“urticaria exercise induced _skin hives causes”

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To do a skin patch test, simply apply a small amount of the product to an unaffected area of skin. If you can, apply to the inside of your forearm. If you don’t experience any irritation within 24 hours, it should be safe to apply to any hives.
Chronic hives should be evaluated by an allergist, who will ask about your and your family’s medical history, substances to which you are exposed at home and at work, exposure to pets or other animals and any medications you’ve taken recently. If you have been keeping a food diary, show it to your allergist.
Lastly, some forms of urticaria and angioedema are related to other diseases, such as autoimmune diseases (for example, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis), certain cancers, chronic infections (for example, viral hepatitis, and some hereditary forms.
In some cases, the trigger is obvious – a person eats peanuts or shrimp, and then breaks out within a short time. Other cases require detective work by both the patient and the physician because there are many possible causes. In a few cases, the cause cannot be identified.
The band also won five prestigious Swedish Grammis for Tyrannosaurus Hives at the 23rd annual Swedish Grammis Awards, presented on 7 February 2005 for “Artist of the Year”; “Rock Group of the Year”; “Album of the Year”; “Producer of the Year” (with collaborator, Pelle Gunnerfeldt); and “Walk Idiot Walk” took home the MTV “Best Music Video” prize.[7][8]
She’ll also ask about the foods you eat and if you have pets, to see if an allergy is to blame. She may check for other illnesses or conditions that could be causing the hives, like an overactive or underactive thyroid.
Next, if any obvious triggering factors have been identified from the history these should be eliminated, wherever possible. For example, specific food triggers should be excluded from the diet; treatment with aspirin, NSAIDS and codeine should be stopped; physical triggers such as coldand heat should be avoided whenever possible; and clinical thyroid disease or underlying infection treated. Anti-pruritic, cooling skin lotions such as calamine lotion or 1% menthol in aqueous cream may help to relieve itching.
What do bed bug bites look like? See spider bite pictures and learn how to identify bug bites from mosquitos, bees, bed bugs, wasps, and more. See what their bites & stings look like and how to treat bug bites.
They released their second studio album Veni Vidi Vicious in April 2000 through Burning Heart Records. The band themselves described the album as being like “a velvet glove with brass knuckles, both brutal and sophisticated at the same time”. The album yielded the singles “Hate to Say I Told You So”, “Main Offender”, “Die, All Right!”, and “Supply and Demand.”
Angioedema, similar to hives, is an allergic skin reaction that manifests as a swelling beneath the skin rather than on the surface. This typically occurs near the eyes and lips. Like hives, angiodema is usually harmless but can be life-threatening if it causes the throat or tongue to swell, which may block the airway.
Urticaria is a common condition – it is estimated that lifetime incidence of urticaria is approximately 15%, with females being affected more often than males. Both children and adults may develop urticaria, with the peak age of onset in adults being between 20 and 40 years. Urticaria is defined as ‘acute’ if it lasts for less than 6 weeks and ‘chronic’ if it lasts for more than 6 weeks. ‘Episodic’ urticaria, which occurs intermittently, but recurrently over months or years, is also recognized. Most urticarial reactions are acute and self-limiting; however, patients referred to allergy clinics usually have chronic urticaria or episodic urticaria. Histology shows oedema of the upper dermis, dilatation of blood vessels and lymphatics and a cellular infiltrate in the dermis. The nature of this cell infiltrate varies depending on the type of urticaria and the duration of the weal.
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A food allergy attack can last for quite a while as the allergen remains within your system and this increases the severity of the reaction. Drink plenty of fluids such as fresh fruit and vegetable juices as this will help to get rid of the allergen and reduce the recovery period.
Jump up ^ Tebbe, Beate; Geilen, Christoph C.; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Bojarski, Christian; Radenhausen, Michael; Orfanos, Constantin E. (1996). “Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic urticaria”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 34 (4): 685–6. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(96)80086-7. PMID 8601663.
A single episode of hives does not usually call for extensive testing. If a food allergy is suspected, consider keeping track of what you eat. This will help you discover whether there is a link between what you’re eating and when you break out with hives.
Get away from the allergens. The first step in treating hives is to ensure you are away from the source of the allergic response. If you know what it is, which is how most cases of hives are, remove the substance that is causing the allergic reaction from your skin or environment. Common allergens that are easy to determine are poison ivy, poison oak, insect bites, wool clothing, a cat, or a dog. Avoid these or any other known allergen as much as possible.
It has been recently discovered that some persons who suffer with hives or angioedema also have an autoimmune disease. In these cases, autoantibodies have been formed that bind to the Fc-receptor on mast cells. The normal function of the Fc-receptor is to anchor allergic antibodies, called IgE, to the mast cell surface (see the mast cell diagram below). IgE is formed in allergic persons and binds specifically to allergens in the environment. When airborne allergens land on nasal tissues or eye conjunctiva, or are eaten (foods) and enter the body through the intestinal tract they bind to the specific IgE. As a result of this interaction, a signal is sent by the IgE antibody to the mast cell causing it to release its histamine. Histamine release causes the nasal and eye symptoms seen in those who suffer with “hay fever” and can produce hives, angioedema, or even life-threatening symptoms such as respiratory compromise or low blood pressure.
If you’re wondering how to get rid of your hives at home, then we can help. We’ve created a special Top 10 Best Ways To Get Rid Of Your Hives list that is going to be exactly what you need to determine what is causing your hives and how to stop them quickly and at home with natural remedies.
Pressure-induced urticaria typically occurs 4-6 hours after pressure has been applied. Patients may complain of swelling secondary to pressure with normal-appearing skin (i.e., no erythema or superficial infiltrating hive), so that the term angioedema is more appropriate. Others are predominantly urticarial and may or may not be associated with significant swelling. Symptoms occur about tight clothing; the hands may swell with activity such as hammering; foot swelling is common after walking in patients with normal heart function; and buttock swelling may be prominent after sitting for a few hours.
Eczema is general term for many types dermatitis (skin inflammation). Atopic dermatitis is the most common of the many types of eczema. Other types of eczema include: contact eczema, allergic contact eczema, seborrheic eczema, nummular eczema, stasis dermatitis, and. dyshidrotic eczema.
In so many words, stress hives are caused by excessive stress. When you’re stressed out, your immune system is thrown off a little bit. In an effort to try to “fix” the problem (stress), your immune system sends out histamine. It’s as if your body becomes allergic to stress.Since histamine can’t cure stress, it causes your body to develop hives instead.
Stress hives are red, raised swollen areas and bumps (AKA stress bumps) that appear on your skin, that develop due to too much stress or anxiety in your life. Stress hives can itch like crazy, giving you the feeling like ants or spiders are crawling over your skin. The only way to get rid of your stress hives is to remove all the stress and anxiety form your life. Because this is a near impossibility for most people, there is one stress hives treatment, known as OxyHives, that can be taken that reduces the swelling and itchy feeling within 2 hours.
Chronic lung diseases hard to diagnose: Some of the chronic lung diseases are difficult to diagnose. Even the well-knowns conditions such as asthma or lung cancer often fail to be diagnosed early. Some of the chronic lung…read more »
After seeing the video for “Hate to Say I Told You So” on German TV, Alan McGee (Oasis, Creation Records) decided to sign the band to his newly formed Poptones label. Poptones released the ‘best of’ compilation Your New Favourite Band in 2001, which proved to be their breakthrough record, reaching No. 7 in the UK album charts. Following the success of the album, the band re-released singles “Hate to Say I Told You So” and “Main Offender” which reach numbers No. 23 and No. 24 respectively in the UK Singles chart. The band also re-released Veni Vidi Vicious in the US. “The Hives – Introduce the Metric System in Time” was included on the punk rock sampler album Punk-O-Rama Volume 5 from Epitaph Records.[6]
The best treatment for hives and angiodema is to identify and remove the trigger, but this is not an easy task. Antihistamines are usually prescribed by your doctor to provide relief from symptoms. Antihistamines work best if taken on a regular schedule to prevent hives from forming in the first place.
A. As was said before chronic urticaria is a symptom of many problems. I once took NSAIDs for knee pain and I started to itch myself. It took my doctor 3 weeks to understand that I was allergic to this specific drug. I also know that tomatoes can cause me an allergic reaction. Try to think is there anything new in your life? Tell it to the GP maybe he will be able to tell you if this is the reason for your symptoms.
Clinical Context:  Azathioprine is a purine precursor that affects the formation of adenine and guanine. This results in impaired DNA synthesis in immunocompetent cells such as lymphocytes, which are dividing rapidly during an inflammatory process. Azathioprine has a slow onset of action; it is rarely used as monotherapy.
Chronic stress that persists for weeks or even months produces cortisol, the body’s main stress-induced hormone. When cortisol becomes elevated and remains so for awhile, it affects the cells that comprise your immune system. The immune system can’t keep infections or diseases at bay as it would do normally. Viruses or bacteria proliferate to the point where they can infect many cells, leading to symptoms and increased chance of illness.
The Hives’ official website was overhauled in the second week of August 2007, with a grungier, “emergency broadcast” layout. The new site revealed the album’s cover and the title of the first single, “Tick Tick Boom”, with a release date of August 14 in the United States and 8 October in the United Kingdom. The release dates for the new record, The Black and White Album, were 15 October in the UK on Polydor and November 13 in the US on A&M/Octone in 2007. It was mostly recorded in Oxford, Mississippi, Miami, and in their native Sweden.
Occasionally women notice that their urticaria seems to fluctuate in severity in relation to their menstrual cycle, and there is a rare cyclical form of urticaria, known as autoimmune progesterone urticaria, which occurs 7–10 days premenstrually [33]. In pregnancy urticaria will often improve, but there is a distinct clinical condition known as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy or ‘pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy’ (PUPPP) [34], in which the rash starts as itchy, urticarial papules and plaques in striae on the abdomen and thighs and then spreads to affect the whole trunk and limbs. It usually begins in the third trimester and is most common in first pregnancies or the first multiple pregnancy. In vitro fertilization, with the increased chance of multiple pregnancies, has increased the incidence of this condition. Treatment is with emollients, anti-histamines, topical steroids and occasionally, in severe cases, oral steroids. The rash usually resolves within days of delivery and generally does not recur. There is no adverse effect on the fetus. Urticaria occurring only during pregnancy and recurring during subsequent pregnancies has been reported [35].
Di Campli C, Gasbarrini A, Nucera E, Franceschi F, Ojetti V, Sanz Torre E, et al. Beneficial effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on idiopathic chronic urticaria. Dig Dis Sci. 1998 Jun. 43(6):1226-9. [Medline].
When my son came in contact with caterpillars he would break out in giant hives all over his body. THANK GOD FOR THE SASAFRASS TREE!!! I would make him a cup of tea and within 30 minutes the hives disappeared completely when Benadryl never did. Can be bought at your local grocers.

“treatment for urticaria urticaria symptoms”

Vicki Lawrence is no stranger to being quick on her feet and playing off improv lines on stage. But when she was diagnosed with this form of chronic hives without a known cause, she was caught off-guard.
Patients with chronic urticaria that has failed to respond to maximum-dose second generation oral antihistamines taken for 4 weeks should be referred to a dermatologist, immunologist or medical allergy specialist.
Other common causes are food, medication, chemicals such as acetone, a polymer such as latex, an viral, fungal, or bacterial infection, pet hair or dander, plants, and physical stimuli such as pressure, temperature, and sun exposure.[5]
The natural history of urticarial vasculitis depends in part upon the blood complement levels. In cases where these are normal, the prognosis is generally good. In cases where the complements are low, the disease may be more severe. When urticarial vasculitis is related to a disease such as lupus or cancer, its prognosis is often governed by the prognosis of the underlying disease
Eileen Bailey is a freelance health writer. She is the author of What Went Right: Reframe Your Thinking for a Happier Now, Idiot’s Guide to Adult ADHD, Idiot’s Guide to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Essential Guide to Overcoming Obsessive Love, and Essential Guide to Asperger’s Syndrome. She can be found on Twitter @eileenmbailey and on Facebook at eileenmbailey.
Mechanisms other than allergen-antibody interactions are known to cause histamine release from mast cells. Many drugs, for example morphine, can induce direct histamine release not involving any immunoglobulin molecule. Also, a diverse group of signaling substances, called neuropeptides, have been found to be involved in emotionally induced hives. Dominantly inherited cutaneous and neurocutaneous porphyrias (porphyria cutanea tarda, hereditary coproporphyria, variegate porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria) have been associated with solar urticaria. The occurrence of drug-induced solar urticaria may be associated with porphyrias. This may be caused by IgG binding, not IgE.
Review of systems should seek symptoms of causative disorders, including fever, fatigue, abdominal pain, and diarrhea (infection); heat or cold intolerance, tremor, or weight change (autoimmune thyroiditis); joint pain (cryoglobulinemia, SLE); malar rash (SLE); dry eyes and dry mouth (Sjögren syndrome); cutaneous ulcers and hyperpigmented lesions after resolution of urticaria (urticarial vasculitis); small pigmented papules (mastocytosis); lymphadenopathy (viral illness, cancer, serum sickness); acute or chronic diarrhea (viral or parasitic enterocolitis); and fevers, night sweats, or weight loss (cancer).
The main symptom of urticaria is a red, raised skin rash. They can appear anywhere on the body, including the face, hands, lips, tongue, throat or ears. Hives vary in size (from a pencil rubber to a dinner plate), and may join together to form larger areas known as plaques.
The following pictures are from other people that got a rash from stress. While a stress rash is very common, it is not an incurable condition. So if you are wondering “can anxiety cause a rash?” the answer is yes, and the solution is OxyHives. If none of these pictures look like your stress related rash, please keep in mind that everyone’s rash will look differently depending on various other factors.
Skin biopsy in patients in whom vasculitis is suspected: the lesions last for more than 24 hours, are painful and usually heal by leaving hyperpigmentation on the area of the lesions in urticarial vasculitis (24).
a pruritic skin eruption characterized by transient wheals of varying shapes and sizes with well-defined erythematous margins and pale centers. It is caused by capillary dilation in the that results from the release of vasoactive mediators, including histamine, kinin, and the slow reactive substance of anaphylaxis associated with antigen-antibody reaction. It may be a reaction to drugs, food, insect bites, inhalants, emotional stress, exposure to heat or cold, or exercise. Treatment includes antihistamines and removal of the stimulus or allergen. Also called hives. See also angioedema, cholinergic urticaria. urticarial, adj.
Clinical Context:  Although prednisone is most effective, adverse effect profiles preclude it from use as a first-line agent. Consider it only after failure of antihistamines, indomethacin, colchicine, dapsone, or hydroxychloroquine. Its effect on urticarial vasculitis likely is mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect. This class of medications decreases capillary permeability and inhibits the mitotic rate of lymphocytes.
Angioedema is swelling of the deeper tissue that sometimes occurs with hives. Like hives, angioedema can occur on any part of the body. When it occurs around the mouth or throat, the symptoms can be severe, including airway blockage.
When a patient has hives, a dermatologist can often make the diagnosis by looking at the skin. Finding the cause of hives, however, can be a challenge. This is especially true for hives that have been around for more than 6 weeks.
Jump up ^ Hirschmann, J. V.; Lawlor, F; English, JS; Louback, JB; Winkelmann, RK; Greaves, MW (1987). “Cholinergic Urticaria – A Clinical and Histologic Study”. Archives of Dermatology. 123 (4): 462–7. doi:10.1001/archderm.1987.01660280064024. PMID 3827277.
Hives are very common. They usually go away on their own, but if you have a serious case, you might need medicine or a shot. In rare cases, hives can cause a dangerous swelling in your airways, making it hard to breathe – which is a medical emergency.
The band members contributed to “Time For Some Action” and “Windows” on N.E.R.D.’s “Seeing Sounds” album, with Pelle Almqvist providing guest vocals on “Time For Some Action”. On Seeing Sounds they are credited with their real names instead of the pseudonyms they use within the band.[22][23]
Mix a baking soda paste. Baking soda can be used to help relieve the itching of your hives. Mix 1 tbsp of baking soda with enough water to make a paste. Try a few drops at first and stir, adding more as needed. Using your fingers or soft spatula, spread the paste over the hives. Use as often as needed and rinse off with cool water.
You probably won’t be able to tell the difference between stress hives and hives caused by an allergic reaction. The symptoms are pretty much identical. The big difference is that stress hives will pretty much appear out of nowhere.
Yet another consideration is if you have an allergy to latex because a number of foods are known to produce a cross-reaction. Foods on this list include avocado, bananas, chestnuts, kiwi, and passion fruit.
57. Pacor ML, Di Lorenzo G, Corrocher R. Efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist in chronic urticaria. A double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of treatment with montelukast and cetirizine in patients with chronic urticaria with intolerance to food additive and/or acetylsalicylic acid. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:1607–14. [PubMed]
Many antihistamines are available without prescription, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), taken in doses of 25 milligrams, and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), taken in a dose of 4 milligrams. These can be taken up to three times a day, but because these medications can cause drowsiness, they are often taken at bedtime. Those who take them should be especially careful and be sure they are fully alert before driving or participating in other activities requiring mental concentration.
Many patients with chronic urticaria derive benefit from a Low Vaso-active Amine Diet.  Histamine contained in foods such as dark fish, fermented cheese and cured meats may act non-specifically as a pseudo-allergen by perpetuating the urticaria.  Avoidance of these foods will help reduce itch and flushing (Berlin Diet).
Hives are a very itchy rash usually caused by an allergic reaction. Hives look like raised pink spots with pale centers on the skin. The spots range from 1/2 inch to several inches wide (hives often look like mosquito bites). The spots may be different shapes. The spots rapidly and repeatedly change in location, size, and shape. Giant hives are called angioedema. This can cause large swelling beneath the skin, especially of the face.

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Urticaria results from the release of histamine, bradykinin, kallikrein, and other vasoactive substances from mast cells and basophils in the superficial dermis, resulting in intradermal edema caused by capillary and venous vasodilation and occasionally caused by leukocyte infiltration.
Hives are welts on the skin that often itch. These welts can appear on any part of the skin. Hives vary in size from as small as a pen tip to as large as a dinner plate. They may connect to form even larger welts.
Stress hives symptoms include red bumps and swollen areas on your skin that seem to appear almost out of nowhere. They are typically quite itchy and have been known to cause a prickly or burning sensation – especially if touched. Stress hives can appear on any part of your body (face, hands, feet, arms, etc.) and can vary in size from as small as the eraser on a pencil to as large as a dinner plate. Stress hives, like a typical hives rash, have been known to spread from place to place, and smaller areas of hives can blend together to create larger areas known as plaques. These stress hives symptoms can easily be treated with the right over the counter medication.
Hypocomplementemia often is associated with a systemic condition, such as SLE (in which >50% of patients have hypocomplementemia).[3] In addition, as many as 71% of patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis have a positive antinuclear antibody titer but do not fulfill the American Rheumatism Association criteria for SLE.[6] Some authors have suggested evaluation of hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis for immunoglobulin G antibodies to C1q. Individuals with these antibodies have a higher incidence of angioedema, ocular inflammation, glomerulonephritis, and obstructive pulmonary disease.
The Hives completed recording vocals and guitar in late November 2006 for a song called “Throw It On Me”, a collaboration with hip-hop producer Timbaland. The song was included on his album, Timbaland Presents Shock Value, released on 3 April 2007. They also performed in a music video for the track. The Hives also have recently spoken of a collaboration with Jack White’s the Raconteurs on a song for their new album, originally entitled “Footsteps”, however it was later revealed that Howlin’ Pelle had literally recorded footsteps. Howlin’ Pelle also did a collaboration with Swedish rock artist Moneybrother, a cover of an Operation Ivy song “Freeze Up”. They used Swedish lyrics and called it “Jag skriver inte på nått”, which translates as “I Won’t Sign Anything”.
When a small child gets hives, it’s almost always due to an allergy. Hives on a baby, or hives on a toddler, can be particularly disturbing. Many parents wonder how can you tell hives vs rash. There is a quick skin test called “wheal and flare” that can help confirm whether or not it’s hives. According to Jon McCullers, M.D., pediatrician-in-chief at Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital in Memphis, if child has a big red patch on his or her skin and you see swelling (that’s the “wheal”), drag a fingernail over the area and if you see a brighter redness (“flare”) then it’s an allergic reaction. (11)
It occurs in both men and women, but appears to be more common in men than women. The condition tends to first appear in people aged between 10 and 30 years and persists for a number of years before it becomes less severe or goes away altogether. The natural course of cholinergic urticaria is quite variable, with most patients experiencing slow resolution over several years.
The common symptoms include a raised, bumpy red rash, with the bumps often looking more like normal skin colour, that is often quite itchy. The raised areas of skin are known as weals, which often fade after a few hours but can sometimes reappear elsewhere on the body.
Although systemic treatment is best avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding, there have been no reports that second-generation antihistamines cause birth defects. If treatment is required, loratidine and cetirizine are currently preferred.
“This subset — about 30 percent of patients who have been diagnosed with idiopathic urticaria — is the group in which we most often look to psychological factors for an explanation,” she says. “Many dermatologists will agree that it is not uncommon to see chronic idiopathic urticaria arising after a major life stressor, or for patients who are most impaired by urticaria to be those with more limited stress management skills.”
Greenberger PA. Chronic urticaria: new management options. World Allergy Organ J. 2014 Nov 5;7(1):31. doi: 10.1186/1939-4551-7-31. eCollection 2014. Review. PubMed PMID: 25383135; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4223736.
When a cause for hives can be found, it’s most likely an infection. Viral upper respiratory infections cause about 40% of hives rashes. Fortunately, these hives outbreaks resolve as the infection resolves. A chronic bacterial infection, especially sinusitis, may be the culprit if a case of hives is lingering.
Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head, Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School
Here’s an additional reason to brush, floss, and see your dentist regularly: In a study published in April 2013 in the journal Advances in Dermatology and Allergology, researchers found that tooth decay and several other infections can play a significant role in the development of chronic hives. Bacterial infections (such as urinary tract infections and strep throat) and viral infections (such as hepatitis and norovirus, a common cause of stomach “flu”) were also found to be triggers of chronic hives.
There are some researches that link post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a classic stress-mediated syndrome with urticaria (the medical term for hives or nettle-rash), clearing the possible co-morbidity.
The stress and anxiety bought on by an attack of hives can be countered with herbal teas such as peppermint or chamomile tea. These teas also have sedative properties and can help soothe the pain and itching symptoms of hives. Other stress busting activities like yoga and meditation can also help.
Yang, H. Y., Sun, C. C., Wu, Y. C, & Wang, J. D. (2005, April). Stress, insomnia, and chronic idiopathic urticaria, a case-control study. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association,104(4):254-63. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15909063
Chronic stress that persists for weeks or even months produces cortisol, the body’s main stress-induced hormone. When cortisol becomes elevated and remains so for awhile, it affects the cells that comprise your immune system. The immune system can’t keep infections or diseases at bay as it would do normally. Viruses or bacteria proliferate to the point where they can infect many cells, leading to symptoms and increased chance of illness.
If you are constantly worried about what causes hives then you should understand that when you expose your body to excessive stress either for a small amount of time or perhaps a long period of time your own body’s immune system sets out to falter and it starts sending histamine for the body to handle what is causing problem.
If you have chronic hives, or urticaria, you probably already know that when you are under stress, your symptoms either appear or worsen. Doctors have increasingly looked to study the relationship between emotional stress and skin conditions. One study, which appeared in Dermatology Times, examined the relationship between stress and chronic hives. Josie Howard, M.D., a psychiatrist in private practice and clinical instructor of psychiatry and dermatology at the University of California, stated that, “external stressors plus cognitive, behavioral and social stressors have been shown to play a significant role in the intensity of itch.” She also explains that it is not unusual for hives to appear after a major life stressor and that those with chronic hives have “limited stress management skills.”
Occasionally women notice that their urticaria seems to fluctuate in severity in relation to their menstrual cycle, and there is a rare cyclical form of urticaria, known as autoimmune progesterone urticaria, which occurs 7–10 days premenstrually [33]. In pregnancy urticaria will often improve, but there is a distinct clinical condition known as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy or ‘pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy’ (PUPPP) [34], in which the rash starts as itchy, urticarial papules and plaques in striae on the abdomen and thighs and then spreads to affect the whole trunk and limbs. It usually begins in the third trimester and is most common in first pregnancies or the first multiple pregnancy. In vitro fertilization, with the increased chance of multiple pregnancies, has increased the incidence of this condition. Treatment is with emollients, anti-histamines, topical steroids and occasionally, in severe cases, oral steroids. The rash usually resolves within days of delivery and generally does not recur. There is no adverse effect on the fetus. Urticaria occurring only during pregnancy and recurring during subsequent pregnancies has been reported [35].
This nonsteroidal treatment option is taken orally. These drugs should be used only after steroid treatment and antihistamines have been unsuccessful. Common side effects are headache, stomach upset, cough, and a low fever.
Dermatographic urticaria (also known as dermatographism or “skin writing”) is marked by the appearance of weals or welts on the skin as a result of scratching or firm stroking of the skin. Seen in 4–5% of the population, it is one of the most common types of urticaria,[11] in which the skin becomes raised and inflamed when stroked, scratched, rubbed, and sometimes even slapped.[12]
Hives are most commonly caused by an allergic reaction in which your immune system releases histamine into the bloodstream to fight the allergen. In essence, your immune system thinks there is a foreign substance (called allergens) in your system, and tells the body to release histamine to fight it off. This usually causes the red, raised bumps and swelling which can be quite painful unless a treatment for hives is taken.
William E. Berger, HIVES: The Road to Diagnosis and Treatment of Urticaria, Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, Volume 92, Issue 5, May 2004, Page 582, ISSN 1081-1206, 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)61771-1.
Urticaria results from the release of histamine, bradykinin, leukotriene C4, prostaglandin D2, and other vasoactive substances from mast cells and basophils in the dermis. [2] These substances cause extravasation of plasma into the dermis, leading to the urticarial lesion. The intense pruritus of urticaria is a result of histamine released into the dermis. One study showed that D-dimer levels correlate with the severity of acute urticaria and may serve as a marker of disease severity. [75]  

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There are many causes of hives including foods, drugs, infections, and diseases. Oddly enough, even though there are many potential causes, in the majority of cases of hives, the cause is unknown. Hives causes can be broken down into 3 broad groups:
Physically induced hives and/or swelling share the common property of being induced by environmental factors such as a change in temperature or by direct stimulation of the skin by pressure, stroking, vibration, or light.
Mint oil cools the skin and reduces swelling and pain. Freeze fresh mint leaves and water to form ice cubes and place them over the rash for an alternative relief treatment. Make sure that you wrap the ice cubes in a cloth before applying them to the skin, as the direct application of ice can cause further skin damage.
Mix a baking soda paste. Baking soda can be used to help relieve the itching of your hives. Mix 1 tbsp of baking soda with enough water to make a paste. Try a few drops at first and stir, adding more as needed. Using your fingers or soft spatula, spread the paste over the hives. Use as often as needed and rinse off with cool water.
72. Davis MD, Daoud MS, Kirby B, Gibson LE, Rogers RS., III Clinicopathologic correlation of hypocomplementemic and normocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:899–905. [PubMed]
Individuals who have urticaria due to aspirin may need to avoid foods that contain high levels of salicylates. As well as this, antihistamines are the mainstay of drug treatment for urticaria and angioedema. They may be taken just when required or regularly to prevent episodes occurring in chronic spontaneous urticaria.
This type of urticaria is also termed rare, and occurs upon contact with water. The response is not temperature-dependent and the skin appears similar to cholinergic form of the disease. The appearance of hives is within one to 15 minutes of contact with the water, and can last from 10 minutes to two hours. This kind of hives do not seem to be stimulated by histamine discharge like the other physical hives. Most researchers believe this condition is actually skin sensitivity to additives in the water, such as chlorine. Water urticaria is diagnosed by dabbing tap water and distilled water to the skin and observing the gradual response. Aquagenic urticaria is treated with capsaicin (Zostrix) administered to the chafed skin. This is the same treatment used for shingles. Antihistamines are of questionable benefit in this instance, since histamine is not the causative factor.[citation needed]
Examination of bedding and the children’s play areas for insects may provide a clue to the cause. If insects are found, they must be eliminated by insect repellant or fumigation, and pets should be washed. These bugs are usually not visible to the naked eye. Hanging the bedding in the hot sun may rid these of the bedbugs.
They released their second studio album Veni Vidi Vicious in April 2000 through Burning Heart Records. The band themselves described the album as being like “a velvet glove with brass knuckles, both brutal and sophisticated at the same time”. The album yielded the singles “Hate to Say I Told You So”, “Main Offender”, “Die, All Right!”, and “Supply and Demand.”
Hive-like rashes commonly accompany viral illnesses, such as the common cold. They usually appear three to five days after the cold has started, and may even appear a few days after the cold has resolved.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitor) anti-hypertensives release Bradykinin and are a common trigger for angioedema and urticaria, especially Lisinopril, Perindopril and Enalapril.  ACE inhibitors may trigger angioedema even after many years of use.  The Angiotensin-II receptor anatagonists (ACE 2) such as Valsartan and Candesartan are less likely to induce angioedema and urticaria.
In some people hives are caused by physical triggers, including cold (such as cold air, water or ice), heat, sunlight (solar), vibration, rubbing or scratching of the skin (dermatographism) and delayed pressure (such as after carrying heavy bags.  In other people, exercise (sweating), stress, alcohol, spicy food or coffee may cause symptoms.
Ordinary hives flare up suddenly and usually for no specific reason. Welts appear, often in several places. They flare, itch, swell, and go away in a matter of minutes to hours, only to appear elsewhere. This sequence may go on from days to weeks. Most episodes of hives last less than six weeks. Although that cutoff point is arbitrary, cases of hives that last more than six weeks are often called “chronic.”
The older oral antihistamines (eg, hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine) are sedating and can cause confusion, urinary retention, and delirium. They should be used cautiously to treat urticaria in elderly patients.
The Hives are a Swedish rock band that rose to prominence in the early 2000s during the garage rock revival. Their mainstream success came with the release of the album Veni Vidi Vicious, containing the anthem “Hate to Say I Told You So”. The band have been acclaimed by music critics as one of the best live rock bands in current music.[1][2]
cold urticaria urticaria precipitated by cold air, water, or objects, occurring in two forms: In the autosomal dominant form, which is associated with fever, arthralgias, and leukocytosis, the lesions occur as erythematous, burning papules and macules. The more common acquired form is usually idiopathic and self-limited.
Drugs that have caused allergic reactions evidenced as hives include codeine, dextroamphetamine,[7] aspirin, ibuprofen, penicillin, clotrimazole, trichazole, sulfonamides, anticonvulsants, cefaclor, piracetam, vaccines, and antidiabetic drugs. The antidiabetic sulphonylurea glimepiride, in particular, has been documented to induce allergic reactions manifesting as hives. Drug-induced hives has been known to have an effect on severe cardiorespiratory failure.[medical citation needed]
Consultation with or referral to a dermatologist, allergist, immunologist, or rheumatologist may be appropriate in selected cases, particularly in cases of complicated, recurrent, refractory, severe, or chronic urticaria. Dermatology referral is mandatory if urticarial vasculitis is suspected.
Non-sedating H1 antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Cetirizine, loratadine and fexofenadine are usual choices. Studies comparing antihistamines are limited and so far no single antihistamine has shown itself to be superior for chronic spontaneous urticaria[6]. Once symptom control has been achieved, the antihistamine should be continued for 3-6 months.
The most common food allergies are to eggs, nuts, milk, peanuts, fish, shellfish, strawberries and tomatoes. Symptoms and signs include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, itching, hives, eczema, asthma, lightheadedness, and anaphylaxis. Allergy skin tests, RAST, and ELISA tests may be used to diagnose a food allergy. Though dietary avoidance may be sufficient treatment for mild allergies, the use of an Epipen may be necessary for severe food allergies.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria and angioedema is diagnosed when hives and swelling are present for more than six weeks and when it has been determined that an apparent protracted of urticaria is not the result of recurrent episodes of acute urticaria.

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First off, if you think you know what caused your hives, then avoid further contact or consumption with whatever it is. If you suspect that your hives are being caused by a particular food you’re eating or a certain pet you currently have in your home, then it is a good idea to get some allergy testing done. Allergy testing can reveal your hive triggers, which you can then avoid (as much as possible) and you can greatly prevent the likelihood of another undesirable hives rash. (15) Keeping a food diary can also help a hive sufferer to pinpoint any food allergies.
Irinyi B, Széles G, Gyimesi E, Tumpek J, Herédi E, Dimitrios G, et al. Clinical and laboratory examinations in the subgroups of chronic urticaria. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007. 144(3):217-25. [Medline].
^ Jump up to: a b American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. “Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question” (PDF). Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012
When an allergic reaction occurs, the body releases a protein called histamine. When histamine is released, the tiny blood vessels known as capillaries leak fluid. The fluid accumulates in the skin and causes a rash.
Intense emotional responses can trigger a hives outbreak. For those with chronic hives, or hives that persist for more than six weeks at a time, stress and anger can heat up the body and cause it to release histamine.
Hive-like rashes commonly accompany viral illnesses, such as the common cold. They usually appear three to five days after the cold has started, and may even appear a few days after the cold has resolved.
Where a standard dose of a non-sedating H1 antihistamine is ineffective, doses of up to four times the standard dose may be used, or another antihistamine added. Evidence for up-titrating the dose varies[7]. An additional sedating antihistamine such as chlorphenamine may be useful if itch is interfering with sleep. Avoid hydroxyzine if the person has a prolonged QT interval or risk factors for QT interval prolongation in line with recent guidance from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)[8].
The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA), a not-for-profit organization founded in 1953, is the leading patient organization for people with asthma and allergies, and the oldest asthma and allergy patient group in the world.
In so many words, stress hives are caused by excessive stress. When you’re stressed out, your immune system is thrown off a little bit. In an effort to try to “fix” the problem (stress), your immune system sends out histamine. It’s as if your body becomes allergic to stress.Since histamine can’t cure stress, it causes your body to develop hives instead.
Methods of stress relief may include taking a much-deserved vacation, starting a hobby as a distraction from stress, practicing meditation and mindfulness, and exercising. If stress-relieving activities don’t help to reduce your hives, treatment with oral antihistamines will likely help. You can also work with your doctor or a psychologist to address specific causes of stress and develop coping mechanisms.
If you aren’t certain what is causing your hives and are bothered by the symptoms, talking to your can help you identify potential allergic triggers. He or she can also order blood or skin tests for allergies if necessary.
It is okay for you to get your acute urticaria treated by conventional medicine such as anti-histamines. However, if you have urticaria for some months or years, you need homeopathy. Homeopathy is an answer to chronic urticaria.
I found that my urticaria arose whenever i ate a particular type of chocolate. This was small chocolate chips found in Biscuits like Hide & Seek / Choconut etc and also when i ate ‘Selbourne’ chocolate. This appears to also happen when i have indigestion problem and i eat this chocolate. Never happens when i eat other chocolates. I get relief by applying a little Axe Oil or PakFahYeow
Acute urticaria is most often a benign, self-limited skin disease. It usually occurs independently, but it may contribute to the more serious clinical manifestations of anaphylaxis: angioedema and anaphylactic shock. The etiologies of both acute and chronic urticaria are numerous (see Causes in Presentation). The etiologic agent is more likely to be identified in acute urticaria (40-60%) than in chronic urticaria (10-20%). The lesions of IgE-mediated urticaria usually last less than 24 hours and are often migratory, leaving no residual skin abnormalities. The lesions of urticarial vasculitis usually last longer, classically, but not always, longer than 24 hours. [8] They are both painful and pruritic and often leave purpuric and hyperpigmented lesions. [9] Unlike simple urticaria, urticarial vasculitis demonstrates leukocytoclastic vasculitis on histology. Like urticaria, it may occur with or without angioedema. It may be associated with systemic symptoms such as arthralgias and GI symptoms, which are more common in patients with low complement levels. Although it is most often idiopathic, it is more often associated with autoimmune diseases such as lupus and Sjögren syndrome, as well as viral infections, medications, and malignancy, when compared with classic urticaria. [13] If urticarial vasculitis is suspected, an autoimmune screen, including complement levels, should be included in the workup. Initial treatment options include antihistamines and NSAIDs.
Bluestein HM, Hoover TA, Banerji AS, Camargo CA Jr, Reshef A, Herscu P. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema in a community hospital emergency department. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009 Dec. 103(6):502-7. [Medline].
Widespread hives usually are a reaction to a viral infection. Less commonly they are an allergic reaction to a food, medicine or bee sting. Often the cause is not found (more than 30%). Hives on just one part of the body (localized) are usually due to skin contact with plants, pollen, food, or pet saliva. Localized hives are not an allergy and not caused by drugs, infections, or swallowed foods. Hives are not contagious.
Hives caused by the radiocontrast dye, codeine, morphine, and aspirin are usually not triggered by the immune system, rather these drugs cause the direct release of histamine from specialized white blood cells called mast cells.
Try coleus forskohlii. Coleus forskohlii is a plant native to Southeast Asia that is used in Ayurvedic medicine. Studies have shown that it reduces the histamine and leukotriene release from mast cells when you get hives.[23]
A. As was said before chronic urticaria is a symptom of many problems. I once took NSAIDs for knee pain and I started to itch myself. It took my doctor 3 weeks to understand that I was allergic to this specific drug. I also know that tomatoes can cause me an allergic reaction. Try to think is there anything new in your life? Tell it to the GP maybe he will be able to tell you if this is the reason for your symptoms.
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Swelling of deeper layers of the skin, angioedema, commonly accompanies urticaria (click for picture). This swelling often results from the same inflammatory processes that cause hives. The redness that is seen surrounding superficial lesions is not observed, though the swelling is readily appreciated. Angioedema generally occurs on the extremities and digits as well as areas of the head, neck, face, and in men, genitalia. It is often described as being painful or burning.
A hive often goes away in 24 hours or less. New hives may appear as old ones fade, so hives may last for a few days or longer. A bout of hives usually lasts less than 6 weeks. These hives are called acute hives. If hives last more than 6 weeks, they are called chronic hives.
Check CH50, C3, C4, Clq, and antibodies to Clq in urticarial vasculitis patients. If these test results are positive, evaluate renal function and urinalysis to check for the effects of vasculitis on the kidneys.
The condition was first distinguished in 1980. People with exercise urticaria (EU) experience hives, itchiness, shortness of breath and low blood pressure five to 30 minutes after beginning exercise. These symptoms can progress to shock and even sudden death. Jogging is the most common exercise to cause EU, but it is not induced by a hot shower, fever, or with fretfulness. This differentiates EU from cholinergic urticaria.[citation needed]
Urticarial Vasculitis is a rare painful non-migratory wealing reaction which persist for more than 24 hours and is often associated with fever, bruising and joint pain.  The associated with an underlying auto-immune diseases such as Serum Sickness, Systemic Lupus and Sjogren’s Syndrome should not be overlooked.  Urticaria Pigmentosa is a diffuse dark freckle-like rash that weals rubbing the skin (Dariers sign) and is due to excess mast cells in the skin (Cutaneous Mastocytosis).  Children frequently develop discrete linear or grouped itchy Papular Urticaria from insect bite sensitivities.
The information on Health24 is for educational purposes only, and is not intended as medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. If you are experiencing symptoms or need health advice, please consult a healthcare professional. See additional information.
Unusual, recurrent, or persistent cases warrant further evaluation. Referral for allergy skin testing should be done, and routine laboratory tests should consist of CBC, blood chemistries, liver function tests, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Further testing should be guided by symptoms and signs (eg, of autoimmune disorders) and any abnormalities on the screening tests (eg, hepatitis serologies and ultrasonography for abnormal liver function tests; ova and parasites for eosinophilia; cryoglobulin titer for elevated liver function tests or elevated creatinine; thyroid autoantibodies for abnormal TSH).
Many different drugs may cause urticaria. The cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-inhibitor drugs such as aspirin [22] and NSAIDs [23] are a common cause. Opiates, including codeine, may trigger direct histamine release from mast cells [24]. Many different over-the-counter analgesics contain aspirin, NSAIDs and/or codeine and it is therefore important to be specific as to exactly which painkillers patients may or may not be able to take. These reactions are not IgE-mediated and specific IgE testing for aspirin, NSAIDs and opiates is not indicated. Evidence of oxidative damage, as shown by increased protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, and of increased anti-oxidant enzyme activity has been found in patients who develop non-IgE-mediated drug-related urticaria [25]; however, it is not known if this oxidative stress is the cause or the effect of the reaction. [Drugs such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and statins cause isolated angioedema much more commonly than urticaria]. Radio-contrast media and plasma substitutes may also cause urticarial reactions.
The diseases listed above are rare causes of hives, with the exception of thyroid disease. People with chronic urticaria have a higher incidence of thyroid problems compared to the general population.
Angioedema is swelling in the deeper layers of a person’s skin. It’s often severe and is caused by a build-up of fluid. The symptoms of angioedema can affect any part of the body, but usually affect the:

“chronic urticaria causes _best treatment for hives”

Chronic hives should be evaluated by an allergist, who will ask about your and your family’s medical history, substances to which you are exposed at home and at work, exposure to pets or other animals and any medications you’ve taken recently. If you have been keeping a food diary, show it to your allergist.
This nonsteroidal treatment option is taken orally. These drugs should be used only after steroid treatment and antihistamines have been unsuccessful. Common side effects are headache, stomach upset, cough, and a low fever.
Urticaria can occur due to allergy or even without allergy. Urticaria is not of a skin disease. It is a disease on the skin, due to altered immune system. The treatment for Urticaria has to be at the level of immune system.
Although rosacea can affect anyone, it’s most common in middle-aged women who have fair skin. There’s no cure for rosacea, so treatments focus on management techniques. This includes wearing a broad-spectrum sunscreen and moisturizing frequently.
Jump up ^ AU Shahar E, Bergman R, Guttman-Yassky E, Pollack S (2006). “Treatment of severe chronic idiopathic urticaria with oral mycophenolate mofetil in patients not responding to antihistamines and/or corticosteroids”. SO Int J Dermatol. 45 (10): 1224–1227. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2006.02655.x.
Angioedema is similar to hives, but the swelling occurs beneath the skin instead of on the surface. Angioedema is characterized by deep swelling around the eyes and lips and sometimes of the genitals, hands, and feet. It generally lasts longer than hives, but the swelling usually goes away in less than 24 hours.
Urticarial Vasculitis is a form of cutaneous vasculitis characterised by inflammation of the small blood vessels. Urticarial Vasculitis can be classified into three subtypes. All are defined by a measure of the “complement” levels in the blood. The complement system is a set of proteins that contribute to and amplify immune responses. They play a role in some, but not all, autoimmune disorders including some forms of Urticarial Vasculitis.
Rosacea is another common skin condition. Depending on the type, it often causes small, red, sometimes pus-filled bumps to form on the skin. The skin can thicken in these areas. The rash typically covers the cheeks, nose, and forehead. But it can involve other areas of the face. These bumps may appear for weeks to months before disappearing and appearing again at a later time.
Medications: Topical ointments can be applied to the skin to relieve the itch. Antihistamines will reduce the itching and swelling. Cortisone drugs used as an ointment or given by mouth may be needed.
When hives occur due to an allergy, high levels of histamine and other chemical messengers are released into the skin. These substances cause your blood vessels to open up. often results in pinkness or redness, as well as extra fluid in the tissues, which causes swelling and itching. (7)
Jump up ^ Nakamizo, S.; Egawa, G.; Miyachi, Y.; Kabashima, K. (2012). “Cholinergic urticaria: Pathogenesis-based categorization and its treatment options”. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 26 (1): 114–6. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2011.04017.x. PMID 21371134.
What do bed bug bites look like? See spider bite pictures and learn how to identify bug bites from mosquitos, bees, bed bugs, wasps, and more. See what their bites & stings look like and how to treat bug bites.
Contrary to this opinion, William E. Berger, MD, MBA, professor of medicine at the University of California, tells WebMD that allergies create stress because you cannot focus on tasks and your coping skills decline.
The Hives were featured in a Finish Line commercial performing “Tick Tick Boom”, as well as a Nike commercial featuring the song “Return The Favour”. “Tick Tick Boom” was also used in many different advertisements including: the 2007 season of the NFL Network, commercials for the CBS series Jericho, and the USA series Burn Notice, as well as the films Jumper (2008), MacGruber, and Get Smart, and was also the official theme song for WWE Survivor Series 2007. The Hives song “Try It Again” was featured in the trailer for the US film Get Him to the Greek.
Make a pineapple compress. Bromelain is an enzyme found in pineapples and can help reduce the swelling of hives. Crush some pineapple, either canned or fresh, and place it on a thin cotton towel. Pull the four corners of the towel together and tie them off with a rubber band. Place the damp, pineapple filled towel over the hives.
Yet another consideration is if you have an allergy to latex because a number of foods are known to produce a cross-reaction. Foods on this list include avocado, bananas, chestnuts, kiwi, and passion fruit.

“hives on torso +what do hives feel like”

Some people react to anything that makes them hot or sweaty with hives. This can be sunlight, exercise, hot baths, blushing or anger. These are tiny intensely itchy hives with a big red blotch around them and are called cholinergic urticarial.
To treat a type of chronic hives called CIU, which can last for 6 weeks or longer and sometimes years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 2 medications — antihistamines and omalizumab.
Patients taking progesterone-containing oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy or those with cyclic urticaria that appears during the 2nd half of the menstrual cycle and resolves with menstruation
Kids with bad allergies should carry an injectable shot of epinephrine to prevent life-threatening allergy attacks. If your child is at risk, the doctor will teach you and your child how to safely give an injection in the event of a severe allergic reaction.
The weals are commonly 1-2 cm across but can vary in size. There may be just a few but sometimes many develop over various parts of the body. Sometimes weals next to each other join together to form larger ones. The weals can be any shape but are often circular. As a weal fades, the surrounding flare remains for a while. This makes the affected area of skin look blotchy and red. The blotches then fade gradually and the returns to normal.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is an outbreak of swollen, pale red bumps or plaques (wheals) that suddenly appear on the skin. Their appearance is usually the result of either the body’s reaction to certain allergens. Hives, generally speaking, cause and itchy feeling, but may also burn or sting. Common areas for hives to appear include the face, tongue, lips, throat and ears. It is important to note that hives don’t only come in one size, but rather they can carry from as small as a pencil eraser to as are as a hubcap. Hives, typically speaking, only last for a few hours up until a day, especially after treatment.
The clinical history should indicate if a vasculitic process is likely, with the lesions lasting for several days, instead of hours, and being painful or burning, instead of itchy. Patients should be asked about drug treatment and joint, gastrointestinal and pulmonary symptoms. Examination may show purpura or hyperpigmentation at the sites of earlier lesions and, possibly, signs of an associated underlying disease such as SLE. Investigations which may be relevant include skin biopsy to confirm the diagnosis; FBC and ESR; renal and liver function tests; urine analysis; complement C3 and C4 levels and anti-C1q antibodies; ANA and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) (often positive for Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B if the patient has Sjögren’s syndrome); hepatitis, Borrelia or Epstein–Barr virus serology; immunoglobulins and protein electrophoresis and cryoglobulins and chest X-ray (CXR) and pulmonary function tests if symptoms suggest lung involvement. [Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are rarely found in urticarial vasculitis and if ANCA testing is positive an alternative diagnosis such as Wegener’s granulomatosis or microscopic polyangiitis should be considered.]
Diagnosis is by skin biopsy, taken ideally from a ‘new’ lesion (within 12 h of appearance), which shows a small vessel leucocytoclastic vasculitis involving post-capillary venules, with endothelial cell swelling, a neutrophil cell infiltrate, extravasation of red blood cells and fibrinoid deposits in and around blood vessels [75]. The condition is thought to be mediated via a type III/immune complex hypersensitivity reaction, in which antigen/antibody complexes deposit in vessel walls. This results in complement activation, neutrophil chemotaxis and infiltration and the release of proteolytic neutrophil enzymes, such as collagenases and elastases, which cause tissue damage. Immunofluorescence shows deposition of immunoglobulin and complement.
To know exactly what kind of hives one has, or to learn more about research into the immune basis of hives or about rarer forms of this condition, consult a physician. It is important, however, to keep in mind that most cases of urticaria are annoying, not serious, and almost always temporary.
Dr. Tiffany Davies has been helping people suffering from urticaria since 2001. She first got started researching hives when her daughter came down with a terrible case caused by touching raw eggs. She had no idea a rash like this could even be caused by something as innoculous as raw eggs. Since then, she’s expanded her website to accomodate for the many different types of hives (such as stress induced hives and chronic hives), their symptoms and hives treatment options.
There are no routine diagnostic tests in chronic spontaneous urticaria apart from blood count and C-reactive protein (CBC, CRP), but investigations may be undertaken if an underlying disorder is suspected.
This antibiotic is available topically and as an oral medication. This medication can treat inflammation caused by hives or other skin conditions caused by bacterial infection. It’s important to take all antibiotics prescribed.
Because blood and allergy tests exist to confirm hives at the doctor’s office, and antihistamines are readily available over the counter, determining the diagnosis and appropriate treatment might seem easy. However, since many of these disorders show the same symptoms and have different treatment methods, it’s important to be aware of the similarities and differences between them. So, read on to learn about five common skin disorders that may look and feel a lot like hives.
Urticaria can vary from small bumps, or vary greatly in shape and size (from a pinhead to a frisbee).It may be localized to one part of the body or be widespread. It may start off localized only to spread to other areas of the body with time. Although they more commonly appear on the arms, legs and trunk, they can appear anywhere on the body.
Hives can also develop as a result of sun or cold exposure, infections, excessive perspiration, and emotional stress. The reason why stress seems to precipitate an outbreak of hives in many people is not completely understood but is likely related to the known effects of stress on the immune system. In many cases, the cause of hives in a given individual cannot be identified.

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Chronic urticaria and angioedema can affect other internal organs such as the lungs, muscles, and gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms include muscle soreness, shortness of breath, vomiting, and diarrhea.
The overall prognosis in Urticarial Vasculitis depends on the severity of the disease and the amount of damage that has been done to organs, especially the lungs. The main risk to patients appears to be Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
These types of antihistamines usually work well and do not cause drowsiness. Occasionally an older antihistamine which makes you sleepy may be useful, particularly if the itch keeps you awake at night. In this case an antihistamine such as chlorphenamine may be useful.
If your child has chronic hives, the doctor may ask you to keep a daily record of activities, such as what your child eats, drinks, and where the hives tend to show up on the body. Diagnostic tests — such as blood tests, allergy tests, and tests to rule out underlying conditions such as thyroid disease or hepatitis — might be done to find the exact cause of the hives.
Chronic hives should be evaluated by an allergist, who will ask about your and your family’s medical history, substances to which you are exposed at home and at work, exposure to pets or other animals and any medications you’ve taken recently. If you have been keeping a food diary, show it to your allergist.
Urticaria, commonly referred to as hives, is the most frequent dermatologic disorder seen in the emergency department (ED). It appears as raised, well-circumscribed areas of erythema and edema involving the dermis and epidermis that are very pruritic. Urticaria may be acute (lasting <6 wk) or chronic (lasting >6 wk). A large variety of urticaria variants exist, including acute immunoglobulin E (IgE)–mediated urticaria, chemical-induced urticaria (non-IgE-mediated), autoimmune urticaria, cholinergic urticaria, cold urticaria, mastocytosis, periodic fever syndromes including Muckle-Wells syndrome, and many others. [2, 10] While acute urticaria is generally related to an exogenous allergen or acute infection, chronic urticaria is more likely to be associated with autoimmunity. [8, 11, 12]
If non-sedating antihistamines are not effective, a 4 to 5-day course of oral prednisone (prednisolone) may be warranted in severe acute urticaria, particularly if there is angioedema. Systemic steroids do not speed up resolution of symptoms.
Angioedema is swelling of the deeper tissue that sometimes occurs with hives. Like hives, angioedema can occur on any part of the body. When it occurs around the mouth or throat, the symptoms can be severe, including airway blockage.
Kevin P Connelly, DO Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Emergency Care, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine; Medical Director, Paws for Health Pet Visitation Program of the Richmond SPCA; Pediatric Emergency Physician, Emergency Consultants Inc, Chippenham Medical Center
They also play a central role in allergy. Mast cells contain sacks filled with chemicals, including histamine. These chemicals are released in response to certain external triggers, e.g., allergens, physical causes. Some individuals’ mast cells are unstable and cause urticaria without being triggered by an external factor. When these chemicals are released in small amounts, they cause local itch, irritation and redness of the overlying skin. In larger amounts, they will cause fluid to leak out of blood vessels, resulting in swelling of the skin. When released in massive amounts, it may result in shock (anaphylaxis).
Unfortunately, when you have stress hives on neck, face or on hands what you want is a quick and immediate relief. Sure there are drugs on the market like anti-histamines and corticosteroids which reduce the itching and ugly appearance of the hives. On the other hand they come with so undesirable side effects that you should limit their use to only when it is absolutely necessary.
However, says Anand, “we don’t know if the disease causes urticaria or if the person’s propensity to have an autoimmune reaction causes it. But if we don’t find any triggers when we test for allergens, then we look for an underlying infection or autoimmune disease.” Anand adds that treatment for that condition can help clear the hives.
A high-power view of the histology of urticarial vasculitis shows extensive fibrin deposition in the vessel walls. Surrounding the vessels is a mixed infiltrate predominately composed of neutrophils with leukocytoclasis.
Once you know what triggers your outbreaks, limiting your exposure to these will reduce your risk of developing hives. Keep in mind though that sometimes hives appears to be spontaneous with no known trigger. 

“cold urticaria treatment _allergic reaction hives treatment”

The skin reaction usually becomes evident soon after the scratching, and disappears within 30 minutes. Dermatographism is the most common form of a subset of chronic hives, acknowledged as “physical hives”.[citation needed]
Investigations for a systemic condition or autoinflammatory disease should be undertaken in urticaria patients with fever, joint or bone pain, and malaise. Patients with angioedema without weals should be asked if they take ACE inhibitor drugs and tested for complement C4; C1-INH levels, function and antibodies; and C1q.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria is mainly idiopathic (cause unknown). An autoimmune cause is likely. About half of investigated patients carry functional IgG autoantibodies to immunoglobulin IgE or high-affinity receptor FcεRIα.
Seek urgent medical attention for yourself or your child if hives are severe and/or cover a large area of your body, or if you have other symptoms, such as difficulty breathing or a fever. Chronic urticaria or chronic hives should be evaluated by an allergist or immunologist to determine proper hives treatment.
While avoiding these triggers could prevent hives from returning, Dr. Li says your doctor may be able to provide an antihistamine that could solve a weather- or temperature-based problem. That way, you can enjoy a hike on a sunny summer day or hold a cold can of beer on the weekend without worrying about a potential hives outbreak.
Immunological: Some hives are caused by changes in the immune system. A typical scenario would be coming in contact with something that causes cells in the immune system to trigger the release of histamine from certain white blood cells called mast cells.
The overall prognosis in Urticarial Vasculitis depends on the severity of the disease and the amount of damage that has been done to organs, especially the lungs. The main risk to patients appears to be Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
Allergic reactions, chemicals in foods, insect stings, sunlight, and medicines can make your body release a chemical called histamine. Histamine sometimes makes blood plasma leak out of small blood vessels in the skin, causing hives or angioedema.
As noted above, many cases of ordinary hives are “idiopathic,” meaning no cause is known. Others may be triggered by viral infections. A few may be caused by medications, usually when they have been taken for the first time a few weeks before. (It is less likely for drugs taken continuously for long periods to cause hives but certainly not impossible.) When a medication is implicated as a cause of hives, the drug must be stopped, since testing is rarely available to confirm the cause. In most cases, drug-induced hives will go away in a few days. If a drug is stopped and the hives do not go away, this is a strong indication that the medication was not the cause of the hives.
Welts (raised areas surrounded by a red base) from hives can appear anywhere on the surface of the skin. Whether the trigger is allergic or not, a complex release of inflammatory mediators, including histamine from cutaneous mast cells, results in fluid leakage from superficial blood vessels. Welts may be pinpoint in size, or several inches in diameter.
Allergic hives and angioedema form when, in response to histamine, blood plasma leaks out of small blood vessels in the skin. Histamine is a chemical released from specialized cells along the skin’s blood vessels.
Urticaria due to the direct effects of physical forces on the skin. Cold temperature (cold urticaria), pressure (pressure urticaria), ultraviolet radiation (solar urticaria), and scratching (dermographism) are some causes of physical urticaria.
Complement-mediated urticarias include viral and bacterial infections, serum sickness, and transfusion reactions. Urticarial transfusion reactions occur when allergenic substances in the plasma of the donated blood product react with preexisting IgE antibodies in the recipient. Certain drugs (opioids, vecuronium, succinylcholine, vancomycin, and others) as well as radiocontrast agents cause urticaria due to mast cell degranulation through a non—IgE-mediated mechanism. Urticaria from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be IgE-mediated or due to mast cell degranulation, and there may be significant cross-reactivity among the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in causing urticaria and anaphylaxis. [16]
Urticaria is a common condition – it is estimated that lifetime incidence of urticaria is approximately 15%, with females being affected more often than males. Both children and adults may develop urticaria, with the peak age of onset in adults being between 20 and 40 years. Urticaria is defined as ‘acute’ if it lasts for less than 6 weeks and ‘chronic’ if it lasts for more than 6 weeks. ‘Episodic’ urticaria, which occurs intermittently, but recurrently over months or years, is also recognized. Most urticarial reactions are acute and self-limiting; however, patients referred to allergy clinics usually have chronic urticaria or episodic urticaria. Histology shows oedema of the upper dermis, dilatation of blood vessels and lymphatics and a cellular infiltrate in the dermis. The nature of this cell infiltrate varies depending on the type of urticaria and the duration of the weal.
Hives, also known as urticaria, are a type of skin rash that are the result of an allergic reaction to a substance, called an allergen, in the environment. Although the cause of hives is not always known, they are often a response to the body releasing histamines, which it does when you have an allergic reaction to food, medicine, or other allergens. Histamine is also sometimes the body’s response to infections, stress, sunlight, and changes in temperature. Hives typically manifest as small, swollen, itchy, red areas on the skin that may occur singularly or in clusters. Left untreated, hives usually fade within a few hours, but new ones may appear in their place.[1] If you want to try to cure your hives at home, there are many different natural remedies to treat your hives.
Quercetin and evening primrose are two supplements for hives that will calm and get rid of your hives faster. (19) Quercetin is a natural antihistamine and an anti-inflammatory. Test tube studies have revealed that quercetin prevents immune cells from releasing histamines, which cause allergic reactions like hives. (20) Other studies have also shown that quercetin, a natural medicine and phytochemical, is as effective at fighting allergies as some prescription medications, all with little to no side effects. (21) Other supplement recommendations include vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D and fish oil. (22)
Cases of urticaria and angioedema can be acute, lasting less than 6 weeks, or chronic, lasting more than 6 weeks. The length of symptoms can often be a clue as to the cause of the symptoms. For example, the most common cause of acute urticaria and angioedema in children is viral infections.
Dr. Cole is board certified in dermatology. He obtained his BA degree in bacteriology, his MA degree in microbiology, and his MD at the University of California, Los Angeles. He trained in dermatology at the University of Oregon, where he completed his residency.
Researchers have identified many – but not all – of the factors that can cause hives. These include food and other substances you take, such as medications. Some people develop hives just by touching certain items. Some illnesses also cause hives. Here are a few of the most common causes:
CIU & You is an educational program focused on supporting the specific needs of people suffering with chronic idiopathic urticaria. Developed in partnership with the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA), and made possible by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation and Genentech, CIU & You aims to educate patients and encourage patients to better communicate their symptoms to their healthcare provider.
Ongoing hives lasting days at a time are almost never allergic in origin, with the exception of some cases of allergy to medicines. Stress is a very rarely the cause of hives but may make the symptoms worse. 
Chronic hives can go on for months and years. They can interfere with sleep, work and other activities. The following precautions may help prevent or soothe the recurring skin reactions of chronic hives:
28. Federman DG, Kirsner RS, Moriarty JP, Concato J. The effect of antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Helicobacter pylori who have chronic urticaria. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:861–4. [PubMed]
Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Hives (Chronic Urticaria) article more useful, or one of our other health articles.
Harumi Jyonouchi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Medical Association, Clinical Immunology Society, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Mucosal Immunology, and Society for Pediatric Research
What we do know: hives, also known as urticaria, can appear anywhere on the body, including your face, torso, arms, legs, and even inside your mouth and ears. They may range in size from as tiny as a pencil tip to as large as a dinner plate. Hives typically crop up when you have an allergic reaction to a substance—pet dander, pollen, latex—triggering your body to release histamine and other chemicals into your blood. That’s what causes the itching, swelling, and other symptoms.  
Hives, which is also called urticaria, is a very itchy rash. It is sometimes caused by an infection and sometimes by an allergy to something (such as some foods), but often no cause is found. Many people get hives at some time in their life, but only a few have major trouble with it.
The pathophysiology of urticarial vasculitis is similar to other forms of cutaneous small vessel leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Urticarial vasculitis is a type III hypersensitivity reaction in which antigen-antibody complexes are deposited in the vascular lumina. This reaction results in complement activation and chemotaxis of neutrophils. These cells release various proteolytic enzymes, such as collagenase and elastase, resulting in damage to the vascular lumina. Some authors have speculated that eosinophils may be involved in the early stages of the vasculitic lesions. Patients with hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis are more likely to show autoantibodies to C1q and vascular endothelial cells.[6, 7] The presence of antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies is rare. Many patients ultimately prove to have SLE. Other etiologies include drug reactions and parasitic infections.[8]
You might also want to take the time to review your priorities and the sources of stress in your life. Are there things you can do to reduce or eliminate stressful activities? Pay attention to when your stress appears, and then make a list of ways you can change the situation or your reaction to the situation. For example, you might decide to look for a new job, or, decide you need to change your perception of your job. Working with a cognitive behavioral therapist also help you change your thought process and bring more balance to your life.
Information regarding history of previous urticaria and duration of rash and itching is useful for categorizing urticaria as acute, recurrent, or chronic. For chronic or recurrent urticaria, important considerations include previous causative factors and the effectiveness of various treatments, as follows [2] :
Methods of stress relief may include taking a much-deserved vacation, starting a hobby as a distraction from stress, practicing meditation and mindfulness, and exercising. If stress-relieving activities don’t help to reduce your hives, treatment with oral antihistamines will likely help. You can also work with your doctor or a psychologist to address specific causes of stress and develop coping mechanisms.
Jump up ^ Kontou-Fili, K.; Borici-Mazi, R.; Kapp, A.; Matjevic, L. J.; Mitchel, F. B. (1997). “Physical urticaria: Classification and diagnostic guidelines”. Allergy. 52 (5): 504–13. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.1997.tb02593.x. PMID 9201361.
Barefoot College is a social enterprise with a mission to connect poor rural communities to technology and education. By doing so, they empower individuals to contribute to the wellbeing of their communities.

“unexplained hives -autoimmune and hives”

Usually no tests are needed. The rash is very typical and is easily recognised as hives by doctors. In many cases you will know what caused the rash from the events leading up to it. (For example if you have just been put on a new medicine, or if your skin came into contact with a nettle, or if you were stung by a bee.) In some cases it may be helpful to have some allergy tests such as skin prick tests to help determine the specific cause. Sometimes blood tests for allergies can be helpful. Occasionally, if urticarial vasculitis is suspected, a sample of the skin may be taken (a skin biopsy) for further analysis.
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“My allergist tested me for everything but we still couldn’t figure out a cause for the hives. It was so frustrating to keep searching for a cause. And as much as I was seeking answers, I wasn’t getting any, and wasn’t getting any relief either. Weeks passed, but the hives didn’t. Friends and family offered suggestions and their own explanations but they didn’t understand what I was going through.
Allergic reactions to foods such as nuts, seafood (including fish), chocolate, berries and milk common causes of ordinary hives. Viral infections, insect bites and medications can also cause ordinary hives.
EU sometimes occurs only when someone exercises within 30 minutes of eating particular foods, such as wheat or shellfish. For these individuals, exercising alone or eating the injuring food without exercising produces no symptoms. EU can be diagnosed by having the patient exercise and then observing the symptoms. This method must be used with caution and only with the appropriate resuscitative measures at hand. EU can be differentiated from cholinergic urticaria by the hot water immersion test. In this test, the patient is immersed in water at 43 °C (109.4 °F). Someone with EU will not develop hives, while a person with cholinergic urticaria will develop the characteristic small hives, especially on the neck and chest.[citation needed]
The median age of urticarial vasculitis involvement is 43 years, with a range of 15-90 years. While urticarial vasculitis is primarily a disease of middle-aged adults, it can be seen in persons of any age.
Stress rash often takes the form of hives, or welts. Hives can appear anywhere on the body. Areas affected by hives are generally red, raised, and swollen. These blotchy areas can be as small as a pencil tip or as large as a dinner plate.
This type of hives can occur right away, precisely after a pressure stimulus or as a deferred response to sustained pressure being enforced to the skin. In the deferred form, the hives only appear after about six hours from the initial application of pressure to the skin. Under normal circumstances, these hives are not the same as those witnessed with most urticariae. Instead, the protrusion in the affected areas is typically more spread out. The hives may last from eight hours to three days. The source of the pressure on the skin can happen from tight fitted clothing, belts, clothing with tough straps, walking, leaning against an object, standing, sitting on a hard surface, etc. The areas of the body most commonly affected are the hands, feet, trunk, abdomen, buttocks, legs and face. Although this appears to be very similar to dermatographism, the cardinal difference is that the swelled skin areas do not become visible quickly and tend to last much longer. This form of the skin disease is, however, rare.[citation needed]
There are no routine diagnostic tests in chronic spontaneous urticaria apart from blood count and C-reactive protein (CBC, CRP), but investigations may be undertaken if an underlying disorder is suspected.
Jump up ^ Uguz, Faruk; Engin, Burhan; Yilmaz, Ertan (2008). “Axis I and Axis II diagnoses in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria”. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 64 (2): 225–9. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.08.006. PMID 18222137.
What we are referring to is allergens, or substances that cause the body to react in the form of an allergic reaction. This reaction can take many forms from fever, to swelling, stuffy nose, and depending on the severity of the allergy, possible even death. However, for this purpose of this article, we are going to focus on one of the most common reactions to allergens, and that is hives.
Beyond allergic reactions, some medications are also associated with chronic hives. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most notable, so your reaction could be due to something as common as aspirin. Antibiotics, codeine, morphine, and radiocontrast dye are also known to be triggers.
Swelling of deeper layers of the skin, angioedema, commonly accompanies urticaria (click for picture). This swelling often results from the same inflammatory processes that cause hives. The redness that is seen surrounding superficial lesions is not observed, though the swelling is readily appreciated. Angioedema generally occurs on the extremities and digits as well as areas of the head, neck, face, and in men, genitalia. It is often described as being painful or burning.
Clinical Context:  Colchicine is an alkaloid extract that inhibits microtubule formation. It is often used for the treatment of acute gout. Colchicine has been reported effective for urticarial vasculitis. It concentrates well in leukocytes and reduces neutrophilic chemotaxis and motility. Histologically, urticarial vasculitis presents with neutrophil involvement; therefore, colchicine possibly is useful. However, drug’s effect has not been proven in clinical trials.
The most well tolerated initial treatment are the non-sedating antihistamines like fexofenadine, loratidine, and cetirizine. If these don’t eliminate the hives, a sedating-type of antihistamine (diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, cyproheptadine or doxepin) is added at night. High doses may be needed and this will cause sedation. Fortunately, most patients will become less affected by sedation after they have taken the drug regularly for a while.
If your symptoms worsen or last longer than a couple of days, see your doctor. They can identify the cause and provide you with medication to help relieve your symptoms. Understanding what caused the hives is key to preventing future outbreaks.
“In the late 1960s, we’d ask people how many had allergies and an estimated 1 in 10 people reported some form of allergy,” Marshall says. “Now compare that with 1 in 3 people in 2000 having some form of allergy.”
Antihistamines should be avoided where possible in pregnancy. There are no systematic studies of safety in pregnancy, and chlorphenamine is often the first choice if an antihistamine is required in this situation. Loratadine or cetirizine are preferred in women who are breast-feeding.
Many medications can cause hives, but only about 10% of hives are caused by medications. Hives will most often occur in the first 36 hours after starting the medication, but hives can occur even after taking a medicine for a long time. You can see that antibiotics are a common culprit.
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If home and natural remedies aren’t enough to help your hives, over-the-counter (OTC) treatments may be your best bet. Not only can OTC options relieve itching and irritation, they can target your body’s histamine response, which is what causes hives to appear.
Rheumatic disease, such as SLE and Sjögren syndrome: Urticarial vasculitis has also been reported with immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathies, mixed cryoglobulins, and hematologic and solid malignancies.[14]
If your reaction involves swelling of your tongue or lips, or you have trouble breathing, your allergist may prescribe an epinephrine (adrenaline) auto-injector for you to keep on hand at all times. These can be early symptoms of anaphylaxis, a potentially fatal allergic reaction that impairs breathing and can send the body into shock. The only treatment for anaphylaxis is epinephrine. If you develop hives and your injector is not nearby – or if using the auto-injector doesn’t cause the symptoms to immediately improve – go to an emergency room immediately. You should also go to the emergency room after using an auto-injector.
Family and personal medical history of angioedema – Characteristics of angioedema [1] include vasodilation and exudation of plasma into the deeper tissues more so than with simple urticaria; angioedema can occur with and without the wheals of simple urticaria and presents clinically as subcutaneous swelling that is generally nonpitting and nonpruritic; it can affect the mouth as well as  the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and GI tracts, manifesting as hoarseness and GI upset; it can be a feature of anaphylaxis if the throat is involved, leading to airway compromise
Urticaria may be classified on the basis of underlying aetiology (see Table 1) or by a clinical classification. In most cases of chronic urticaria it will not be possible to identify the underlying cause, i.e. the rash is idiopathic; however, when seeing a patient, it is helpful to use a clinical classification, as this guides history-taking and ensures that in any one individual all possible triggers for the urticaria are identified. In some patients several factors may cause/worsen the rash.
There is a lot that we still do not understand about urticaria causes although we do know that there are certain triggers and certain reactions that could cause the symptoms associated with utricaria to flare up. The absence of any well defined or clear cause of urticaria does to a large extent limit our ability to deal with the problem. The point to note is that urticaria is not always caused through or because of an allergy and there is no definitive urticaria cure. Non–allergic causes are connected to auto- immunity, to hormone interplay to stress factors, and more. These are some of the more common urticaria causes or triggers:
Urticaria affects almost 20 percent of the population but the majority of the time, the cause is unknown (idiopathic). Even so, it is a good idea to try to find the trigger so you can possibly avoid it in the future.
Mastocytosis is a disease in which there is mast cell hyperplasia affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. Clinical features include urticaria, pruritus, flushing, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and headache. Patients may be prone to severe anaphylactoid reactions after exposure to certain medications [79] and severe anaphylactic reactions after exposure to antigens to which they are sensitized, such as insect venom [80], because of the increased tissue load of mast cells. Mastocytosis is classified into cutaneous and systemic variants and urticaria pigmentosa is the most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis, occurring in approximately 85% of children and 95% of adults in whom mastocytosis is limited to the skin. Systemic mastocytosis varies from an indolent condition, where there is no associated haematological disease, to an aggressive mast cell leukaemia. The lesions of urticaria pigmentosa are variable in colour, macular or maculopapular and are usually symmetrical in distribution, with sparing of the and face. The diagnosis of urticaria pigmentosa is made by skin biopsy, which shows a significant increase in dermal mast cells [81]. Patients have symptoms of pruritus and dermographism and pressure on affected skin causes erythema and urtication –‘Darier’s sign’. Children usually present before the age of 2 years and urticaria pigmentosa may be present at birth. They tend to have fewer, larger skin lesions than adults and they may also develop bullae, which do not occur in adults. Treatment is with H1 and H2 anti-histamines and ketotifen [82] (an anti-histamine with mast cell-stabilizing properties), methoxsalen with long-wave ultraviolet radiation (psoralen plus ultraviolet A,) [83] and topical steroids [84] may all be used to alleviate urticaria and pruritus. It is rare for children to develop systemic mastocytosis and urticaria pigmentosa resolves completely in about 50% of children. In contrast, urticaria pigmentosa in adults usually persists and about 50% of patients may go on to develop systemic mastocytosis. The prognosis in adults is, therefore, highly variable.
Yang, H. Y., Sun, C. C., Wu, Y. C, & Wang, J. D. (2005, April). Stress, insomnia, and chronic idiopathic urticaria, a case-control study. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association,104(4):254-63. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15909063
Food allergy should be considered in acute urticaria and urticaria in children. Such foods as tree nuts, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, and tomatoes should be considered (the involvement of food additives or preservatives is controversial). [10] ) Please visit our main article to learn more about food allergies.
The purpose of this review is to discuss the association of CU with thyroid disease and other autoimmune diseases, as well as the implications that these associations hold for therapeutic intervention in CU.
Environmental Factors:  Exposure to pollen, dust, fungi, sudden changes in temperature, and even extreme temperatures are some of the triggers of acute urticaria. Some people may experience allergic reactions to high humidity levels.
Jump up ^ Hirschmann, J. V.; Lawlor, F; English, JS; Louback, JB; Winkelmann, RK; Greaves, MW (1987). “Cholinergic Urticaria – A Clinical and Histologic Study”. Archives of Dermatology. 123 (4): 462–7. doi:10.1001/archderm.1987.01660280064024. PMID 3827277.
A rare autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent urticaria (nettle rash), first described in the 1970s. There is no defined paradigm for the syndrome aetiology and severity in progression. Diagnosis is confirmed with the identification of at least two conditions from: venulitis on skin biopsy, arthritis, ocular inflammation, abdominal pain or positive C1q antibodies to immune complexes.[3] It is this last category, anti-C1q antibodies, that all HUV patients test positive for.[4] In vitro experiments and mouse models of the disease have not thoroughly determined the link between these antibodies and the disease, even though the link is so pronounced.