioedema are hives or swelling that lasts more than 6 weeks. The cause is usually harder to find than in acute cases. The causes can be similar to those of acute urticaria but can also include your immune system, chronic infections, hormonal disorders, and tumors.
If you have a bad allergic reaction, like shortness of breath, talk to your doctor about a prescription medicine called an “auto-injector.” This medicine stops the allergic reaction when you inject it into your thigh. Follow your doctor’s advice on how to use this medicine.
Other forms of chronic urticaria include the physical urticarias, in which the rash is triggered by stimuli such as heat, cold, sunlight, pressure, and vibration. It is important to note that many forms of urticaria get worse with heat (such as from hot baths, exercise or wearing too much clothing) and pressure (such as around tight waistbands from clothing).
© 2004-2018 All rights reserved. MNT is the registered mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.
Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the low flow of blood through the arteries and veins. Some of the symptoms of low blood pressure include:
If you have chronic hives, it’s important to try to identify your triggers, if possible, and take steps to avoid them so you can lower the risk of an exacerbation. While you may already be aware of common triggers, such as allergies to pollen, pet dander, and shellfish, here are some lesser-known triggers of chronic hives:
[Guideline] Magerl M, Borzova E, Gimrnez-Arnau A, Grattan CE, Lawlor F, Mathelier-Fusade P, et al. The definition and diagnostic testing of physical and cholinergic urticarias–EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/UNEV consensus panel recommendations. Allergy. 2009 Dec. 64(12):1715-21. [Medline].
^ Jump up to: a b Kozel, Martina M.A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; Mekkes, Jan R.; Bos, Jan D. (2003). “Laboratory tests and identified diagnoses in patients with physical and chronic urticaria and angioedema: A systematic review”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 48 (3): 409–16. doi:10.1067/mjd.2003.142. PMID 12637921.
A single hive generally fades in about 24 hours. But new hives may form as old hives disappear. If you have multiple hives, you may experience these symptoms for about 6 weeks. This is considered a bout of acute hives.
Angioedema, on the other hand, is usually not red or itchy, but tends to sting and burn, and can be described as “numbness.” This swelling can be severe, and if it affects a person’s ability to breathe, can be life-threatening.
According to the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology, about half the cases of chronic idiopathic hives are due to immune systems that attack the body’s own tissues (also known as autoimmunity). Thyroid disease is the most commonly reported autoimmune condition in people with chronic hives, followed by rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. A study published in September 2013 in the European Journal of Dermatology found that celiac disease is also associated with chronic hives.
When an allergic reaction occurs, the body releases a protein called histamine. When histamine is released, the tiny blood vessels known as capillaries leak fluid. The fluid accumulates in the skin and causes a rash.
Acute hives can be related to other infections such as strep throat, athlete’s foot, mononucleosis, and coxsackie viruses. Though they’re not viral infections, both intestinal worms and malaria can also cause urticaria.
If you’ve contracted a virus, that could be a cause for hives as well. Dr. Li says hives caused by viruses typically last for six weeks, so if your rash persists for longer, see an allergist to determine another possible cause.
Symptoms of chronic urticaria usually resolve, although this can take months or several years. Most people with chronic urticaria manage with appropriate doses of non-drowsy antihistamines. People with severe symptoms interfering with quality of life may be referred to a clinical immunology/allergy specialist or dermatologist for assessment and consideration of additional medications.
urticaria pigmento´sa  the most common form of mastocytosis, characterized by small, reddish brown macules or papules that occur mainly on the trunk and tend to urtication upon mild mechanical trauma or chemical irritation.
This means there is no explanation for what’s causing it. This can be difficult for some people to accept when they receive the CIU diagnosis from their doctor. Because these chronic hives symptoms come and go without a known cause, many who have been diagnosed with CIU continue to look for possible triggers for their disease. This can turn into a cycle of elimination diets, changing of detergents and other changes in addition to tests for allergies – none of which prove to be the cause of these patients’ hives.
A number of drugs, such as aspirin, NSAIDs, opiates, succinylcholine, and certain antibiotics (eg, polymyxin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, vancomycin, some beta-lactams) can cause urticaria by a nonallergic mechanism rather than by IgE-mediated hypersensitivity.
If you have a severe episode of hives then you may be referred to a specialist. Skin specialists (called dermatologists) or allergy specialists (called immunologists) may be able to help. In particular, if angio-oedema or anaphylaxis occurred at the same time, you would be referred or admitted to hospital. This is to reverse the reaction quickly. It is also to confirm the diagnosis and, where possible, to identify a cause. For example, if a nut allergy is suspected to have caused a severe episode then this can confirmed by tests. You may then be given advice on how to avoid the cause and on what to do if it should occur again.
This nonsteroidal treatment option is taken orally. These drugs should be used only after steroid treatment and antihistamines have been unsuccessful. Common side effects are headache, stomach upset, cough, and a low fever.
Further investigation may find associated diseases. Laboratory studies may include renal function and immunological status. Chest x-ray should be performed in patients with hypocomplementaemia and breathing problems.
Some doctors suggest that medications should be continued for long periods – perhaps even a month after the hives have disappeared. Again, the exception to this is the cortisone/steroid-type medications, which should only be used for short periods initially to quiet down the urticaria. Remember that one must work closely with their doctor to find a medication regimen that suppresses the hives until they resolve on their own.
Despite the reputation of hives being an “allergic” condition, there is often no obvious connection to any provoking substance. In this situation, random allergy testing is not usually helpful. If you know what is causing your hives, then avoiding the cause, if possible.

“autoimmune chronic urticaria +urticaria reaction”

The following pictures are from other people that got a rash from stress. While a stress rash is very common, it is not an incurable condition. So if you are wondering “can anxiety cause a rash?” the answer is yes, and the solution is OxyHives. If none of these pictures look like your stress related rash, please keep in mind that everyone’s rash will look differently depending on various other factors.
Significant amounts of most anti-histamines are secreted in breast milk, but cetirizine and loratidine are secreted at lower levels and therefore these drugs are recommended if anti-histamine treatment is necessary in a woman who is breast feeding. The lowest possible cumulative dose should be used. Chlorphenamine has been reported to cause poor feeding and drowsiness and should be avoided.
If you want to remove stress hives from your life forever, then all you need to do is remove all the stress and anxiety form your life. If only it were that easy, right? As I discovered from my dermatologist, the only treatment that will make your stress bumps go away for good is OxyHives. It takes 1-2 hours, but it works for me each and every time. With 2 small kids, I may not be able to remove all the stress form my life, but at least I can remove the rash and hives that appear when I get stressed out. Learn more about OxyHives and how to get rid of your hives fast at http://www.hives.org/how-to-get-rid-o…
They also play a central role in allergy. Mast cells contain sacks filled with chemicals, including histamine. These chemicals are released in response to certain external triggers, e.g., allergens, physical causes. Some individuals’ mast cells are unstable and cause urticaria without being triggered by an external factor. When these chemicals are released in small amounts, they cause local itch, irritation and redness of the overlying skin. In larger they will cause fluid to leak out of blood vessels, resulting in swelling of the skin. When released in massive amounts, it may result in shock (anaphylaxis).
Diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren’s syndrome may be associated with chronic urticaria, a cryoglobulin-related urticaria or urticarial vasculitis (see below). There is an increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with chronic urticaria, particularly those with histamine-releasing autoantibodies –‘autoimmune urticaria’ (see below) [29,30]. Patients are usually clinically euthyroid, but both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism [31] may present with urticaria. Although there are case reports of urticaria associated with malignancy, a study of more than 1000 patients showed no association between chronic urticaria and malignancy [32]. In contrast, urticarial vasculitis may sometimes occur in patients with lymphoproliferative disease (see below).
Gregory J Raugi, MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of Washington at Seattle School of Medicine; Chief, Dermatology Section, Primary and Specialty Care Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center of Seattle
4. Rockwell WJ. Reactions to molds in foods. In: Chiaramonte LT, Schneider AT, Lifshitz F, editors. Food allergy: a practical approach to diagnosis and management. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1988. pp. 153–70.
“This subset — about 30 percent of patients who have been diagnosed with idiopathic urticaria — is the group in which we most often look to psychological factors for an explanation,” she says. “Many dermatologists will agree that it is not uncommon to see chronic idiopathic urticaria arising after a major life stressor, or for patients who are most impaired by urticaria to be those with more limited stress management skills.”
Previous studies have sought to determine the different types of stress that worsened symptoms in people with chronic hives. One study found that 16 percent of the people studied experienced a stressful event within one year before the onset or worsening of their hives.
People who don’t respond to the maximum dose of H1 antihistamines may benefit from increasing the dose, then to switching to another non-sedating antihistamine, then to adding a leukotriene antagonist, then to using an older antihistamine, then to using systemic steroids and finally to using ciclosporin or omalizumab.[39]
Both urticaria and angioedema are a result of histamine and other chemicals released from mast cells in the skin and mucous membranes. This may occur through an allergic process or one in which mast cells release chemicals without IgE being involved.
1. Mint juice in small quantity of water without any additives to be taken twice a day. In winter, mint leaves can be boiled, water thereafter can be drunk. 2. 5 Gms of Soda Bicarbonate (cooking soda) dissolved in ordinary water at room temperature, can be applied to affected areas.
Getting to the bottom of what caused your hives is not easy and it’s possible that you may never know. However, it’s also likely that you can check many of these known causes off your list of potential triggers. Since most cases have no known cause, what is important is properly treating hives, which is typically done with done with antihistamines.
Complement-mediated urticarias include viral and bacterial infections, serum sickness, and transfusion reactions. Urticarial transfusion reactions occur when allergenic substances in the plasma of the donated blood product react with preexisting IgE antibodies in the recipient. Certain drugs (opioids, vecuronium, succinylcholine, vancomycin, and others) as well as radiocontrast agents cause urticaria due to mast cell degranulation through a non—IgE-mediated mechanism. Urticaria from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be IgE-mediated or due to mast cell degranulation, and there may be significant cross-reactivity among the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in causing urticaria and anaphylaxis. [16]

“contact urticaria -whelps on skin”

i am Harry Wayn i have been with my girlfriend since June 2011 ..I just found out this past month that she is HIV positive I knew he was on med of all kinds wasn’t exactly positive for what though…I finally sat Her down and talked to her and asked her to please tell me what the pills were for…she finally admitted in 95 she was told she was HIV positive …she was afraid to tell me…she has been in the hospital twice near death …that part I knew just didn’t know the why…I love her with all my heart and can’t leave her..but I am scared we have never practiced safe sex the whole time we have been together…I have been tested twice and am HIV free so far …He appears to me to be in denial of her disease..she takes her med because i give them to her each day…I cant leave her i need her he needs me…we never talk about his disease..how can i make things more in the open with him? He has told me if i discuss this with anyone I will have to leave no if and or buts about it…so I haven’t talked with anyone till now about it…also I know I am going to hear leave her immediately and I cant and won’t do that.. but i.just had a good friendly ear who told me how doctor Okhihie help her cure her HIV virus she gave me the email address okhihiespelltemple@gmail.com i really contacted him he told me to get some items which he will use to prepare the herbal medicine, though i could not found those items over here he said i should send him the little money so that he can help me buy the item and proceed with the herbal medicine i was very happy i gladly send him the little money he prepare the herbal medicine and send it to me i gave it to my love she drank it for just three weeks every thing about her was fully okay then we both went to hospital for check up my love was found negative. so i want to use this great privilege to thank doctor Okhihie for my love because me and my love are living happily today.i will advice any body that is passing through such problem to contact him on his okhihiespelltemple@gmail.com
Pronounced “ur-ti-kair-ee-uh,” this is the medical term for hives. Urticaria appear as red, itchy bumps or welts on the skin that can appear anywhere on the body. A red hive will turn pale when pressed in the center, which is called “blanching.” For every 10 people whose hives are chronic, at least seven of them have CIU.
Clinical Context:  Azathioprine is a purine precursor that affects the formation of adenine and guanine. This results in impaired DNA synthesis in immunocompetent cells such as lymphocytes, which are dividing rapidly during an inflammatory process. Azathioprine has a slow onset of action; it is rarely used as monotherapy.
Hives (AKA urticaria) is not contagious by any means. They are a skin disorder that results in red, sometimes itching patches of raised skin. The patches of skin can be small or large, and generally appear quite fast and disappear on their own within hours or days. They can be as small as a few millimeters and as large as inches, and can even join together to become large areas called plaques. When they join together all over your body, they are generally known as body hives. This form of rash is often quite itchy in nature and can burn. Learn more on our page title “Are Hives Contagious?”
Mallory Shiver, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, Arkansas Foundation for Skin Cancer, Christian Medical and Dental Associations
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Loratadine is commonly used to treat both acute (sudden) and chronic (long-term) urticaria (hives). It is considered safe to use long-term, but talk to your doctor to make sure you should continue after about six months.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria and angioedema is diagnosed when hives and swelling are present for more than six weeks and when it has been determined that an apparent protracted episode of urticaria is not the result of recurrent episodes of acute urticaria.
The clinical history should indicate if a vasculitic process is likely, with the lesions lasting for several days, instead of hours, and being painful or burning, instead of itchy. Patients should be asked about drug treatment and joint, gastrointestinal and pulmonary symptoms. Examination may show purpura or hyperpigmentation at the sites of earlier lesions and, possibly, signs of an associated underlying disease such as SLE. Investigations which may be relevant include skin biopsy to confirm the diagnosis; FBC and ESR; renal and liver function tests; urine analysis; complement C3 and C4 levels and anti-C1q antibodies; ANA and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) (often positive for Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B if the patient has Sjögren’s syndrome); hepatitis, Borrelia or Epstein–Barr virus serology; immunoglobulins and protein electrophoresis and cryoglobulins and chest X-ray (CXR) and pulmonary function tests if symptoms suggest lung involvement. [Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are rarely found in urticarial vasculitis and if ANCA testing is positive an alternative diagnosis such as Wegener’s granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis should be considered.]
This page contains information about urticaria (hives) and other skin conditions such as angioedema. You can also find information about symptoms and treatment for urticaria and angioedema on our downloadable Factsheet area.
This type of urticaria is also termed rare, and occurs upon contact with water. The response is not temperature-dependent and the skin appears similar to cholinergic form of the disease. The appearance of hives is within one to 15 minutes of contact with the water, and can last from 10 minutes to two hours. This kind of hives do not seem to be stimulated by histamine discharge like the other physical hives. Most researchers believe this condition is actually skin sensitivity to additives in the water, such as chlorine. Water urticaria is diagnosed by dabbing tap water and distilled water to the skin and observing the gradual response. Aquagenic urticaria is treated with capsaicin (Zostrix) administered to the chafed skin. This is the same treatment used for shingles. Antihistamines are of questionable benefit in this instance, since histamine is not the causative factor.[citation needed]
Chronic urticaria and angioedema can affect other internal organs such as the lungs, muscles, and gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms include muscle soreness, shortness of breath, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Quercetin and evening primrose are two supplements for hives that will calm and get rid of your hives faster. (19) Quercetin is a natural antihistamine and an anti-inflammatory. Test tube studies have revealed that quercetin prevents immune cells from releasing histamines, which cause allergic reactions like hives. (20) Other studies have also shown that quercetin, a natural medicine and phytochemical, is as effective at fighting allergies as some prescription medications, all with little to no side effects. (21) Other supplement recommendations include vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D and fish oil. (22)
Genetics. Hereditary angioedema is a rare inherited (genetic) form of the condition. It’s related to low levels or abnormal functioning of certain blood proteins that play a role in regulating how your immune system functions.
n a vascular reaction pattern of the skin marked by the transient appearance of smooth, slightly elevated patches that are more red or more pale than the surrounding skin and are accompanied by severe itching. Also called
After a run of Californian live shows and the two weekends at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival (April 15 and April 22), the band performed on Jimmy Kimmel Live! on 23 April 2012.[21] The music video for “Go Right Ahead” was released on 9 May 2012.
Cholinergic or generalized heat urticaria is characterized by the onset of small (1 mm) punctate wheals surrounded by a prominent erythematous flare associated with exercise, hot showers, sweating, and anxiety (click for picture). Typically, lesions first appear about the neck and upper thorax; when viewed from a distance, hives may not be perceived and the patient appears flushed. Pruritus is a prominent feature of the reaction. Gradually the lesions spread distally to involve the face, back and extremities, and the wheals increase in size. In some patients the hives become confluent and resemble angioedema. Although uncommon, symptoms of more generalized cholinergic stimulation such as lacrimation, salivation, and diarrhea may occasionally be seen. These various stimuli have the common feature of being mediated by cholinergic nerve fibers. Cholinergic urticaria is the only form of hives in which emotional stimuli can, in some patients, initiate an urticarial reaction.  One study suggests that a subpopulation of patients has IgE antibody to an antigen in sweat.
In some cases, the trigger is obvious – a person eats peanuts or shrimp, and then breaks out within a short time. Other cases require detective work by both the patient and the physician because there are many possible causes. In a few cases, the cause cannot be identified.
Hi I have found out I have this and been on many antihistamines to try and control it but I am now on fexafenidine and these don’t seem to work at all some days when I have a flare up I look like I…

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Urticaria due to the direct effects of physical forces on the skin. Cold temperature (cold urticaria), pressure (pressure urticaria), ultraviolet radiation (solar urticaria), and scratching (dermographism) are some causes of physical urticaria.
If Aspirin & Salicylate intolerance is suspected then all forms of Salicylate including toothpaste, muscle rubs and peppermints should also be avoided. Aspirin sensitive individuals tolerate the newer Cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors or COX-2 anti-inflammatory (NSAI) medications such as Celecoxib and Meloxicam.
Certain people can develop recurrent hives from sunlight, cold, pressure, vibration or exercise. These are called the physical urticarias. If hives develop from scratching or firmly rubbing the skin it is called dermatographism. It is the most common of the physical urticarias and it affects about 5 percent of the population. It doesn’t always itch. This condition sometimes also occurs along with other forms of hives.
Acute urticaria is the most common type. Symptoms last less than 6 weeks, and they typically affect the face and neck, fingers, toes, and the genitals of males. However, any part of the body can be affected.
If you are experiencing CIU, a specialist may ask you to recount symptoms during the course of an extended period to help confirm your diagnosis. While not life-threatening, CIU can cause severe itch and visible hives. During doctor visits, you can also be asked to describe your CIU symptoms.
In a very small number of patients, severe, debilitating urticaria, associated possibly with airway angioedema, bronchospasm and hypotension, persists despite treatment with high-dose H1 anti-histamines; H2 anti-histamines and/or LTRA; corticosteroids; and, perhaps, dietary interventions. These patients usually have autoimmune urticaria and cyclosporin treatment has proved effective in about 65% of such patients in a randomized double-blind study [58]. Longer courses of cyclosporin may give a lengthier clinical response [59]; however, the optimum dose and length of treatment have not yet been established. Tacrolimus [60] and mycophenolate mofetil [61] have also been effective in open-label studies. Results of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in small numbers of patients have been variable [62,63]. The current recommendation from the clinical guidelines for the use of intravenous immunoglobulin [64] is that intravenous immunoglobulin should not be used unless all other therapies have failed. If patients require immunomodulating therapies, referral to a specialist centre is recommended.
This is a common disorder of unknown origin, whose subjects need not be atopic individuals; that is, they do not have an increased incidence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, or asthma compared to the incidence of these disorders in the absence of chronic urticaria although their IgE level, as a group, is higher than normal. Some patients are dermatographic, although this is usually of milder degree than is seen with the IgE-dependent dermatographism described earlier. The dermatographism may wax and wane, and the urticaria may vary from severe to mild or may intermittently subside. These individuals have a normal white-blood-cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and have no evidence of systemic disease. CSU does not appear to be an allergic reaction in the classic sense, because IgE antibody is not involved and no external allergen is needed to initiate or perpetuate the process. It differs from allergen-induced skin reactions or from physically induced urticaria (e.g., dermatographia or cold urticaria) in that histologic studies reveal a prominent cellular infiltrate around small venules, with an increased number of mast cells. External examination reveals hives with palpably elevated borders, sometimes varying greatly in size and/or shape but generally being rounded.
Initially it is helpful to explain to patients what urticaria is and that very often it is not due to ‘an allergy’. They may be reassured that in nearly all cases there is no serious underlying medical problem causing the rash; that safe, effective treatments are available and that the long-term prognosis is good. A patient information leaflet, such as that available from the British Association of Dermatologists [48], is helpful.
Antihistamines: The once-daily non-sedating antihistamines are the mainstay of current urticaria treatment, but quadrupling the normal recommended dose is often necessary to obtain symptom control (for example Cetirizine 10 to 30mg, Loratadine 10 to 30mg or Fexofenadine 180 to 540mg).  Once the urticaria is controlled, the dose can slowly be reduced.  Older sedating antihistamines such as Chlorpheniramine, Diphenhidramine or Hydroxyzine may help at night with sleep disturbance from itching.  Tolerance to antihistamines can develop and it may help to periodically rotate through different antihistamines. Ketotifen may be effective in children with its antihistamine and mast cell stabilising properties. If it is necessary to use antihistamines in pregnancy, Chlorpheniramine although sedating, is safest. Stomach ulcer treating Histamine H2 blockers such as Ranitidine or Cimetidine offer additive antihistamine effective if used with conventional antihistamine medication.
A drug used for psoriasis and kidney transplants, cyclosporin, is almost always effective in clearing even the most severe cases of chronic hives at low doses. However, it causes significant side effects if taken for a long time.
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA (known as MSD outside of the US and Canada) is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.  The Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community.  The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.  Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.
Temperature: If you develop hives when exposed to cold, do not swim alone in cold water and always carry an epinephrine auto-injector. Avoid exposure to cold air and use a scarf around your nose and mouth in cold weather. If you must be out in the cold, wear warm clothing.
An allergic skin condition featuring itchy, raised, pink areas surrounded by pale skin. These patches persist for periods of half an hour to several days and then resolve. Urticaria may result from sunlight, cold, food or drug allergy, insect bites, scabies, jelly fish stings or contact with plants. Treatment is with antihistamine drugs or corticosteroids. Also known popularly as nettle rash or hives.
Dr. Li says sweating can also signal a breakout for those prone to hives. The sweat itself doesn’t cause hives, but indicates your body heat rising. For some, excess warmth on the skin, from a workout or other body-heat inducing activity, is enough to produce hives. “Even taking a hot shower makes them break out,” Dr. Li says.
Acute hives can be related to other infections such as strep throat, athlete’s foot, mononucleosis, and coxsackie viruses. Though they’re not viral infections, both intestinal worms and malaria can also cause urticaria.
In patients with very severe acute urticaria, associated possibly with angioedema or systemic symptoms, a short course of oral steroids is indicated. Dose and duration of the treatment is determined by the patient’s weight and clinical response. Prolonged courses of oral steroids for chronic urticaria should be avoided whenever possible, and if long-term steroid treatment is considered necessary, the patient should be followed-up regularly and prescribed prophylactic treatment against steroid-induced osteoporosis at an early stage [56]. Oral steroids may be needed for urticarial vasculitis (see below) or severe delayed pressure urticaria.
In some patients, foods such as egg white, shellfish and strawberries seem to trigger direct histamine release from mast cells and episodes of urticaria are related to ingestion of these foods. Again, skin prick testing and SIgE tests to the foods are negative, as the reaction is not IgE-mediated.
Biopsy of urticaria can be non-specific and difficult to interpret. The pathology shows oedema in the dermis and dilated blood vessels, with variable mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Vessel-wall damage indicates urticarial vasculitis.
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Seattle GEnetics, Actillion, Celgene
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Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Celgene
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Leukotrienes are released from mast cells along with histamine. The medications, montelukast and zafirlukast block leukotriene receptors and can be used as add on treatment or in isolation for patients with CU. It is important to note that these medications may be more beneficial for patients with NSAID induced CU.[42][43]
Your doctor will be able to tell if you have hives by looking at your skin. If you suffer from any allergies and have a history of hives, it is even easier to reach a diagnosis. If you need to find out the cause of the allergic reaction, a blood test or a skin biopsy may be needed.
Sometimes, a skin biopsy or blood tests are done to confirm that you had an allergic reaction, and to test for the substance that caused the allergic response. However, specific allergy testing is not useful in most cases of hives.
In this study 5 persons reported with lice and fleas (same species of parasites had been collected from the pigeons nest) and all of them had itching in their head and allergic urticarial reaction, Haag wackermagel (2004) has reported concerns a married couple who were repeatedly invaded by pigeon fleas (Ceratophyllus columbae) over a period of 2 months.
Patients taking progesterone-containing oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy or those with cyclic urticaria that appears during the 2nd half of the menstrual cycle and resolves with menstruation
Non-sedating H1 antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Cetirizine, loratadine and fexofenadine are usual choices. Studies comparing antihistamines are limited and so far no single antihistamine has shown itself to be superior for chronic spontaneous urticaria[6]. Once symptom control has been achieved, the antihistamine should be continued for 3-6 months.
Okubo Y, Shigoka Y, Yamazaki M, Tsuboi R. Double dose of cetirizine hydrochloride is effective for patients with urticaria resistant: a prospective, randomized, non-blinded, comparative clinical study and assessment of quality of life. J Dermatolog Treat. 2013 Apr. 24(2):153-60. [Medline].
“The patient who presents with relatively minor dermatological symptoms and a seemingly disproportionate amount of distress about these symptoms is telling you something,” she says. “They are telling you that they are experiencing significant distress but may not have the capacity to recognize the psychological contribution to their suffering.”
The effectiveness of treatment can be objectively monitored using urticaria control test. Patients are asked to score the physical symptoms of urticaria they have experienced in the previous four weeks, quality of life affected by urticaria, how often treatment was not enough to control symptoms, and overall control of urticaria.
Jump up ^ Pacor ML, Di Lorenzo G, Corrocher R (2001). “Efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist in chronic urticaria. A double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of treatment with montelukast and cetirizine in patients with chronic urticaria with intolerance to food additive and/or acetylsalicylic acid”. Clin Exp Allergy. 31 (10): 1607–1614. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2222.2001.01189.x. PMID 11678862.
Non-sedating antihistamines that block the histamine H1 receptors are the first line of therapy. First generation antihistamines such as diphenhydramine or hydroxyzine block both central and peripheral H1 receptors and can be sedating. Second generation antihistamines such as loratadine, cetirizine, or desloratadine selectively antagonize the peripheral H1 receptors and are less sedating, less anticholinergic, and generally preferred over the first generation antihistamines.[39][40]
The “chronic” in CIU means that symptoms last six weeks or more. CIU is an unpredictable form of chronic hives that can appear at any time with no identifiable cause. These hives may not go away for many months—or even years. CIU can be difficult to diagnose.

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Engaging in social activities (in person, not online) can help reduce stress. Talking about challenging situations can release hormones that reduce stress. When feeling stressed, call a friend or involve yourself in a social situation to help yourself feel better.
Urticarial vasculitis (also known as “chronic urticaria as a manifestation of venulitis”, “hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome”, “hypocomplementemic vasculitis” and “unusual lupus-like syndrome”)[1] is a skin condition characterized by fixed urticarial lesions that appear histologically as a vasculitis.[2]:834
Over half of all cases of chronic idiopathic hives are the result of an autoimmune trigger. Roughly 50% of patients with chronic urticaria spontaneously develop autoantibodies directed at the receptor FcεRI located on skin mast cells. Chronic stimulation of this receptor leads to chronic hives. Patients often have other autoimmune conditions, such as autoimmune thyroiditis, celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome or systemic lupus erythematosus.[6]
Living with any long-term condition can be difficult. Chronic urticaria can have a considerable negative impact on a person’s mood and quality of life. Living with itchy skin can be particularly upsetting.
Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody[9]. It is effective in 80% but requires monthly injections and relapse is common when it is stopped. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends omalizumab as an add-on treatment for refractory severe chronic spontaneous urticaria[10].
Investigations for a systemic condition or autoinflammatory disease should be undertaken in urticaria patients with fever, joint or bone pain, and malaise. Patients with angioedema without weals should be asked if they take ACE inhibitor drugs and tested for complement C4; C1-INH levels, function and antibodies; and C1q.
On 12 March 2012, the band announced their fifth full-length album, Lex Hives. The album was released on their own label, Disque Hives on 1 June in Sweden/GSA, 4 June in the UK, and June 5 in the USA and Canada, comprising twelve self-produced tracks, with a deluxe version containing bonus tracks produced by Queens of the Stone Age frontman Josh Homme.[16][17]
Hives are a very itchy rash usually caused by an allergic reaction. Hives look like raised pink spots with pale centers on the skin. The spots range from 1/2 inch to several inches wide (hives often look like mosquito bites). The spots may be different shapes. The spots rapidly and repeatedly change in location, size, and shape. Giant hives are called angioedema. This can cause large swelling beneath the skin, especially of the face.
Pressure-induced urticaria typically occurs 4-6 hours after pressure has been applied. Patients may complain of swelling secondary to pressure with normal-appearing skin (i.e., no erythema or superficial infiltrating hive), so that the term angioedema is more appropriate. Others are predominantly urticarial and may or may not be associated with significant swelling. Symptoms occur about tight clothing; the hands may swell with activity such as hammering; foot swelling is common after walking in patients with normal heart function; and buttock swelling may be prominent after sitting for a few hours.
Mortureux P, Léauté-Labrèze C, Legrain-Lifermann V, Lamireau T, Sarlangue J, Taïeb A. Acute urticaria in infancy and early childhood: a prospective study. Arch Dermatol. 1998 Mar. 134(3):319-23. [Medline].
If hives become a chronic or long-term problem, you should ask your physician for a referral to a specialist. An allergist can test you in order to determine, if possible, the cause of your allergic reaction. These allergy tests will cover foods, plants, chemicals, insects, and insect bites.
Severe chronic urticaria sometimes requires a trial of medicines which reduce inflammation, often called immune modulators or immunosuppressive medications. Recurrent courses of cortisone/steroid tablets need to be avoided due to a significant risk of side effects.
If you are constantly worried about what causes hives then you should understand that when you expose your body to excessive stress either for a small amount of time or perhaps a long period of time your own body’s immune system sets out to falter and it starts sending histamine for the body to handle what is causing problem.
There are numerous possible causes of hives, as they occur when a chemical called histamine is released in the skin. This can happen as a result of allergies, insect bites or stings, infections, exposure to certain chemicals, sunlight, heat or cold, and in response to some medications (often antibiotics or painkillers). 
Hives are very common and are not considered contagious. Although annoying, hives usually resolve on their own over a period of weeks and are rarely medically serious. Some hives may be caused by allergies to such things as foods, infections by different medications, food coloring, preservatives and insect stings or bites, and chemicals; but in the majority of cases, no specific cause is ever found. Although people may find it frustrating not to know what has caused their hives, maneuvers like changing diet, soap, detergent, and makeup are rarely helpful in preventing hives unless there is an excellent temporal relationship. Since hives most often are produced by an immune mechanism, the condition is not contagious. If an infectious disease were the cause of hives in a particular person then it is possible, but not likely, that an infected contact could develop hives.
The autologous serum skin test is sometimes carried out in chronic spontaneous urtciaria, but its value is uncertain. It is positive if an injection of the patien’s serum under the skin causes a red weal.
See an allergist, who will try to look for triggers to your hives and may recommend medications to prevent the hives or reduce the severity of symptoms. Whether the treatment is available only by prescription or over the counter will depend on several factors, including how uncomfortable the hives are making you.
Sarna lotion with menthol and camphor will settle down the itch. Wipe the skin with a damp cloth and dry it before applying. Switch to Cetaphil Cleansing Bar from your current soap for the shower. If your skin tends to be dry, apply Cetaphil moisturizing cream after your shower. Keep the Sarna in your car so you will always have it near. If all else fails, use an ice pack for about 20 minutes. Talk to a doctor to see if you have any food allergies, if you haven’t already.
It can be easy to mistake hives for other disorders because the allergy triggers can be difficult to find. Another problem with diagnosing hives is that the symptoms are relatively generic — red, itchy welts on your skin are a common symptom among many skin disorders.
Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the low flow of blood through the arteries and veins. Some of the symptoms of low blood pressure include:

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Harumi Jyonouchi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Medical Association, Clinical Immunology Society, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Mucosal Immunology, and Society for Pediatric Research
Di Campli C, Gasbarrini A, Nucera E, Franceschi F, Ojetti V, Sanz Torre E, et al. Beneficial effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on idiopathic chronic urticaria. Dig Dis Sci. 1998 Jun. 43(6):1226-9. [Medline].
Acupuncture may help treat hives, but a systematic review published in 2016 concluded that “Acupuncture might be effective and safe for chronic urticaria in relieving symptoms, based on a low level of evidence.” The authors called for further studies to confirm findings.
I bought some Sovereign Silver from a health shop in America. It is an immune builder. My Urticaria was gone I swear within THREE days. You have to buy it online here but if you haven’t tried it then please do as it may work for you as it has for me. My rash was horrendous and covered every bit of my body.
Acute hives can be triggered by a number of different factors. Common causes include respiratory infections (particularly in young children), contact with animals or plants, allergic reactions to foods or medication (particularly pain relievers and antibiotics), and sometimes, insect stings, heat or cold, stress, food additives or preservatives. 
Patients with CSU have an increased frequency of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. An association has been noted with the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin, or a microsomal-derived antigen (peroxidase) even if patients are euthyroid. The incidence of thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic urticaria is approximately 24%. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies should be checked in all patients with chronic urticaria. There are no data to suggest that either of these antibodies are pathogenic in terms of hive formation and it is believed that these are associated, parallel, autoimmune events.
Steroid-sparing options:  The older tricyclic antidepressant Doxepin (10 to 50mg daily) has histamine blocking properties and is useful as an adjunct especially if there is co-existent depression with the urticaria.  Leukotriene Receptor antagonists, Singulair or Montelukast (10mg at night) has been used with variable success, and is most effective when used in combination with non-sedating anti-histamines.  Montelukast is very useful in aspirin sensitive individuals (who are prone to urticaria, nasal polyps and asthma).
There are some researches that link post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a classic stress-mediated syndrome with urticaria (the medical term for hives or nettle-rash), clearing the possible co-morbidity.
Immunological: Some hives are caused by changes in the immune system. A typical scenario would be coming in contact with something that causes cells in the immune system to trigger the release of histamine from certain white blood cells called mast cells.
Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head, Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School
Patients with urticarial vasculitis present with an urticarial eruption, often accompanied by a painful or burning sensation. Lesions are generalized wheals or erythematous plaques, occasionally with central clearing, lasting for more than 24 hours in a fixed location (in contrast to urticaria, which resolves in minutes to hours or migrates continually). Petechiae may be noted within the lesions, and they may resolve with ecchymoses or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Patients may have photosensitivity, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, angioedema (40%), fever, abdominal pain, dyspnea, and pleural and pericardial effusions.[4] Most cases of urticarial vasculitis are idiopathic.
Urticaria (or ‘hives’ or ‘nettle rash’) consists of blancheable, erythematous, oedematous papules or ‘weals’ (Fig. 1). These weals vary in size from 1 mm to many centimetres –‘giant urticaria’, and are usually intensely itchy. They are caused by vasoactive mediators, predominantly histamine, released from mast cells. In the vast majority of cases the weals are transient, lasting for only a few hours in any one place, but with new weals appearing in other places. This means that most urticarial rashes ‘move’ around the body – a useful pointer from the clinical history that the rash is urticarial. Urticaria is to be distinguished from ‘angioedema’, which is well-demarcated swelling, occurring within deep skin structures or in subcutaneous tissue (Fig. 2) and caused mainly by bradykinin production. Angioedema is not itchy, but may be painful. In about 50% of patients urticaria occurs alone; in about 40% of patients urticaria occurs with angioedema and in about 10% of patients angioedema occurs alone [1]. The aetiology of isolated angioedema is very often different from that of urticaria or urticaria with angioedema. The topic of isolated angioedema is to be reviewed in a further article in this series.
Whenever possible, drug treatment should be avoided during pregnancy. Fortunately, chronic urticaria often improves in pregnancy; however, if symptoms very severe and treatment is considered absolutely necessary, either chlorphenamine or loratidine may be prescribed. Data from several thousand women who had taken either chlorphenamine or loratidine in pregnancy, including data from several hundred who took anti-histamines during the first trimester [67,68], showed no increase in the incidence of fetal malformations. The lowest dose which controls symptoms should be used and the possibility of adverse effects should be discussed and documented. There is less clinical experience with cetirizine and therefore cetirizine is not recommended in pregnancy. Hydroxyzine is the only anti-histamine which is specifically contraindicated in pregnancy in the summary of product characteristics.
Allergic reactions, particularly to foods and medications, are another common cause of acute hives. Allergies only cause about 5 percent to 10 percent of chronic hives cases. Pet allergies are usually to blame; pollen, mold, and dust mite allergies cause chronic hives only in rare instances.
Urticarial vasculitis is an eruption of erythematous wheals that clinically resemble urticaria but histologically show changes of leukocytoclastic vasculitis.[1, 2] Urticarial vasculitis may be divided into normocomplementemic and hypocomplementemic variants. Both subsets can be associated with systemic symptoms (eg, angioedema, arthralgias, abdominal or chest pain, fever, pulmonary disease, renal disease, episcleritis, uveitis, and Raynaud phenomenon). The hypocomplementemic form more often is associated with systemic symptoms and has been linked to connective-tissue disease (ie, systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]).[3, 4, 5]
Skin prick testing may be helpful to determine if an individual is atopic and if there are any specific contact antigens, such as foods or latex, which are likely to be triggers for the urticaria. Patients often expect ‘allergy testing’ and, once again, may be reassured by negative skin test results. However, there are two potential problems when skin prick testing patients with urticaria. First, patients need to stop anti-histamine treatment (usually for 3 days) prior to having the skin testing and during this time urticarial symptoms may become very severe and may even progress to systemic reactions requiring hospital treatment. Secondly, patients with urticaria may exhibit some degree of dermographism, which can make interpretation of skin tests very difficult. SIgE testing is the alternative to skin prick testing, although it is much more costly [46].
52. Bleehen SS, Thomas SE, Greaves MW, et al. Cimetidine and chlorpheniramine in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a multi-centre randomized double-blind study. Br J Dermatol. 1987;117:81–8. [PubMed]
Past medical history should include a detailed allergy history, including known atopic conditions (eg, allergies, asthma, eczema) and known possible causes (eg, autoimmune disorders, cancer). All drug use should be reviewed, including OTC drugs and herbal products, specifically any agents particularly associated with urticaria (see Table: Some Causes of Urticaria). Family history should elicit any history of rheumatoid disease, autoimmune disorders, or cancer. Social history should cover any recent travel and any risk factors for transmission of infectious disease (eg, hepatitis, HIV).
Allergy shots are given to increase your tolerance to allergens that cause allergy symptoms. At the beginning, allergy shots will be administered once or twice a week for several months. The dose is increased each time until a maintenance dose is reached. Side effects of allergy shots include itchy eyes, shortness of breath, runny nose, tight throat, redness, swelling, and irritation.
Jump up ^ Sharma, M; Bennett, C; Cohen, SN; Carter, B (14 November 2014). “H1-antihistamines for chronic spontaneous urticaria”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11): CD006137. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006137.pub2. PMID 25397904.
1. Mint juice in small quantity of water without any additives to be taken twice a day. In winter, mint leaves can be boiled, water thereafter can be drunk. 2. 5 Gms of Soda Bicarbonate (cooking soda) dissolved in ordinary water at room temperature, can be applied to affected areas.
There are two types of hives – short-lived (acute) and long-term (chronic). Neither is typically life-threatening, though any swelling in the throat or any other symptom that restricts breathing requires immediate emergency care.
Hives can also develop as a result of sun or cold exposure, infections, excessive perspiration, and emotional stress. The reason why stress seems to precipitate an outbreak of hives in many people is not completely understood but is likely related to the known effects of stress on the immune system. In many cases, the cause of hives in a given individual cannot be identified.

“cold urticaria treatment recurring hives”

Treatment depends on severity, specific disease manifestations, and a balance between efficacy and drug toxicity and/or side effects. Ideally, non-sedating antihistamines should be tried first, including increased doses as described above for physical urticarias controlled trails demonstrate efficacy at 4 times the dose typically used for allergic rhinitis. The first generation antihistamines such as hydroxyzine or diphenydramine at 25-50 mg four times daily can be employed if the non-sedating, second-generation agents are insufficient. H2-receptor antagonists offer a little more global blockade of histamine receptors by inhibiting H2 receptors once H1 receptor blockage is maximal. There are 10-15% H2 receptors on venular endothelial cells. Leukotriene antagonists (montelukast, zafirlukast) can be tried in patients with severe symptoms but they may still not be satisfactorily controlled with the above-mentioned combinations. Alternate-day corticosteroids, eg, prednisone 10-25 mg every other day can be employed with gradual tapering at a rate of 2.5-5.0 mg every 2-3 weeks or 10-15 mg daily with taper of 1 mg/week. Another approach, and one that may be employed when use of corticosteroids is relatively contraindicated or when steroid side-effects prohibit their use, is cyclosporine. A typical dose range in adults is 200-300 mg/day, to be tapered to the lowest effective dose once a response is obtained. Monitoring of blood pressure and kidney function (urinalysis, BUN, creatinine) needs to be done on a regular basis.  The latest therapy is omalizumab supported by phase 1, 2, and three phase 3 trials.  It has the best efficacy to side effect profile and once approved for this indication (being reviewed currently) may supplant any use of sedating antihistamines once high-dose non-sedating agents fail.  H2 blockers and leukotriene antagonists may or may not be added next, but corticosteroids can be eliminated for chronic use, and cyclosporine reserved for omalizumab failures.
Many patients with chronic urticaria derive benefit from a Low Vaso-active Amine Diet.  Histamine contained in foods such as dark fish, fermented cheese and cured meats may act non-specifically as a pseudo-allergen by perpetuating the urticaria.  Avoidance of these foods will help reduce itch and flushing (Berlin Diet).
Mutations in the CIAS1 gene, which codes for cryopyrin, cause autoinflammatory syndromes, one of which is Muckle–Wells syndrome [85], also known as urticaria–deafness–amyloidosis (UDA). It is a rare, autosomal dominant condition which presents with spontaneous urticaria, sensorineural deafness, episodic fevers and arthralgia and it may progress to renal amyloid.
If warranted, obtain antinuclear antibody and lupus serologies. Anti-SSA and anti-SSB may be seen in patients with Sjögren syndrome. Test results for antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies are generally negative, and, if they are positive, the possibility of Wegener granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis should be considered.
Approximately 15% of people experience urticaria at some time in their lives. Acute urticaria is much more common than chronic urticaria. (Estimated lifetime incidence is 1 in 6 people compared to 1 in 1,000.) The prevalence rate for chronic urticaria has been estimated as 1-5 per 1,000. Acute urticaria is most common in children and is more common in women than in men, particularly in the 30-60 age range. It is more common in individuals who have atopy.
A trigger causes cells in the skin to release chemicals such as histamine. These chemicals cause fluid to leak from tiny blood vessels under the skin surface. The fluid pools to form weals. The chemicals also cause the blood vessels to open wide (dilate) which causes the flare around the weals. The trigger is not known or identified in about half of cases. Some known triggers include:
Glucocorticoids are often the treatment of choice. However, given their long-term adverse effect profiles, they are used only for significant cutaneous disease or systemic involvement. For long-term treatment, a combination of prednisone and another medication may be required.
Benadryl (diphenhydramine) is the most commonly used drug for hives, and is available without a prescription. The main side effect of this drug is drowsiness in some people. Other antihistamines (for example, store brands of any drug for hay fever) will also help. When you give Benadryl, give it 3 to 4 times a day until the hives are gone for 12 hours. Use the dosage given on the product.
A single hive generally fades in about 24 hours. But new hives may form as old hives disappear. If you have multiple hives, you may experience these symptoms for about 6 weeks. This is considered a bout of acute hives.
Systemic cold urticaria yields severe generalized hive formation resulting from systemic cold challenge occurring over covered or uncovered parts of the body. Symptoms are unrelated to exercise or other activities, and the ice-cube test is negative.
Beyond allergic reactions, some medications are also associated with chronic hives. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most notable, so your reaction could be due to something as common as aspirin. Antibiotics, codeine, morphine, and radiocontrast dye are also known to be triggers.
If you have a severe episode of hives then you may be referred to a specialist. Skin specialists (called dermatologists) or allergy specialists (called immunologists) may be able to help. In particular, if angio-oedema or anaphylaxis occurred at the same time, you would be referred or admitted to hospital. This is to reverse the reaction quickly. It is also to confirm the diagnosis and, where possible, to identify a cause. For example, if a nut allergy is suspected to have caused a severe episode then this can confirmed by tests. You may then be given advice on how to avoid the cause and on what to do if it should occur again.
Occasionally women notice that their urticaria seems to fluctuate in severity in relation to their menstrual cycle, and there is a rare cyclical form of urticaria, known as autoimmune progesterone urticaria, which occurs 7–10 days premenstrually [33]. In pregnancy urticaria will often improve, but there is a distinct clinical condition known as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy or ‘pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy’ (PUPPP) [34], in which the rash starts as itchy, urticarial papules and plaques in striae on the abdomen and thighs and then spreads to affect the whole trunk and limbs. It usually begins in the third trimester and is most common in first pregnancies or the first multiple pregnancy. In vitro fertilization, with the increased chance of multiple pregnancies, has increased the incidence of this condition. Treatment is with emollients, anti-histamines, topical steroids and occasionally, in severe cases, oral steroids. The rash usually resolves within days of delivery and generally does not recur. There is no adverse effect on the fetus. Urticaria occurring only during pregnancy and recurring during subsequent pregnancies has been reported [35].
Mechanisms other than allergen-antibody interactions are known to cause histamine release from mast cells. Many drugs, for example morphine, can induce direct histamine release not involving any immunoglobulin molecule. Also, a diverse group of signaling substances, called neuropeptides, have found to be involved in emotionally induced hives. Dominantly inherited cutaneous and neurocutaneous porphyrias (porphyria cutanea tarda, hereditary coproporphyria, variegate porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria) have been associated with solar urticaria. The occurrence of drug-induced solar urticaria may be associated with porphyrias. This may be caused by IgG binding, not IgE.
In about half of patients with chronic idiopathic hives, the explanation is that body’s immune system is, in a sense, overactive. The urticaria is “autoimmune”. The immune system is attacking the normal tissues of the body and causing hives as a result. We know certain urticaria sufferers have other signs of autoimmune problems. Some have autoimmune thyroid disease, vitiligo, swollen joints, or certain abnormalities in the blood (especially the ANA test). A new treatment has recently emerged for autoimmune urticaria. This is the use of hydroxychloroquine, a drug originally used for malaria. In a clinical trial 83% improved or cleared completely when used for three months or more.
The majority of the time, a doctor will know that you have hives just by looking at your skin. To get to the root of your hives, a doctor also, hopefully, will  ask you about any recent life stressors, or exposure to possible or known allergens.  If a patient complains of itchiness, he or she will often recommend diphenhydramine. Common side effects of antihistamines include drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth/nose/throat, upset stomach, increased appetite and weight gain, thickening of mucus, vision changes and feeling nervous, excited or irritable. (12)
a vascular reaction of the skin marked by transient appearance of slightly elevated patches (wheals) that are redder or paler than the surrounding skin and often attended by severe itching; the cause may be certain foods, infection, or emotional stress. (See Atlas 2, Plate D.) Called also hives. adj., adj urtica´rial.
Acute hives can appear at any age, but they are most commonly seen in young adults. The rash has very itchy red areas with white raised central circles that resemble mosquito bites. If the welts grow very large, spreading and joining together or swelling downward deep into body tissue, then they are known as giant hives or angioedema. Angioedema is painful and unsightly, but it is not as itchy. With angioedema the eruptions become large enough to cause swelling of the eyelids, tongue, mouth, hands or feet. In severe cases, hives can be accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty in breathing, difficulty swallowing, digestive upsets and fever. Hives can occur internally to produce swelling of internal organs. .
Chronic Urticaria is thought to affect up to 1% of the population at any given time and, of these cases, two thirds are thought to be spontaneous (CSU) where the exact trigger for symptoms is unknown(1).

“stress urticaria urticaria”

Urticaria is a common condition – it is estimated that lifetime incidence of urticaria is approximately 15%, with females being affected more often than males. Both children and adults may develop urticaria, with the peak age of onset in adults being between 20 and 40 years. Urticaria is defined as ‘acute’ if it lasts for less than 6 weeks and ‘chronic’ if it lasts for more than 6 weeks. ‘Episodic’ urticaria, which occurs intermittently, but recurrently over months or years, is also recognized. Most urticarial reactions are acute and self-limiting; however, patients referred to allergy clinics usually have chronic urticaria or episodic urticaria. Histology shows oedema of the upper dermis, dilatation of blood vessels and lymphatics and a cellular infiltrate in the dermis. The nature of this cell infiltrate varies depending on the type of urticaria and the duration of the weal.
In addition, it appears that a large percentage of people without an obvious trigger for chronic hives may actually have an autoimmune disease. With these conditions, the immune system attacks healthy tissue, including the skin. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and dermatitis herpetiformis (associated with celiac disease) are among those that may cause hives.
Acute hives can be related to other infections such as strep throat, athlete’s foot, mononucleosis, and coxsackie viruses. Though they’re not viral infections, both intestinal worms and malaria can also cause urticaria.
Urticarial vasculitis (also known as “chronic urticaria as a manifestation of venulitis”, “hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome”, “hypocomplementemic vasculitis” and “unusual lupus-like syndrome”)[1] is a skin condition characterized by fixed urticarial lesions that appear histologically as a vasculitis.[2]:834
Fortunately, it’s easy to find out whether cold is one of your triggers: Your doctor can administer a simple test that involves placing an ice cube on your skin for five minutes to see if a reaction occurs. If it turns out that cold is a trigger for you, your doctor will recommend that you protect your skin from the cold and take your medications as prescribed.
Certain soaps may dry your skin and cause more itching when you have hives. Make sure to use a soap that’s marketed for sensitive skin. Find a great selection here. These typically omit fragrance and other irritating chemicals.
Acute and chronic urticaria can result in severely impaired quality of life from pruritus and associated sleeplessness, as well as anxiety and depression. The depression can be severe enough to lead to suicide in rare cases. Additionally, many of the diseases associated with chronic urticaria may cause significant morbidity and mortality.
Your doctor will likely recommend you treat your symptoms with home remedies, such as over-the-counter antihistamines. If self-care steps don’t help, talk with your doctor about finding the prescription medication or combination of drugs that works best for you. Usually, an effective treatment can be found.
Case studies of individuals with HUV have also highlighted other potential complicating factors which it seems the anti-C1q antibodies play a role in. This can mean in some cases the deposition of large immune complexes in the kidney which cannot be cleared by the usual cells of the immune system (e.g. macrophages which are unable to bind the Fc portion of the C1q antibody), leading to further complications.[4] This it seems is rare, but can occur when a pre-existing renal condition is apparent. Also, there has been some speculation as to an additional autoantibody against an inhibitor protein (in the complement pathway) named C1-inhibitor. The inhibition of C1-inhibitor leads to over-activation of the complement pathway and one protein that builds up controls angioedema (vessel – swelling),[4] resulting in excess water building up under the skin (the weal appearance).
The band also won five prestigious Swedish Grammis for Tyrannosaurus Hives at the 23rd annual Swedish Grammis Awards, presented on 7 February 2005 for “Artist of the Year”; “Rock Group of the Year”; “Album of the Year”; “Producer of the Year” (with collaborator, Pelle Gunnerfeldt); and “Walk Idiot Walk” took home the MTV “Best Music Video” prize.[7][8]
A single episode of hives does not usually call for extensive testing. If a food allergy is suspected, consider keeping track of what you eat. This will help you discover whether there is a link between what you’re eating and when you break out with hives.
Since urticarial vasculitis may be chronic, educate patients about its course. For patient education resources, see the Allergy Center and Skin, Hair, and Nails Center, as well as Hives and Angioedema.
Mint oil cools the skin and reduces swelling and pain. Freeze fresh mint leaves and water to form ice cubes and place them over the rash for an alternative relief treatment. Make sure that you wrap the ice cubes in a cloth before applying them to the skin, as the direct application of ice can cause further skin damage.
^ Jump up to: a b c Griffiths, Christopher; Barker, Jonathan; Bleiker, Tanya; Chalmers, Robert; Creamer, (2016). Rook’s Textbook of Dermatology, 4 Volume Set (9 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. Chapter 42.3. ISBN 9781118441176.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (click for picture) is characterized by a non-necrotizing perivascular mononuclear-cell infiltrate (CD4 positive T lymphocytes and monocytes) with variable accumulation of eosinophils, neutrophils, and mast cells (click for picture). Patients with vasculitis and urticaria appear to be a separate sub-population in whom the cause and pathogenesis of hive formation probably involves immune complexes, complement activation, anaphylatoxin formation, histamine release, and neutrophil accumulation, activation, and degranulation.
Jump up ^ AU Erbagci Z SO (2002). “The leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical study”. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 110 (3): 484–488. doi:10.1067/mai.2002.126676. PMID 12209099.
Chizzola maculae is a very specific skin lesion due to fluoride exposure. The size of a coin, these lesions may resemble small blue bruises or be wholly pink. Doctors George Waldbott and V. A. Cecilioni named the lesions after a town in Italy, where they were common in young women and children.[17] According to Waldbott, chizzola maculae are early symptoms of fluoride intoxication.[18][19]
A weal (or wheal) is a superficial skin-coloured or pale skin swelling, usually surrounded by erythema (redness) that lasts anything from a few minutes to 24 hours. Usually very itchy, it may have a burning sensation.
Clinical Context:  Indomethacin is the only NSAID reported effective in urticarial vasculitis. It is rapidly absorbed; metabolism occurs in the liver by demethylation, deacetylation, and glucuronide conjugation. Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis.
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There are many causes of urticaria; allergic and non-allergic. In about 90% of people with chronic urticaria, no cause is found even after exhaustive investigations. In acute urticaria the chances of determining the cause are higher. For example, many cases of acute urticaria in children may be associated with a viral, bacterial or parasitic infection. Stress can certainly make established symptoms worse, but is very rarely the direct cause of urticaria.